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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 12

June 2011

Volume 38, Issue 12

  1. Atmospheric Science

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Major influence of tropical volcanic eruptions on the stratospheric aerosol layer during the last decade

      J.-P. Vernier, L. W. Thomason, J.-P. Pommereau, A. Bourassa, J. Pelon, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, L. Blanot, C. Trepte, Doug Degenstein and F. Vargas

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047563

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      Key Points

      • Minor tropical volcanic eruptions: important source of stratospheric aerosols
      • Stratospheric aerosol layer mainly impacted by those events
      • Potential impacts on climate and ozone chemistry
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      CO2 transport uncertainties from the uncertainties in meteorological fields

      Junjie Liu, Inez Fung, Eugenia Kalnay and Ji-Sun Kang

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047213

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      Key Points

      • CO2 ensemble forecasts using ensemble meteorology quantify transport error
      • CO2 uncertainties are up to 3 ppm at surface and up to 1.8 ppm in Xco2
      • CO2 vertical gradient is weaker when forced by a single meteorological field
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      Effects of seawater pH on growth and skeletal U/Ca ratios of Acropora digitifera coral polyps

      Mayuri Inoue, Ryota Suwa, Atsushi Suzuki, Kazuhiko Sakai and Hodaka Kawahata

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047786

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      Key Points

      • A non-linear response of skeletal growth of juvenile corals against seawater pH
      • Coral U/Ca has a potential as a new proxy of seawater pH without growth effect
      • Coral may have an ability to enhance pH at a site of calcification
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      Water vapor intrusions into the High Arctic during winter

      J. G. Doyle, G. Lesins, C. P. Thackray, C. Perro, G. J. Nott, T. J. Duck, R. Damoah and J. R. Drummond

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047493

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      Key Points

      • Water vapor intrusions into the High Arctic are frequent in the winter
      • Intrusions have a complicated vertical structure which can reach the surface
      • Intrusions have a significant surface radiative impact
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      The Greenland Sea Jet: A mechanism for wind-driven sea ice export through Fram Strait

      J. H. van Angelen, M. R. van den Broeke and R. Kwok

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047837

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      Key Points

      • Introduction of the Greenland Sea Jet (GSJ) and explaining its origin
      • Variability in the GSJ is strongly related to sea ice export through FS
      • The impacts of recent warming in the Arctic on the GSJ are addressed
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      The average influence of decadal solar forcing on the atmosphere in the South Pacific region

      Harry van Loon and Gerald A. Meehl

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047794

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      Key Points

      • Anomalously high sea level pressure in the South Pacific at solar peaks
      • The SPCZ is poleward shifted across the entire South Pacific at solar peaks
      • The signal in SLP in the South Pacific for solar peaks is different from La Nina
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      Influence of subtropical and polar sea-surface temperature anomalies on temperatures in Eurasia

      Jan Sedláček, Olivia Martius and Reto Knutti

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047764

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      Key Points

      • Impact of the Barents Sea SST anomaly is highly variable
      • SST anomaly in the Arabian Sea shifts jet northward
      • Positive T anomaly over Russia only signif. if both SST forcings are included
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      Characteristics of the TIGGE multimodel ensemble prediction system in representing forecast variability associated with extratropical transition

      J. H. Keller, S. C. Jones, J. L. Evans and P. A. Harr

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047275

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      Key Points

      • Investigation of ET in the new TIGGE dataset, based on EOF-/cluster analysis
      • Individual TIGGE ensembles contribute differently to development scenarios
      • TIGGE offers new development scenarios, full range only if ECMWF EPS is included
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      Lightning development associated with two negative gigantic jets

      Gaopeng Lu, Steven A. Cummer, Walter A. Lyons, Paul R. Krehbiel, Jingbo Li, William Rison, Ronald J. Thomas, Harald E. Edens, Mark A. Stanley, William Beasley, Donald R. MacGorman, Oscar A. van der Velde, Morris B. Cohen, Timothy J. Lang and Steven A. Rutledge

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047662

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      Key Points

      • Both gigantic jets occurred as part of otherwise normal intracloud flashes
      • The GJ-producing lightning development implies a depleted upper positive charge
      • VHF techniques are applicable to detect discharges over the cloud
  2. Climate

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      The vertical distribution of cloud feedback in coupled ocean-atmosphere models

      Brian J. Soden and Gabriel A. Vecchi

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047632

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      Key Points

      • High clouds provide a robust and consistent positive LW feedback in all models
      • Low clouds provide a highly variable SW feedback in all models
      • Low cloud feedback ranges from negative to strongly positive
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      The drought of 2010 in the context of historical droughts in the Amazon region

