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FigS1.pdfPDF document661K(a) Drought severity and extent from the US drought monitor in NIDIS on 27 September 27 2011, and (b) 25 September 2012.
FigS2.pdfPDF document990KArea percentage of the CONUS suffering from drought ranging from D0 to D4 for the period 2000–2012 from the US drought monitor in NIDIS.
FigS3.pdfPDF document1268KReservoirs (119), major rivers, 15 major river basins, and eight small coastal river basins in Texas (Data from the Texas Water Development Board).
FigS4.pdfPDF document4419K(a) Clay content (%) and (b) soil depths (m) from the State Soil Geographic (STASGO) Data Base for Texas.
FigS5.pdfPDF document159KTimes series of monthly precipitation from PRISM for Texas from January 2003 to September 2012. Precipitation for Texas generally peaks in late spring (e.g., May), early summer (e.g., June), and fall (e.g., September and October), and is lowest in winter (e.g., December, January, and February). In particular, August receives the least rainfall in months of summer and early fall. The pronounced rainy seasons in late spring, early summer, and fall are jointly impacted by polar fronts interacting with the moist Gulf of Mexico, with the fall rainy season additionally impacted by hurricanes and tropic depressions (TWDB, 2012), e.g., Hurricane Humberto in 2007 and Hurricane Ike in 2008.
FigS6.pdfPDF document55KMonthly reservoir storage anomaly of Texas from January 1978 to September 2012 provided by the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB)
FigS7.pdfPDF document173KCSR RL05 TWS with or without bias and leakage corrections. Gray background represents periods with the largest TWS depletion (May–August 2006, June–August 2009, and March–September 2012) during droughts.
FigS8.pdfPDF document195KTime series of TWS from CSR RL05 and RL04 for Texas from January 2003 to September 2012, with uncertainties in TWS in shaded areas (red for RL04 and gray for RL05). Uncertainties in GRACE TWS comprise: (1) uncertainties in inherent GRACE spherical harmonics solutions, which are quantified by looking at TWS over oceans 1000 km away from continents at the same latitude of a study region of interest (Texas in this study). Over the oceans, variation in TWS is assumed to be zeros; and (2) bias and leakage corrections for TWS using land surface models. Uncertainties in TWS from LSMs are quantified by the standard deviation of TWS of all LSMs in GLDAS-1.
FigS9.pdfPDF document509KVariability in SMS among six LSMs being tested from January 2003 to September 2012 over Texas. Note large increases in variability during wet conditions in Winter 2004/2005 and drought in 2011 exceed two times standard deviation.
FigS10.pdfPDF document371KComparison of monthly forcing (a) precipitation, (b) near surface air temperature, (c) downward longwave radiation, and (d) downward shortwave radiation between NLDAS-2 and GLDAS-1 for Texas during the period 2003–2012. Note that all models in GLDAS-1 use the same forcing, and this also applies to NLDAS-2.
FigS11.pdfPDF document61KTimes series of monthly ETNoah and ETMosaic in NLDAS-2 for Texas from January 2003 to September 2012.
FigS12.pdfPDF document1159KGroundwater use (mm, converted by using the original data in acre-feet at a county level divided by the area of county) in 2010 in Texas from the Texas Water Development Board, with showing major aquifers in hatched areas, e.g., the High Plains (Ogallala), Gulf Coast, Carrizo, Trinity, and Edwards-Trinity Aquifers.
Supplementary_materials_Table.docWord document48KSupporting Information
56532RRRreadme.docWord document52KSupporting Information

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