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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 16

August 2011

Volume 38, Issue 16

  1. Atmospheric Science

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Basic biogenic aerosol precursors: Agricultural source attribution of volatile amines revised

      U. Kuhn, J. Sintermann, C. Spirig, M. Jocher, C. Ammann and A. Neftel

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047958

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      Key Points

      • Assumptions on the main global amine sources are challanged by true measurements
      • Cattle amine production is attributed to rumination acitivity
      • Vegetation in senescent state (hay, silage) is an important global amine source
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      First lidar observations of polar mesospheric clouds and Fe temperatures at McMurdo (77.8°S, 166.7°E), Antarctica

      Xinzhao Chu, Wentao Huang, Weichun Fong, Zhibin Yu, Zhangjun Wang, John A. Smith and Chester S. Gardner

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048373

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      Key Points

      • Inter-hemispheric difference in mean altitude of polar mesospheric clouds (PMC)
      • Latitudinal dependence of mean PMC altitudes
      • Wave-induced temperature oscillation facilitates PMC formation & Fe depletion
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      Stereochemical transfer to atmospheric aerosol particles accompanying the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds

      Carlena J. Ebben, Soeren R. Zorn, Seung-Bok Lee, Paulo Artaxo, Scot T. Martin and Franz M. Geiger

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048599

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      Key Points

      • Molecular chirality in aerosol particles formed from BVOCs is due to chemistry
      • This result enables new studies on the climate impacts of climate stresses
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      On the pH dependence of photo-induced volatilization of nitrogen oxides from frozen solutions containing nitrate

      Otman Abida and Hans D. Osthoff

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048517

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      Key Points

      • Production of NO2 from nitrate photolysis in ice is promoted by acids
      • Production of NO2 is rationalized by formation of peroxynitrous acid
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      Cloud-system resolving simulations with the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System global atmospheric model (GEOS-5)

      William M. Putman and Max Suarez

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048438

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      Key Points

      • GEOS-5 is used for a global non-hydrostatic cloud-resolving simulations
      • GEOS-5 compares favorably with satellite observations of global convection
      • GEOS-5 yields realistic predictions of seasonal hurricane activity/intensity
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      Spaced transmitter measurements of medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances near the equator

      John MacDougall, M. A. Abdu, Inez Batista, Ricardo Buriti, A. F. Medeiros, P. T. Jayachandran and Gilvan Borba

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048598

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      Key Points

      • Very systematic TID propagation
      • TIDs propagate towards ∼150 deg azimuth all year
      • Group of northward propagating TIDs in winter
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      Correction to “A decade of change in aerosol properties over the Indian subcontinent”

      Sagnik Dey and Larry Di Girolamo

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049191

      This article corrects:

      A decade of change in aerosol properties over the Indian subcontinent

      Vol. 38, Issue 14, Article first published online: 29 JUL 2011

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      The role of scavenging in the seasonal transport of black carbon and sulfate to the Arctic

      Timothy J. Garrett, Sara Brattström, Sangeeta Sharma, Douglas E. J. Worthy and Paul Novelli

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048221

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      Key Points

      • Arctic aerosol have a strong seasonal cycle that is dominated by wet scavenging
      • Both soot and sulfate are affected nearly equally by wet scavenging processes
      • We can anticipate from this study that a warmer Arctic will be a cleaner Arctic
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      Atmospheric non-spherical particles optical properties from UV-polarization lidar and scattering matrix

      Alain Miffre, Grégory David, Benjamin Thomas and Patrick Rairoux

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048310

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      Key Points

      • Optical properties of a mixed aerosol cloud (spherical, non-spherical)
      • Optical UV-depolarization and scattering matrix formalism is necessary
      • New methodology to remotely evaluate volcanic ash, dust particles concentration
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      The importance of the representation of deep convection for modeled dust-generating winds over West Africa during summer

      John H. Marsham, Peter Knippertz, Nick S. Dixon, Douglas J. Parker and Grenville M. S. Lister

