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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 11

June 2011

Volume 38, Issue 11

  1. Atmospheric Science

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Atmospheric chemistry in stereo: A new look at secondary organic aerosols from isoprene

      Barbara Nozière, Nélida J.D. González, Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson, Yuxin Pei, Johan Pettersson Redeby, Radovan Krejci, Josef Dommen, Andre S. H. Prevot and Thorleif Anthonsen

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047323

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      Key Points

      • The first method distinguishing 1ary and 2ary organics in aerosols is proposed
      • This method shows that the 2-methyltetrols in some aerosols are biological
      • The main evidence for isoprene contribution to atmospheric SOA is invalidated
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      Extinction and optical depth of contrails

      C. Voigt, U. Schumann, P. Jessberger, T. Jurkat, A. Petzold, J.-F. Gayet, M. Krämer, T. Thornberry and D. W. Fahey

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047189

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      Key Points

      • In situ measurements of contrail properties are rare
      • In situ measurements of contrail optical depth lead to mean tau of 0.23
      • With τ = 0.23 we estimate a linear contrail radiative forcing of 14 mWm−2
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      Aqueous OH oxidation of ambient organic aerosol and cloud water organics: Formation of highly oxidized products

      Alex K. Y. Lee, P. Herckes, W. R. Leaitch, A. M. Macdonald and J. P. D. Abbatt

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047439

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      Key Points

      • The first study of aqueous oxidation of atmospheric OA and cloud water organics
      • A novel experimental method to investigate atmospheric aqueous oxidation
      • Formation of aged OA via aqueous oxidation of glyoxal-organic mixtures
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      The remarkable predictability of inter-annual variability of Atlantic hurricanes during the past decade

      Jan-Huey Chen and Shian-Jiann Lin

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047629

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      Key Points

      • The GFDL HiRAM is used to predict the seasonal TC activity at 25-km resolution
      • The interannual Atlantic hurricane counts is highly predictable during 2000–2010
      • A successful prediction of a MJO event initialized 7-day in advance of its onset
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      Mesopause temperatures during the polar mesospheric cloud season

      P. E. Sheese, E. J. Llewellyn, R. L. Gattinger, A. E. Bourassa, D. A. Degenstein, N. D. Lloyd and I. C. McDade

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047437

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      Key Points

      • OSIRIS has retrieved a database of polar mesopause region temperatures
      • Results are lower than the majority of similar satellite based measurements
      • OSIRIS results agree with ice temperature results and potassium lidar results
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      Hygroscopic properties of volcanic ash

      T. L. Lathem, P. Kumar, A. Nenes, J. Dufek, I. N. Sokolik, M. Trail and A. Russell

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047298

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      Key Points

      • Volcanic ash is hygroscopic
      • Water vapor adsorption is the main proceess controlling ash hygroscopicity
      • The results can be parameterized in a simple correlation for use in models
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      Verification of medium-range MJO forecasts with TIGGE

      Mio Matsueda and Hirokazu Endo

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047480

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      Key Points

      • The best centres in predicting the MJO vary with the phase of the MJO
      • More reliable MJO forecasts can be ensured by multi-centre grand ensemble
      • The use of TIGGE is an effective way to rapidly respond to high-impact weather
  2. Climate

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Spatial performance of four climate field reconstruction methods targeting the Common Era

      J. E. Smerdon, A. Kaplan, E. Zorita, J. F. González-Rouco and M. N. Evans

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047372

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      Key Points

      • Errors in spatial characteristics of CFRs are widespread
      • Methodological performance is similar across all tested methods
      • Attention to reducing errors and improved proxy sampling will improve CFRs
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      European cold winter 2009–2010: How unusual in the instrumental record and how reproducible in the ARPEGE-Climat model?

      G. Ouzeau, J. Cattiaux, H. Douville, A. Ribes and D. Saint-Martin

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047667

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      Key Points

      • Since 1891, only winter 1939/40 had an extreme NAO- analog to winter 2009/10
      • Despite analog NAO-, winter 2009/10 was 3.3 deg C warmer than 1939/40 over Europe
      • An improved simulation of the stratosphere is crucial for seasonal forecasting
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      Did aboriginal vegetation burning impact on the Australian summer monsoon?

      Michael Notaro, Karl-Heinz Wyrwoll and Guangshan Chen

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047774

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      Key Points

      • Reduced veg cover over N Australia dampens hydrologic cycle, delays monsoon
      • Vegetation doesn't affect mid-monsoon intensity
      • Aboriginal burning may have delayed monsoon, but not altered core monsoon rain
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      The impact of Asian and non-Asian anthropogenic aerosols on 20th century Asian summer monsoon

      T. Cowan and W. Cai

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047268

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      Key Points

      • Asian aerosols alone only weakly suppress the global and regional summer monsoon
      • Non-Asian aerosols are more effective than Asian aerosols at suppressing monsoon
      • In suppressing Asian monsoon aerosols cause rainfall to shift equatorward
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      What caused a recent increase in dust outbreaks over East Asia?

