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2013glXXXXXXtexts01.txtplain text document2KText S1. Supplementary Results and Discussion: Upper Tropospheric Analysis
2013glXXXXXXfs01.tiffTIFF image98635K(a) Contours: November–March seasonal-mean SLP anomalies from 1950 to 2008, obtained from the NOAA 20C Reanalysis, correlated with the following year's November–January Niño 3.4 index, obtained from the NOAA Climate Diagnostics Center. Minimum contour is +/−0.2; contour interval is 0.1. Shading: Correlation values that exceed the 90% significance level based on a two-tailed t test. The black box indicates the averaging region (175°W–140°W, 10°N–25°N) for the Hawaiian SLP index (HSLPI), calculated as the area-averaged normalized (by the interannual standard deviation) November–March seasonal-mean SLP anomalies. (b) Same as Figure S1a except for the 1000 year preindustrial control integration of the CCSM4. The black box indicates the averaging region for the CCSM4 HSLPI (175°E–150°W, 15°N–30°N).
2013glXXXXXXfs02.tiffTIFF image6168K(a) Shading: Mean November–March near-surface temperature anomalies from the 1000 year preindustrial control integration of the CCSM4 for all November–January HSLPI-related warm (174) events. Shading interval is 0.3°C; minimum shading is +/−0.3°C. (b) Same as Figure S2a except for all HSLPI-related cold (163) events. (c) Sum of composite mean near-surface temperature anomalies in Figure S2a and inverted composite mean (mean multiplied by −1) near-surface temperature anomalies in Figure S2b divided by 2, representing the mean (or symmetric) anomalies associated with HSLPI-related events. Shading interval is 0.3°C; minimum shading is +/−0.3°C. Contours: Difference between composite mean near-surface temperature anomalies in Figure S2a and inverted composite mean near-surface temperature anomalies in Figure S2b representing the asymmetric difference pattern between HSLPI-related warm and cold event composites (same as in Figure 4a). For clarity, anomalies are multiplied by 2 and only the +0.3°C (red) and −0.3°C (blue) contours are shown. (d, e, f) Same as Figures S2a, S2b, and S2c except for all non-HSLPI-related warm and cold events (117 and 142, respectively). Contours as in Figure 4c.
2013glXXXXXXfs03.tiffTIFF image6168KAs in Figure 4 except that the warm (inverted cold) event composite mean anomalies are divided by the average magnitude (in °C) of the warm (cold) events prior to differencing. Shading interval: (a, c) 0.2°C/°C for; (b, d) 0.2σ/°C.
2013glXXXXXXfs04.tiffTIFF image6168K(a) Shading: Mean November–March normalized precipitation anomalies from the 1000 year preindustrial control integration of the CCSM4 for all November–January HSLPI-related warm (174 total) events. Normalized precipitation anomaly at a given grid point is equal to the precipitation anomaly at that grid point divided by its year-to-year standard deviation value. Shading interval is 0.3σ; minimum shading is +/−0.3σ. (b) Same as Figure S4a except for all HSLPI-related cold (163 total) events. (c) Sum of composite mean normalized precipitation anomalies in Figure S4a and inverted composite mean (mean multiplied by −1) normalized precipitation anomalies in Figure S4b divided by 2, representing the mean (or symmetric) anomalies associated with HSLPI-related events. Shading interval is 0.3σ; minimum shading is +/−0.3σ. Contours: Difference between composite mean normalized precipitation anomalies in Figure S4a and inverted composite mean normalized precipitation anomalies in Figure S4b representing the asymmetric difference pattern between HSLPI-related warm and cold event composites (same as in Figure 4b). For clarity, anomalies are multiplied by 2 and only the +0.3σ (blue) and −0.3σ (red) contours are shown. (d, e, f) Same as Figures S4a, S4b, and S4c except for all non-HSLPI-related warm and cold events (117 and 142, respectively). Contours as in Figure 4d.
2013glXXXXXXfs05.tiffTIFF image6168K(a) Shading: Shading: Difference between the mean November–March 250 hPa zonal wind anomalies anomalies from the CCSM4 for all November–January HSLPI-related warm (174) events and the inverted mean (mean multiplied by −1) for all HSLPI-related cold (163) events, representing the asymmetric difference pattern between HSLPI-related warm and inverted cold event composites. Shading interval is 1m/s; minimum shading is +/−1m/s. Stippling indicates regions where composite anomalies are significantly different from one another at the 90% confidence limit, based upon a two-sample t test of the means assuming a normal distribution with unknown variance. Contours: Sum of composite mean 250 hPa zonal wind anomalies for all HSLPI-related warm events and the inverted mean for all HSLPI-related cold events divided by 2, representing the mean (or symmetric) anomalies associated with HSLPI-related events. Contour interval is 1m/s; minimum contour is +/−1m/s. (b) Same as Figure S5a except for all November–January non-HSLPI-related warm and cold events (117 and 142, respectively).
2013glXXXXXXfs06.tiffTIFF image6168K(a) Same as Figure S5a but warm (inverted cold) event composite mean anomalies are divided by the average magnitude (in °C) of the warm (cold) events prior to differencing (i.e., the asymmetric pattern; shading) and summation (i.e., the symmetric pattern; contours). Contour interval is 1m/s/°C; minimum contour is +/−1m/s/°C. (b) Same as Figure S6a except for all November–January non-HSLPI-related warm and inverted cold events.
2013glXXXXXXfs07.tiffTIFF image6168KSame as Figure 3e except based upon the unadjusted values of the ENSO asymmetry and HSLPI-coupling indices. Blue line: Thirty year running mean value of the November–January Asymmetric ENSO Index (AEI) representing the spatial regression of each year's equatorial Pacific SST anomalies against the asymmetric equatorial Pacific ENSO anomaly pattern (see text for details). Green line: Time variations in strength of the coupling between the HSLPI and the state of the ENSO 1 year later, as represented by the 30 year running correlations between the November–March HSLPI and the following year's November–January Symmetric ENSO Index (SEI—see text for details). As with Figure 3e, the correlation between the AEI and the HSLPI-ENSO coupling index remains |r| = 0.51 (p < 0.05).
2013glXXXXXXts01.docWord document27KInformation Regarding Model Simulations of Historical and Projected Temperatures From the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) Multimodel Ensemble Used in this Study. For Complete “Terms of Use”, Please See http://cmip-pcmdi.llnl.gov/cmip5/terms.html
2013glXXXXXXreadme_rev.pdfPDF document39KSupporting Information

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