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048368

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      Key Points

      • New simulations suggest haboobs generate of order half of West African dust
      • Global models with parameterized convection greatly underestimate haboob dust
      • Haboobs indirectly impact dust uplift by ventilating the Saharan heat low
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      Geothermal point sources identified in a fumarolic ice cave on Erebus volcano, Antarctica using fiber optic distributed temperature sensing

      Aaron Curtis and Philip Kyle

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048272

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      Key Points

      • Point sources of volcanic gas supply heat to the Erebus fumarolic ice caves
      • Flank degassing on Erebus is modulated by barometric pressure
      • DTS is a useful, economical tool for monitoring low temperature fumaroles
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      Theoretical constraints on pure vapor-pressure driven condensation of organics to ultrafine particles

      N. M. Donahue, E. R. Trump, J. R. Pierce and I. Riipinen

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048115

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      Key Points

      • Organic condensation explains up to half of observed nanoparticle growth rates
      • Oxidation of low-volatility vapors produces just the right properties
      • Multi-component dynamic simulations agree with simple constraints
  2. Climate

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    1. You have free access to this content
      Short residence time and fast transport of fine detritus in the Judean Desert: Clues from 7Be in settled dust

      Reuven Belmaker, Boaz Lazar, Mordechai Stein and Jürg Beer

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048672

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      Key Points

      • The 7Be mean annual flux in the Dead Sea region is 3.94+/−0.84 × 104 atoms cm−2 y−1
      • The 7Be mean atmospheric residence time in the Dead Sea region is 220+/−45 days
      • The 7Be inventories(atoms cm−2) increase with time and floods suppress steady state
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      Impacts of central Pacific and eastern Pacific El Niños on tropical cyclone tracks over the western North Pacific

      Chi-Cherng Hong, Yuan-Hsing Li, Tim Li and Ming-Ying Lee

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048821

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      Key Points

      • The impacts of two type El Ninos on TC tracks over the WNP is season-depedent
      • TCs recurve northward at a further westward location near the coastline of East
      • The west-shift of the subtropical high is a key factor to causes the difference
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      Key role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet periods over the Great Plains

      Sumant Nigam, Bin Guan and Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048650

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      Key Points

      • SST influence in Great Plains droughts is stronger in nature than in models
      • Atlantic SSTs are more influential than Pacific's in drought reconstruction
      • AMO is key to the reconstruction of 2 of the 4 major 20th century episodes
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      The frequency response of temperature and precipitation in a climate model

      Douglas G. MacMynowski, Ho-Jeong Shin and Ken Caldeira

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048623

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      Key Points

      • The frequency response is a useful way to explore climate dynamics
      • The global mean temperature response is consistent with a diffusion model
      • Precipitation, temperature respond differently to short vs long period forcing
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      El Niño in the Eocene greenhouse recorded by fossil bivalves and wood from Antarctica

      Linda C. Ivany, Thomas Brey, Matthew Huber, Devin P. Buick and Bernd R. Schöne

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048635

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      Key Points

      • Growth increments of long-lived organisms record interannual variability
      • ENSO periodicities are present in Eocene fossils
      • ENSO interannual variation will persist in the future greenhouse world
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      A simplified Atlantic basin seasonal hurricane prediction scheme from 1 August

      Philip J. Klotzbach

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048603

      Key Points

      • Atlantic basin seasonal TC activity is predictable by 1 August
      • Three predictors can explain over 70% of this variability
      • These three predictors show stable correlations over the past century
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      Does higher surface temperature intensify extreme precipitation?

      Nobuyuki Utsumi, Shinta Seto, Shinjiro Kanae, Eduardo Eiji Maeda and Taikan Oki

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048426

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      Key Points

      • The global relationship between extreme rain and temperature was assessed
      • The decrease in heavy rain amount was attributed to that in the rain duration
      • Sub-hourly extreme rain amount may increase with rising temperature
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      Are the most recent estimates for Maunder Minimum solar irradiance in agreement with temperature reconstructions?