      Yasunori Kurosaki, Masato Shinoda and Masao Mikami

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047494

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      Key Points

      • Dust outbreaks increased by changes in erodibility in Mongolian grasslands
      • Dust outbreaks increased by changes in erosivity in deserts
      • Thre are areas where dead leaves affect erodibility in Mongolian grasslands
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      Observation of the 2009 Samoa tsunami by the NEPTUNE-Canada cabled observatory: Test data for an operational regional tsunami forecast model

      Richard Thomson, Isaac Fine, Alexander Rabinovich, Steve Mihály, Earl Davis, Martin Heesemann and Maxim Krassovski

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL046728

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      Key Points

      • Properties of the 2009 Samoa tsunami in the northeast Pacific
      • Mitigating the impact of major transoceanic tsunamis
      • The scientific and applied value of cabled observatory networks
  3. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Differences in future recharge estimates due to GCMs, downscaling methods and hydrological models

      Russell S. Crosbie, Warrick R. Dawes, Stephen P. Charles, Freddie S. Mpelasoka, Santosh Aryal, Olga Barron and Greg K. Summerell

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047657

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      Key Points

      • GCMs are the greatest source of uncertainty in future recharge projections
      • Downscaling methods are the next greatest source of uncertainty
      • Hydrological models produce comparatively small uncertainty
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      The stratigraphic filter and bias in measurement of geologic rates

      Rina Schumer, Douglas Jerolmack and Brandon McElroy

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047118

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      Key Points

      • Ladder processes can be used to relate Earth surface evolution and stratigraphy
      • Power-law hiatuses in stratigraphy will arise in most depositional settings
      • Need care in attributing change in landscape evolution rates to external forces
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      A 5200-year record of freshwater availability for regions in western North America fed by high-elevation runoff

      Brent B. Wolfe, Thomas W. D. Edwards, Roland I. Hall and John W. Johnston

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047599

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      Key Points

      • Water availability will be far less than that experienced in societal memory
      • The shift from water abundance to scarcity can occur within a human lifespan
      • We must prepare for longer and more severe water shortages
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      Catchment residence and travel time distributions: The master equation

      Gianluca Botter, Enrico Bertuzzo and Andrea Rinaldo

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047666

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      Key Points

      • Travel/residence time pdf's are related objects with different physical meaning
      • A Master Equation for the residence time pdf is derived and solved analytically
      • We develop a mathematical framework which is the basis for a class of models
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      A novel approach for direct estimation of fresh groundwater discharge to an estuary

      Neil K. Ganju

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047718

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      Key Points

      • Fresh groundwater discharge quantified using time-dependent salt balance
      • Discharge varied linearly with tidal range
      • Peak discharge an order of magnitude greater than mean discharge
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      Forecasting transboundary river water elevations from space

      S. Biancamaria, F. Hossain and D. P. Lettenmaier

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047290

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      Key Points

      • Forecast water elevations with 5 to 10 days lead time at the Bangladesh border
      • Proved potential of satellite altimetry to forecast transboundary water height
      • RMSE on satellite altimetry 5-day forecast is around 0.40 m
  4. Oceans

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Impacts of wind stress on the Antarctic Circumpolar Current fronts and associated subduction

      S. M. Downes, A. S. Budnick, J. L. Sarmiento and R. Farneti

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047668

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      Key Points

      • Changing winds restructure the flow of the Antacrtic Circumpolar Current
      • Partial eddy compensation is associated with increased water mass subduction
      • Increased and shifted westerlies impact the ACC fronts differently
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      The reversal of the multi-decadal trends of the equatorial Pacific easterly winds, and the Indonesian Throughflow and Leeuwin Current transports

      Ming Feng, Claus Böning, Arne Biastoch, Erik Behrens, Evan Weller and Yukio Masumoto

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047291

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      Key Points

      • There have been reversals of the multi-decadal weakening trends of trade winds
      • Different reanalysis products capture different trends in trade winds
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      Evidence of wind-evaporation-sea surface temperature (WES) feedback in the western Pacific warm pool during the mature phase of the 1997–98 El Niño

      Iwao Ueki

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047179

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      Key Points

      • Anomalous distributions of SST wind and fluxes on 1997–98 El Nino were described
      • Certain features of the WES feedback in the western Pacific were demonstrated
      • Relation between the WES feedback and strong El Nino was suggested
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      Can sea surface height be used to estimate oceanic transport variability?

      V. O. Ivchenko, D. Sidorenko, S. Danilov, M. Losch and J. Schröter

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047387

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      Key Points

      • Steric expansion in the upper 200 m is large but does not lead to transport
      • Corrected sea surface height is highly correlated with transport
      • Steric height variability between 200m and 1000m correlates with transport
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      Rapid change in semi-diurnal tides in the North Atlantic since 1980

      M. Müller

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047312

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      Key Points

      • Secular trends of ocean tides
      • Time correlation of long term tidal records
      • Connection of changing tides with climate warming
  5. Planets

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      The composition and structure of the Enceladus plume

      C. J. Hansen, D. E. Shemansky, L. W. Esposito, A. I. F. Stewart, B. R. Lewis, J. E. Colwell, A. R. Hendrix, R. A. West, J. H. Waite Jr., B. Teolis and B. A. Magee