      Jose A. Marengo, Javier Tomasella, Lincoln M. Alves, Wagner R. Soares and Daniel A. Rodriguez

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047436

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      Key Points

      • New results based on an observed extreme in Amazonia
      • Similar behaviour is detected in climate change projections in Amazonia
      • A longer dry season has been observed in southern Amazonia during last 10 years
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      Oceanic forcing for the East Asian precipitation in pacemaker AGCM experiments

      Jian Lu, Minghong Zhang, Ben Cash and Shuanglin Li

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047614

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      Key Points

      • Reproduce and verify the Pacific-East Asian teleconnection with pace-maker expt
      • 30% of the variance of the DJFM EAP index accounted for by oceanic q-flux
      • Identify the crucial role of the PSAC and air-sea thermal coupling in the PEA
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      North Tropical Atlantic influence on western Amazon fire season variability

      Katia Fernandes, Walter Baethgen, Sergio Bernardes, Ruth DeFries, David G. DeWitt, Lisa Goddard, Waldo Lavado, Dong Eun Lee, Christine Padoch, Miguel Pinedo-Vasquez and Maria Uriarte

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047392

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      Key Points

      • Western Amazon fires can be predicted using seasonal SST forecast
      • Western Amazon droughts are linked to the NTA SST
      • Most of western Amazon fire variability can be explained by SPI
  3. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Probabilistic multi-model ensemble predictions of nitrogen concentrations in river systems

      Jean-François Exbrayat, Neil R. Viney, Hans-Georg Frede and Lutz Breuer

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047522

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      Key Points

      • Our MME of N predictions is more skilled than its members
      • The optimal use of the ensemble can be adapted to the local conditions
      • The ensemble has a higher potential economic value than the single models
  4. Oceans

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Evaluation of velocity-related approximations in the nonlinear shallow water equations for the Kuril Islands, 2006 tsunami event at Honolulu, Hawaii

      Diego Arcas and Yong Wei

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047083

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      Key Points

      • Neglect of convective terms in the NSWE model is not warranted in shallow water
      • The hydrostatic approximation seems to be valid even in shallow waters
      • Uniformity of tsunami velocity profiles in shallow waters is not preserved
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      Transport and coastal zooplankton communities in the northern California Current system

      Hongsheng Bi, William T. Peterson and Paul T. Strub

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047927

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      Key Points

      • Alongshore transport is correlated with the biomass of cold water copepods
      • More movement of water from north when the PDO is negative
      • Cumulative alongshore transport is correlated with salmon ocean survival
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      Does positioning of the North Pacific Current affect downstream ecosystem productivity?

      William J. Sydeman, Sarah Ann Thompson, John C. Field, William T. Peterson, Ronald W. Tanasichuk, Howard J. Freeland, Steven J. Bograd and Ryan R. Rykaczewski

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047212

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      Key Points

      • Positioning of currents can affect marine ecosystem productivity
      • North Pacific Current position varies substantially
      • Central-Northern California Current salmon-seabird-rockfish food web varies
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      Shelf resonance and impact of near-field tsunami generated by the 2010 Chile earthquake

      Yoshiki Yamazaki and Kwok Fai Cheung

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047508

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      Key Points

      • There is a direct relation between tsunami resonance and impact
      • The proposed analysis can identify locations most vulnerable to tsunamis
      • The late arrival of distructive waves at Talcahuano is due to shelf resonance
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      Sea-level rise and impacts projections under a future scenario with large greenhouse gas emission reductions

      A. K. Pardaens, J. A. Lowe, S. Brown, R. J. Nicholls and D. de Gusmão

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047678

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      Key Points

      • Mitigation may reduce sea-level rise over the 21st century by around a third
      • Mitigation can potentially substantially reduce coastal flooding impacts by 2100
      • Assumed accelerated ice sheet dynamics greatly increases potential impacts
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      Direct measurements of CO2 flux in the Greenland Sea

      Siv K. Lauvset, Wade R. McGillis, Ludovic Bariteau, C. W. Fairall, Truls Johannessen, Are Olsen and Christopher J. Zappa

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047722

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      Key Points

      • Successful measurement of eddy correlation CO2 flux
      • Novel instrument set-up and removal of motion bias
      • Low wind speeds lead to small CO2 fluxes despite large undersaturation
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      Contribution of Pacific wind stress to multi-decadal variations in upper-ocean heat content and sea level in the tropical south Indian Ocean

      Franziska U. Schwarzkopf and Claus W. Böning

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047651

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      Key Points

      • Unconstrained ocean hindcast simulation reproduces observed multi-decadal trends
      • Late 20th-century Indian Ocean cooling was caused by Pacific wind forcing
      • Pacific signals rapidly propagate by Rossby waves across the Indian Ocean
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      Drivers of past and future Southern Ocean change: Stratospheric ozone versus greenhouse gas impacts