      Georg Feulner

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048529

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      Key Points

      • Large TSI variations are inconsistent with the climate record
      • TSI was only moderately reduced during the Maunder Minimum
      • Solar activity was not the dominant driver for the Little Ice Age
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      Observed changes in surface atmospheric energy over land

      Thomas C. Peterson, Katharine M. Willett and Peter W. Thorne

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048442

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      Key Points

      • Global enthalpy and latent heat are increasing at about the same rate
      • Decreases in surface kinetic energy are much less than heat content increases
      • Atmospheric heat content changes are 5 orders of magnitude less than oceanic
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      The reversibility of sea ice loss in a state-of-the-art climate model

      K. C. Armour, I. Eisenman, E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, K. E. McCusker and C. M. Bitz

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048739

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      Key Points

      • Sea ice loss is reversible within a state-of-the-art global climate model
      • We find no evidence of threshold behavior in summer or winter sea ice cover
      • Rapid sea ice retreat does not imply irreversibility
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      Are there two types of La Nina?

      Jong-Seong Kug and Yoo-Geun Ham

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048237

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      Key Points

      • La Nina events in the central and eastern Pacific SST are highly correlated
      • There is a strong asymmetric character between El Nino and La Nina events
      • CMIP3 models simulate the two types of El Nino more independently than La Nina
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      Assessment of representations of model uncertainty in monthly and seasonal forecast ensembles

      Antje Weisheimer, T. N. Palmer and F. J. Doblas-Reyes

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048123

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      Key Points

      • Stochastic parametrisations produce best overall monthly forecast skill
      • Seasonal temperature forecasts from a multi-model ensemble perform best globally
      • Seasonal precipitation forecasts using stochastic processes have highest skill
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      The terrestrial segment of soil moisture–climate coupling

      Paul A. Dirmeyer

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048268

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      Key Points

      • Index better represents strength of terrestrial segment of water cycle feedback
      • Can be calculated from observations or model output
      • Corroborates land-climate coupling patterns from previous GCM experiments
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      Evolution of extreme temperatures in a warming climate

      C. Simolo, M. Brunetti, M. Maugeri and T. Nanni

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048437

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      Key Points

      • Extreme temperature events can be predicted by PDF moments
      • Changes in mean temperatures control evolution of extremes over Europe
      • Increasing summer variability plays no role in European record-breaking events
  3. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    1. You have free access to this content
      Freshwater river diversions for marsh restoration in Louisiana: Twenty-six years of changing vegetative cover and marsh area

      Michael S. Kearney, J. C. Alexis Riter and R. Eugene Turner

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047847

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      Key Points

      • Diversions increase marsh susceptibility to hurricane damage
      • Diversions decrease marsh vegetation resilience
      • The efficacy of diversions requires more study before program expansion
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      An alternate and robust approach to calibration for the estimation of land surface model parameters based on remotely sensed observations

      Guido D. Salvucci and Dara Entekhabi

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048366

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      Key Points

      • Novel proposed method can estimate key parameters (e.g. stomatal conductance)
      • Traditional calibration of model to soil moisture fails to estimate parameters
      • Model tendency stationarity yields robust measure of error w/o flux measurement
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      Record setting during dispersive transport in porous media

      Yaniv Edery, Alex Kostinski and Brian Berkowitz

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048558

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      Key Points

      • Numerical simulations test record-setting behavior
      • Generalization of record-setting scaling to 2d, 3d domains for pure diffusion
      • Demonstration of distinct scaling in 1d, 2d, 3d for dispersive transport
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      Seasonal versus transient snow and the elevation dependence of climate sensitivity in maritime mountainous regions

      Anne J. Jefferson

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048346

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      Key Points

      • Hydrologic response to warming depends on area in the seasonal snow zone
      • Shifts in transient snow zone and rain-on-snow drive trends in peak streamflows
      • SNOTEL and PRISM methods equivalently identify climate sensitive watersheds
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      Climatic trends in major U.S. urban areas, 1950–2009

      Vimal Mishra and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048255

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      Key Points

      • Significant increase in extreme precipitation in major urban areas
      • Significant decline in cooling degree days
      • Influence of urbanization on climate extremes is not significant
  4. Oceans