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047415

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      Key Points

      • N2 upper limit
      • Mach number of jets ranges from 5 to 8, more collimated than previous estimate
      • Flux of water vapor stable over last 6 years at 200 kg/sec
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      Compositional diversity at Theophilus Crater: Understanding the geological context of Mg-spinel bearing central peaks

      D. Dhingra, C. M. Pieters, J. W. Boardman, J. W. Head, P. J. Isaacson and L. A. Taylor

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047314

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      Key Points

      • Mg-spinel rich lithology is detected in central peaks of crater Theophilus
      • Mg-Spinel rich lithology is widespread component in the lunar crust
      • Prominent exposures in peaks indicate deep and pervasive source in the crust
  6. Solid Earth

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Melt extraction pathways at segmented oceanic ridges: Application to the East Pacific Rise at the Siqueiros transform

      Laura B. Hebert and Laurent G. J. Montési

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047206

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      Key Points

      • Melt extraction zone size impacts crustal accretion in ridge-transform systems
      • Melt is drawn in from a large volume to be sampled by the transform domain
      • The most successful model employs a viscoplastic rheology
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      Relation between single very-long-period pulses and volcanic gas emissions at Mt. Asama, Japan

      Ryunosuke Kazahaya, Toshiya Mori, Minoru Takeo, Takao Ohminato, Taku Urabe and Yuta Maeda

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047555

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      Key Points

      • Quantitative comparison between single VLP pulse and volcanic gas emission
      • The observational results are consistent with the seismic source model
      • Possibility of gas amount estimation without gas flux observations
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      Influence of pre-existing volcanic edifice geometry on caldera formation

      V. Pinel

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047900

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      Key Points

      • Magma reservoir withdrawal can lead to caldera formation in an elastic medium
      • Volcanic edifice construction favours ring fault initiation
      • Relative edifice and caldera sizes bring constrains on reservoirs size and shape
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      Aftershock study and seismotectonic implications of the 8 March 2010 Kovancılar (Elazığ, Turkey) earthquake (MW = 6.1)

      Onur Tan, Zümer Pabuçcu, M. Cengiz Tapırdamaz, Sedat İnan, Semih Ergintav, Haluk Eyidoğan, Ercan Aksoy and Fatih Kuluöztürk

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047702

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      Key Points

      • First earthquake activity in one of the seismically silent parts of the EAFS
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      On the reliability of attenuation measurements from ambient noise cross-correlations

      Fan-Chi Lin, Michael H. Ritzwoller and Weisen Shen

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047366

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      Key Points

      • Ambient noise cross-correlations can be used to study attenuation
      • Attenuation determined with ambient noise and earthquake is highly consistent
      • Several corrections are needed before noise amplitude measurements can be used
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      Observations of the seasonality of the Antarctic microseismic signal, and its association to sea ice variability

      M. Grob, A. Maggi and E. Stutzmann

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047525

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      Key Points

      • We observe seasonality in microseismic signals in Antarctica
      • These variations in microseismic signals are annual and interannual
      • These variations are linked to changes in sea ice concentration along the coast
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      Sulfide melts and long-term low seismic wavespeeds in lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle

      G. Helffrich, J.-M. Kendall, J. O. S. Hammond and M. R. Carroll

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047126

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      Key Points

      • Low seismic wavespeeds are found in old tectonic regions
      • Sulfide is present in small quantities in all mantle rocks
      • Sulfide melts at <1000C, and can explain low wavespeeds in even (c)old rocks
  7. Space Sciences

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      DEMETER observations of ionospheric heating by powerful VLF transmitters

      T. F. Bell, K. Graf, U. S. Inan, D. Piddyachiy and M. Parrot

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047503

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      Key Points

      • Large ionospheric perturbations over powerful VLF transmitters
      • The ionospheric perturbations can extend into the conjugate region
      • Transmitter wave power lost in heating reduces wave effects in radiation belts
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      Self-consistent seeding of the interchange instability in dipolarization fronts

      Giovanni Lapenta and Lapo Bettarini

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047742

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      Key Points

      • Dipolarisation fronts are made unstable by the interchange mode
      • The scales are determined by the previous kinking of flux ropes
      • The predicted scales are in agreement with observations and can explain them
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      Laboratory realization of an ion-ion hybrid Alfvén wave resonator

      S. T. Vincena, W. A. Farmer, J. E. Maggs and G. J. Morales

      Article first published online: 1 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047399

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      Key Points

      • The first laboratory observation of ion-ion eigenmodes in a magnetic well
      • Frequencies of trapped modes vary in accord with ion concentration via theory
      • These findings provide validation for the hybrid resonator in space plasmas
  8. The Cryosphere

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Extreme melt on Canada's Arctic ice caps in the 21st century

      Martin Sharp, David O. Burgess, J. Graham Cogley, Miles Ecclestone, Claude Labine and Gabriel J. Wolken

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047381

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      Key Points

      • Strong summer warming over Canadian Arctic ice caps since 2005
      • Over 30% of total mass loss since ∼1960 has occurred since 2005
      • Regional mass loss approached 70 Gt/yr in 2007/2008 compared to 10 Gt/yr 1960–99

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