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fs01.epsPS document1991KSpatial pattern of the precipitation trend (mm day-1 (50 years)-1, shaded) during (left to right) April, May, June, and the July-September average for four observational datasets. The datasets are (top to bottom) PREC/L (PRECL; Chen et al. 2002), University of Delaware (UDEL; Matsuura and Wilmott 2009), APHRODITE (APHR; Yatagai et al. 2012), Rajeevan (RAJ; Rajeevan et al. 2006). The trends in PRECL and UDEL are for the period 1950-1999, while in APHR and RAJ are for the period 1951-1999. The black dots mark the grid points for which the trend exceeds the 95% confidence level according to the two-tailed Student's t-test.
fs02.epsPS document459KSpatial pattern of the 1951-1999 trend in monsoon onset expressed as number of pentads (shaded), and the pentad of climatological (1951-1970 average) onset (black contours) for the APHRODITE observational dataset. Positive values denote later onset and negative values denote earlier onset. The onset pentad was determined according to Wang and LinHo (2002), and it is defined as the Julian pentad in which its rainfall rate minus the January mean rainfall exceeds 5 mm day-1. The green dots mark the grid points for which the trend exceeds the 95% confidence level according to the two-tailed Student's t-test.
fs03.epsPS document1514KSpatial pattern of the 1950-1999 precipitation trend (mm day-1 (50 years)-1, shaded) during (left to right) April, May, June, and the July-September average for three model experiments, namely the anthropogenic-only forcing ensemble (ANTHRO, upper panels), the natural-only forcing ensemble (NAT, middle panels), and the aerosol indirect effects-only forcing ensemble (AEROI, in which aerosols are prevented from interacting with radiation in clear-sky conditions). The incremental trend is also shown in the middle panels as black contours. The black dots mark the grid points for which the trend exceeds the 95% confidence level according to the two-tailed Student's t-test.
fs04.epsPS document1294K(Top): Spatial pattern of the 1950-1999 trends of total (top row, x10) and absorbing (middle row, x100) aerosol 550 nm optical depth ((50 years)-1, shaded) during (left to right) April, May, June, and the July-September average in the AERO experiment. The incremental trend is also shown as black contours. (Bottom): Time series of the February-April average aerosol optical depth over the area (80°-95°E, 5°-20°N) for the AERO experiment.
fs05.epsPS document579KVertical profiles of the 1950-1999 trends in (a) all-sky (red) and clear-sky (green) shortwave heating rates (K day-1 (50 years)-1); (b) equivalent potential temperature (K (50 years)-1); (c) aerosol optical depth at 550 nm, total (x100 (50 years)-1, red) and for absorbing aerosols (x1000 (50 years)-1, green); (d) total cloud amount (% (50 years)-1, red) and specific humidity (g Kg-1 (50 years)-1, green). The variables are averaged over the ocean-only points in the area (80°-95°E, 5°-20°N) for May and come from the AERO experiment. (e): April-May trend in atmospheric vertical stability (K (50 years)-1), defined as difference between the 850-hPa and 2-m equivalent potential temperatures.
fs06.epsPS document600K(Left): Climatological precipitation (mm day-1) for April (shaded) and difference May minus April (contours). The climatology is calculated as average over the period 1946-1955. (Right): Spatial pattern of the 1950-1999 trend in precipitation (mm day-1 (50 years)-1) for May. All data are from the AERO experiment.
fs07.epsPS document722KSpatial pattern of the 1950-1999 trend in near-surface (925-850 hPa average) moist static energy (K, after dividing by cp, the specific heat capacity at constant pressure) for (left to right) April, May, and June in the AERO experiment. To highlight spatial gradients, the domain (60°-95°E, Eq-30°N) average trend was subtracted in each plot (the value amounts to -1.51 K, -1.79 K, and -1.14 K, respectively).
fs08.epsPS document891K(Top): Latitude-vertical cross sections (68°-74°E average) of the 1950-1999 simulated (AERO experiment) trends in total (x100 (50 years)-1, shaded) and absorption (x1000 (50 years)-1, contour) aerosol optical depth for April and the increment May minus April. The black areas represent the terrain. (Middle): as (top), but for temperature (K (50 years)-1, shaded) and winds (meridional wind in m s-1 (50 years)-1, vertical wind in hPa day-1 (50 years)-1, arrows). (Bottom): as (top), but for specific humidity (g Kg-1 (50 years)-1, shaded) and shortwave clear-sky heating rate (K day-1 (50 years)-1, contour).
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