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    1. You have free access to this content
      Carbon isotope composition of Caribbean Sea surface waters: Response to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2

      David Black, Robert Thunell, Kate Wejnert and Yrene Astor

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048538

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      Key Points

      • Marine Suess effect has accelerated in parallel with the rise in atmospheric CO2
      • Foraminiferal δ13C is a robust recorder of changes in atmospheric δ13C
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      Turbulence transition in stratified atmospheric and oceanic shear flows: Reynolds and Prandtl number controls upon the mechanism

      A. Mashayek and W. R. Peltier

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048542

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      Key Points

      • Convective stability is the main player in turbulence transition in shear layers
      • The 3D instabilities eliminate the possibility of upscale cascade in shear layers
      • A new possibly very important instability is introduced for oceanic shear flows
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      Long range transport of a quasi isolated chlorophyll patch by an Agulhas ring

      Yoav Lehahn, Francesco d'Ovidio, Marina Lévy, Yael Amitai and Eyal Heifetz

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048588

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      Key Points

      • An Agulhas ring transport a chlorophyll patch over long distance and time
      • Chlorophyll signal in the eddy is driven by vertical and horizontal processes
      • Chlorophyll signal in eddies is sensitive to horizontal eddy permeability
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      Nitrogen fixation in the South Atlantic Gyre and the Benguela Upwelling System

      Jill A. Sohm, Jason A. Hilton, Abigail E. Noble, Jonathan P. Zehr, Mak A. Saito and Eric A. Webb

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048315

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      Key Points

      • N2 fixation was found in the Benguela Upwelling System
      • Heterotrophic diazotrophs may be responsible
      • Iron (but not nitrate) concentrations appear to be a driver of activity
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      Stochastic variability of oceanic flows above topography anomalies

      A. Venaille, J. Le Sommer, J.-M. Molines and B. Barnier

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048401

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      Key Points

      • A simple, generic mechanism for intrinsic, low frequency oceanic variability
      • Observation of intrinsic, low frequency variability in the Argentine Basin
      • Explanation of the numerical simulation output with our simple mechanism
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      Impact of an unusually large warm-core eddy on distributions of nutrients and phytoplankton in the southwestern Canada Basin during late summer/early fall 2010

      Shigeto Nishino, Motoyo Itoh, Yusuke Kawaguchi, Takashi Kikuchi and Michio Aoyama

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047885

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      Key Points

      • Warm eddies in the Canada Basin have high ammonium and low silicate waters
      • Warm eddies are major ammonium providers to the nutricline-deepened Canada Basin
      • Warm eddies favor the growth of small phytoplankton in the Canada Basin
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      Glacial influence on the geochemistry of riverine iron fluxes to the Gulf of Alaska and effects of deglaciation

      Andrew W. Schroth, John Crusius, Fanny Chever, Benjamin C. Bostick and Olivier J. Rouxel

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048367

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      Key Points

      • Iron colloidal and particulate speciation in glacierized rivers is unique
      • As glaciers disappear, the flux and chemistry of riverine iron will change
      • These changes are associated with the source of riverine iron
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      Strong vertical mixing in the Urup Strait

      Sachihiko Itoh, Ichiro Yasuda, Masahiro Yagi, Satoshi Osafune, Hitoshi Kaneko, Jun Nishioka, Takeshi Nakatsuka and Yuri N. Volkov

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048507

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      Key Points

      • Extremely strong mixing was observed in one of the Kuril Strait, the Urup Strait
      • Vertical diffusivity was estimated to be 10−1 to 5 × 10−1 m2 s−1
      • Homogeneous layers were found in 26.6–26.7 σ theta layer
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      Spatial reorganization in the equatorial divergence in the Eastern Tropical Pacific during the last 150 kyr