      M. Sigmond, M. C. Reader, J. C. Fyfe and N. P. Gillett

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047120

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      Key Points

      • GHG and stratospheric ozone trends drive changes in the ocean circulation
      • The ozone impact on the ocean circulation exceeds that due to GHGs up to ∼2035
      • Previously neglected ozone trends should be included in ocean modeling studies
  5. Planets

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Infrasonic detection of a near-Earth object impact over Indonesia on 8 October 2009

      Elizabeth A. Silber, Alexis Le Pichon and Peter G. Brown

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047633

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      Key Points

      • Large and unique bolide event over Indonesia
      • Event recorded infrasonically by many stations over long distances
      • New approach in modelling and determining source energy
  6. Solid Earth

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      The pH dependence of spectral induced polarization of silica sands: Experiment and modeling

      M. Skold, A. Revil and P. Vaudelet

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047748

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      Key Points

      • Proton are mobile at the surface of silica
      • The polarization of silica send is controlled by the Stern layer
      • The diffuse layer is not the dominating polarization mechanism
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      Low seismic resolution cannot explain S/P decorrelation in the lower mantle

      S. Della Mora, L. Boschi, P. J. Tackley, T. Nakagawa and D. Giardini

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047559

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      Key Points

      • Tomography has enough resolving power in the deep mantle
      • Deep mantle heterogeneity cannot be explained with thermal effects alone
      • Discrepancies from a purely thermal model are not due to seismic data resolution
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      Micromechanics of asperity rupture during laboratory stick slip experiments

      Gregory C. McLaskey and Steven D. Glaser

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047507

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      Key Points

      • Sustained tremor-like acoustic emissions are myriad discrete asperity ruptures
      • We find different asperity rupture micromechanics between plastic and rock
      • Different seismic signatures are linked to differences in hardness and melting
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      Influence of non-Newtonian rheology on magma degassing

      Thibaut Divoux, Valérie Vidal, Maurizio Ripepe and Jean-Christophe Géminard

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047789

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      Key Points

      • Consequences of the non-Newtonian magma properties on volcano activity
      • No need to invoke a change in gas or magma flux to change volcano activity
      • Experimental investigation of the intermittence phenomenon
  7. Space Sciences

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Large-amplitude whistler waves and electron acceleration

      Peter H. Yoon

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047893

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      Key Points

      • Exact numerical solution of oblique whistler wave
      • Test particle simulation with exact wave solution
      • Rapid acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies
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      The 3D model of the plasmasphere coupled to the ionosphere

      V. Pierrard and M. Voiculescu

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047767

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      Key Points

      • Coupling of the plasmasphere with the ionosphere
      • Number density of all the particles from 60 to more than 20000 km
      • The model was extended to give also the temperature of the particles
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      HF-driven currents in the polar ionosphere

      K. Papadopoulos, N. A. Gumerov, X. Shao, I. Doxas and C. L. Chang

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047368

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      Strong thermospheric cooling during the 2009 major stratosphere warming

      Huixin Liu, Eelco Doornbos, Mamoru Yamamoto and S. Tulasi Ram

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047898

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      Key Points

      • Thermosphere cools 50 K during SSW
      • Consistent results from two different satellites
      • Thermosphere cooling impacts on the ionosphere
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      Global energy transfer during a magnetospheric field line resonance

      Michael Hartinger, Vassilis Angelopoulos, Mark B. Moldwin, Karl-Heinz Glassmeier and Yukitoshi Nishimura

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047846

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      Key Points

      • We observe energy transfer at the center of an FLR during strong driving
      • Energy is diverted from the magnetic equator to the ionosphere via FLR
      • Joule dissipation is an important damping mechanism for the shear Alfven wave
  8. The Cryosphere

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Arctic cyclogenesis at the marginal ice zone: A contributory mechanism for the temperature amplification?

      Jun Inoue and Masatake E. Hori

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047696

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      Key Points

      • Using a meteorological research vessel, we caught an Arctic cyclone at ice edge
      • The cyclone had the identical life-cycle to a mid-latitude one
      • The cyclone is essential for meridional and air-sea heat exchanges in the Arctic
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      Mass balance of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers, 2000–2010

      Ian M. Howat, Yushin Ahn, Ian Joughin, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Jan T. M. Lenaerts and Ben Smith

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047565

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      Key Points

      • Greenland's large glaciers show very different responses to retreat
      • Discharge domimates decadal-scale changes in mass
      • The wide range in behavior makes extrapolation a poor predicter of future change

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