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FigureS1.pdfPDF document102K(a) Location of Michigan and (b) rainwater sample collection sites in Ann Arbor and Milan. Base map and locations are obtained through map services from U.S. Geological Survey, National Geospatial Program (http://nationalmap.gov/).
FigureS2.pdfPDF document41K1981-2010 Mean climatological summary for Ann Arbor (Station ID: USC00200230; 42.28˚N, 83.77˚W) located in southeast Michigan (a) Monthly mean total precipitation and (b) monthly mean maximum, minimum and average temperatures.
FigureS3.pdfPDF document1302KSurface analyses map of North America issued by the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center corresponding to nr1 precipitation event.
FigureS4.pdfPDF document1281KSurface analyses map of North America issued by the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center corresponding to nr6 precipitation events.
FigureS5.pdfPDF document1248KSurface analyses map of North America issued by the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center corresponding to nr10-1/10-2 precipitation event.
FigureS6.pdfPDF document2577KDoppler radar (NEXRAD) image for southeast Michigan at 00:25 UTC on July 4th, 2011. Location of hourly surface weather stations near Ann Arbor and Milan are also indicated (orange circles).
FigureS7.pdfPDF document325KSkewT-log P plot of weather balloon measurements of temperature and dew point at Detroit, MI for samples nr1, 6, 11 and 12.
FigureS8.pdfPDF document39KPlot of surface pressure, temperature, dew point and cloud ceiling height measurements for samples nr1 and nr12 measured at Ann Arbor and Custer weather stations respectively.
FigureS9.pdfPDF document49KComparison of measured rainwater noble gas patterns for sample nr4-2 (black markers) with the time dependent evolution of noble gas patterns within a raindrop of size 5mm starting from ice (green triangles). (a) Model noble gas patterns in a raindrop for various time ‘t’ derived by assuming a constant equilibrium boundary condition and diffusion coefficients for ice (red markers) and liquid water (blue markers). Shaded region indicates domain of model rainwater patterns for t=1000s; (b) Model noble gas patterns in raindrop for various time ‘t’ (green dashed lines) derived by assuming variable equilibrium boundary conditions (red dots) and liquid water noble gas diffusion coefficients.
FigureS10.pdfPDF document69KComparison of the time evolution of noble gases within a raindrop of size 5mm derived by assuming boundary conditions and diffusion coefficients investigated in sections 2-4 of supplementary text3. These include (1) a constant equilibrium boundary condition of ASW at 0˚C and noble gas diffusion coefficients in ice (green line); (2) constant equilibrium boundary condition of ASW at 0˚C and noble gas diffusion coefficients in liquid water (red line); (3) varying equilibrium boundary condition as well as liquid water noble gas diffusion coefficients (blue line).
FigureS11.pdfPDF document204KTerminal velocity of raindrops as a function of droplet size assuming multiple formulations.
FigureS12.pdfPDF document152KTime taken for noble gases to achieve diffusive equilibrium through mass transfer in/out of a raindrop of radius 0.1mm and 5mm.
TableS1.pdfPDF document137KRainwater sampling location, date and time of collection, measured surface air temperature (T), noble gas concentrations and measured He isotopic ratios (R) normalized to atmospheric He ratio (Ra). Samples from Milan and Ann Arbor were collected at altitudes of 215m and 290m a.s.l respectively. Surface weather station records used to derive appropriate precipitation characteristics for corresponding rainfall event is also indicated.
TableS2.pdfPDF document2248KCompiled hourly surface weather observations from individual weather station records. Data description for each column in Table S2 including units, abbreviations and weather codes are provided in detail by NCDC (http://hurricane.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo/3505doc.txt).
TableS3.pdfPDF document112KNoble gas diffusion coefficients in ice and liquid water.
TableS4.pdfPDF document71KEstimated condensation altitudes and raindrop sizes for individual precipitation events corresponding to mass-dependent samples based on diffusive mass-transfer model.
SuppText_1.pdfPDF document76KDetailed weather data description for individual rainwater samples
SuppText_2.pdfPDF document109KArea forecast discussions for southeast Michigan corresponding to samples nr1, 2, 6 and 12
Supplementary_Text 3_revised2_NOhighlight.pdfPDF document281KDiffusive Mass Transfer of noble gases in a Raindrop and calculation of average raindrop sizes from measured noble gases in rainwater.
Supplementary_Text 3_revised2_Trackchanges.pdfPDF document282KDiffusive Mass Transfer of noble gases in a Raindrop and calculation of average raindrop sizes from measured noble gases in rainwater.
SuppText_4.pdfPDF document120KTime taken for noble gas disequilibrium patterns in rainfall to re-equilibrate at the surface.
Supplementary_all.pdfPDF document4365KSupporting information
Readme_rev2.docWord document42KSupporting information

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