      Nathalie Dubois and Markus Kienast

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048325

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      Key Points

      • Nitrate utilization and denitrification signature on sed. delta15N varies with time
      • Corg and delta15N records from different ETP sites covary during glacial stages
      • Spatial reorganizations cause the interglacial delta15N/Corg records to diverge
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      Deep-sea observations and modeling of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in Drake Passage

      Alexander B. Rabinovich, Philip L. Woodworth and Vasily V. Titov

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048305

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      Key Points

      • Unique far-field open-ocean measurements of the 2004 tsunami in Drake Passage
      • Excellent agreement of observational and numerical results
      • Late arrival of the observed and simulated significant tsunami waves
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      The role of Atlantic-Arctic exchange in North Atlantic multidecadal climate variability

      L. M. Frankcombe and H. A. Dijkstra

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048158

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      Key Points

      • The North Atlantic and Arctic have internal variability with different periods
      • The North Atlantic-Arctic exchange flows show these different periods
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      Correction to “Bistability of the Atlantic overturning circulation in a global climate model and links to ocean freshwater transport”

      E. Hawkins, R. S. Smith, L. C. Allison, J. M. Gregory, T. J. Woollings, H. Pohlmann and B. de Cuevas

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048997

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      This article corrects:
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      Instrumental validation of Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca as a proxy for NE Pacific summer SST

      P. Graham Mortyn, Juan Carlos Herguera and Miguel A. Martínez-Botí

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047803

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      Key Points

      • G. ruber Mg/Ca ratio in the S. Calif. Current primarily reflects summer SST
      • The Mg/Ca proxy is demonstrated to reflect well 20th-century instrumental SST
      • We are poised for improved reconstructions, very key for many lines of inquiry
  5. Planets

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    1. You have free access to this content
      Influence of fault-controlled topography on fluvio-deltaic sedimentary systems in Eberswalde crater, Mars

      Melissa S. Rice, Sanjeev Gupta, James F. Bell III and Nicholas H. Warner

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048149

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      Key Points

      • There are at least six fluvio-deltaic systems preserved in Eberswalde crater
      • All fluvio-deltaic systems consist of the same three stratigraphic units
      • Structurally-generated topography controlled delta development in Eberswalde
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      The free librations of Mercury and the size of its inner core

      M. Dumberry

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048277

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      Key Points

      • Inner core-mantle gravitational coupling affects Mercury's free librations
      • For an inner core larger than 1000 km in radius, its effect is non-negligible
      • Precise libration observation can be use to constrain the inner core size
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      Cryoclastic origin of particles on the surface of Enceladus

      W. Degruyter and M. Manga

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048235

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      Key Points

      • The deposits on Enceladus are cryoclastic in origin
      • Link deposit to eruption temperature
      • Prediction of particle size with height
  6. Solid Earth

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    1. You have free access to this content
    2. You have free access to this content
      Stress regime in the Philippine Sea slab beneath Kanto, Japan

      Junichi Nakajima, Akira Hasegawa and Fuyuki Hirose

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048754

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      Key Points

      • Discussion on relative magnitudes of possible causes of slab stress
      • Effect of stress accumulation related to the Kanto asperity on slab stress
      • Occurrence of the 1922 Uraga earthquake (M6.8) in the PHS slab
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      Shearing mechanisms of MgSiO3 at conditions of the Earth's D″ layer

      Dirk Zahn

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048203

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      Key Points

      • Atomic mechanism of MgSiO3 shearing
      • Interplay of shearing and pressure-induced phase transition
      • Identification of preferred slip planes
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      A subduction zone reference frame based on slab geometry and subduction partitioning of plate motion and trench migration

      W. P. Schellart

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048197

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      Key Points

      • Slab geometry depends on the subduction partitioning with five distinct styles
      • Five styles: draping, draping & folding, piling, roll-over & folding, roll-over
      • Indo-Atlantic hotspot reference frame agrees with subduction reference frame
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      Constraints on burial depth and yield of the 25 May 2009 North Korean test from hydrodynamic simulations in a granite medium

