Auxiliary MaterialKarion_2013GL056951text01.docxWord 2007 document134KAuxiliary Material-Karion_2013GL056951-text01.docx is a MS Word document with supplementary text in 6 sections. Sections 1, 2, and 3 describe instrumentation. Section 4 describes the uncertainty analysis for our flux estimate. Section 5 describes details of relating the CH4 flux to average natural gas production, and section 6 gives some added information on the representativeness of our sample.
Karion_Auxiliary_ts01.pdfPDF document83KSummary of measurements and parameters used to calculate the total CH4 molar flux on 3 February 2012 (numbers may not sum up due to rounding). Two values of the wind component perpendicular to the aircraft track are given, one for each mean heading of the aircraft; they have the same relative uncertainty (24%) when we account for correlation between V and cos (θ).
Karion_Auxiliary_fs01.jpgJPEG image176KAltitude profiles of (a) CH4 and (b) water vapor mole fractions over Horse Pool, Utah (black), and upwind of the basin (blue) on 3 February 2012. Red dashed line indicates the top of the PBL at 3250 masl (~1700 magl), as determined from these profiles.
Karion_Auxiliary_fs02.jpgJPEG image165KTurbulent heat flux (W m−2) and surface temperature measured at Horse Pool, Utah. Red circles indicate times of the flight on 3 February 2012. The average turbulence heat flux during the time of the flight was 93 W m−2, corresponding to a mean mixing time [Stull, 1991] of 16 min in the 1700 magl boundary layer.
Karion_Auxiliary_fs03.jpgJPEG image337KDistribution of CH4 mole fractions measured on each of the 12 flights (all conducted in the afternoon hours) over the Uintah Basin in February 2012. The flights used for the flux calculation are of 3 February (20120203, uppermost row left column). Mole fractions on 3 February were generally lower than other days because of the relatively high winds on that day (5–6 m s−1 rather than 0–2 m s−1 on most other days).
Karion_Auxiliary_fs04.jpgJPEG image2316KMap of Uintah oil and gas field with the flight tracks color-coded with CH4 mole fraction for (a) 7 February and (b) 18 February 2012. Small black and blue points indicate the locations of gas and oil wells, respectively. Both days had variable winds from the south/southeast between 0.5 and 1.5 m s−1. The PBL depths were ~750 and ~500 magl for 7 and 18 February, respectively. All flights departed in Vernal to the north of the field, while each transit across the width of the basin took ~20 min.
Karion_Auxiliary_fs05.jpgJPEG image225KAverage hourly natural gas production from oil and gas wells in Uintah County, November 2011 to April 2012 [State of Utah Department of Natural Resources Division of Oil Gas and Mining, 2012b]. Production in February 2012, when our measurements were made, was higher than in the preceding months but lower than the following 2 months.
Karion_Auxiliary_fs06.jpgJPEG image2374KDaily oil and gas well activity in Uintah County in the period surrounding the flight measurements in early 2012 [State of Utah Department of Natural Resources Division of Oil Gas and Mining, 2012b]. Red bars indicate the number of wells that was spudded (commenced drilling) on a given day; blue bars indicate the number of wells that began production on a given day.
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