      Esteban Rougier, Howard J. Patton, Earl E. Knight and Christopher R. Bradley

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048269

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      Key Points

      • Numerical results validate the yield : DoB trade off for the 2009 NK test
      • Minimum burial depth and yield for the 2009 NK test are 375 m and 5.7 kt
      • Improved hydrodynamic modeling is a valuable tool for CTBT monitoring research
    6. You have free access to this content
      Multi-event simulations of slow slip events for a Cascadia-like subduction zone

      Harmony V. Colella, James H. Dieterich and Keith B. Richards-Dinger

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048817

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      Key Points

      • A new simulation method for investigation of SSEs has been developed
      • Simulation results agree with a variety of observations from the Cascadia Subduction
      • Stress changes from SSEs may affect the timing of great earthquakes
    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The Erua earthquake cluster and seismic anisotropy in the Ruapehu region, New Zealand

      Brook S. Keats, Jessica H. Johnson and Martha K. Savage

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049014

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      Key Points

      • Examine the structure of the Erua earthquake swarm
      • Identify temporal changes in anisotropy that are robust and related to eruption
      • Show that the method has potential as a mid-term monitoring tool
    8. You have free access to this content
      Seismic images of the megathrust rupture during the 25th October 2010 Pagai earthquake, SW Sumatra: Frontal rupture and large tsunami

      Satish C. Singh, Nugroho Hananto, Maruf Mukti, Haryadi Permana, Yusuf Djajadihardja and Heri Harjono

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048935

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      Key Points

      • Large tsunamis could be due to frontal rupture
      • 2010 pagai earthquake rupture the frontal section
      • Subducted features create weak zone, and hander rupture propagation
    9. You have free access to this content
      Direct evidence for dynamic magma supply fossilized in the lower oceanic crust of the Troodos ophiolite

      Roi Granot, Meir Abelson, Hagai Ron, Matthew W. Lusk and Amotz Agnon

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048220

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      Key Points

      • Magma flow inside magma chambers is surprisingly coherent over large distances
      • Direct evidence for a sharp transition between two differet modes of melt supply
      • Evolution of mantle upwelling is preserved in the lower oceanic crust
    10. You have free access to this content
      Application of real-time GPS to earthquake early warning

      Richard M. Allen and Alon Ziv

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047947

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      Key Points

      • Real-time GPS can provide static-offset observations during an earthquake
      • Real-time GPS provides a robust constrain on magnitude for warnings
      • GPS networks should be used as a companion to seismic networks
    11. You have free access to this content
      Moments, magnitudes, and radiated energies of non-volcanic tremor near Cholame, CA, from ground motion spectra at UPSAR

      J. B. Fletcher and A. McGarr

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048636

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      Key Points

      • Stress drops and radiated energies are low
      • This is consistent with estimates of crustal strength
      • Although tremor maybe dominantly shear failure, fluid flow maybe important
    12. You have free access to this content
      Cohesive strength of clay-rich sediment

      Matt J. Ikari and Achim J. Kopf

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047918

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      Key Points

      • Cohesion is stress dependent
      • Cohesion can be up to 40% of the shear strength
      • Sheared clays maintain cohesion, so sliding friction coefficient cannot be used
    13. You have free access to this content
      Mantle transition zone variations beneath the Ethiopian Rift and Afar: Chemical heterogeneity within a hot mantle?

      D. G. Cornwell, G. Hetényi and T. D. Blanchard

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047575

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      Key Points

      • Ethiopian mantle transition zone structure is mapped with receiver functions
      • Mantle transition zone has a mean of 244 km but is locally <230 and >260 km
      • Thickness changes are attributed to adjacent pyrolite and piclogite composition
    14. You have free access to this content
      Imaging the multi-level magma reservoir at Mt. Etna volcano (Italy)

      Marco Aloisi, Mario Mattia, Carmelo Ferlito, Mimmo Palano, Valentina Bruno and Flavio Cannavò

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048488

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      Key Points

      • Sources contemporaneously acting on segments of a multi-level magma reservoir
    15. You have free access to this content
      Evaluation of ocean crustal Sites 1256 and 504 for long-term CO2 sequestration

      Angela L. Slagle and David S. Goldberg

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048613

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      Key Points

      • Geophysical logs show zones for CO2 injection and storage in shallow ocean crust
      • Pacific crust reservoirs offer storage capacity for decades of carbon emissions
      • Site-specific data confirm CO2 storage potential in ocean crust reservoirs
    16. You have free access to this content
      High resolution regional seismic attenuation tomography in eastern Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions

      Xueyang Bao, Eric Sandvol, James Ni, Thomas Hearn, Yongshun John Chen and Yang Shen

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048012

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      Key Points

      • We use a very accurate method to measure Lg and Pg Q in Tibet based on new data
      • Variations of Q are correlated with tectonics and probably thermal structures
      • Site and source term solution have scientific meanings and wide applications
    17. You have free access to this content
      Ghost tilt signal during transient ground surface deformation events: Insights from the September 3, 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake, New Zealand

      Nicolas Fournier, Arthur D. Jolly and Craig Miller

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048136

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      Key Points

      • Tiltmeters may not measure ground tilt in the 2–20 s band
      • Independent measure of translational ground motion is required to extract tilt
      • Co-located GPS, tiltmeter and seismometers can discriminate tilt vs acceleration
    18. You have free access to this content
      Rise of the Ellsworth mountains and parts of the East Antarctic coast observed with GPS

      Donald F. Argus, Geoffrey Blewitt, W. Richard Peltier and Corné Kreemer

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048025

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      Key Points

      • The Ellsworth mountains are rising at 5 mm/yr ice loss occurred before 4 ka
      • There Antarctica is losing ice less quickly than previously estimated
      • Three places along coast East Antarctica coast are rising at 3–4 +/−2 mm/yr
    19. You have free access to this content
      Evidence for active folding and faulting at the northern Apennines mountain front near Bologna, Italy from high resolution seismic reflection profiling

      Pier Paolo G. Bruno, Frank J. Pazzaglia and Vincenzo Picotti

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047828

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      Key Points

      • High-resolution reflection seismology on rollback-retreat settings
      • Seismic data collection and processing techniques in complex settings
      • Fault kinematics and slip rates of faults inferred by seismic exploration
    20. You have free access to this content
      Estimating the Rayleigh-wave impulse response between seismic stations with the cross terms of the Green tensor

      Kasper van Wijk, T. Dylan Mikesell, Vera Schulte-Pelkum and Josh Stachnik

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047442

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      Key Points

      • Ambient noise correlations can suffer from artefacts
      • Our new method reduces these artefacts significantly
      • We illustrate our ideas in passive data from the Batholiths experiment
  7. Space Sciences

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    1. You have free access to this content
      The controlling effect of ion temperature on EMIC wave excitation and scattering

      Lunjin Chen, Richard M. Thorne and Jacob Bortnik

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048653

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      Key Points

      • Hot plasma introduces new features on dispersion relation near He+ gyrofrequency
      • Plasma condition for EMIC instability at He+ gyrofrequency is identified
      • Hot plasma condition for producing MeV electron scattering is identified
    2. You have free access to this content
      ULF wave absorption at Mercury

      Eun-Hwa Kim, Jay R. Johnson and Kyung-Dong Lee

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048621

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      Key Points

      • Wave absorption at ion-ion hybrid resonance is much more efficient
      • Conversion efficiency is sensitive to wavenumbers and heavy ion density ratio
      • Radial profile of field-line resonances at Mercury can show complex structure
    3. You have free access to this content
      Geomagnetic storm's precursors observed from 2001 to 2007 with the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN)

      M. Rockenbach, A. Dal Lago, W. D. Gonzalez, K. Munakata, C. Kato, T. Kuwabara, J. Bieber, N. J. Schuch, M. L. Duldig, J. E. Humble, H. K. Al Jassar, M. M. Sharma and I. Sabbah

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048556

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      Key Points

      • We observed 2 times more cosmic ray precursors as seen by doi:10.1029/2000JA000064
      • The GMDN gave us better data, and the new methodology make this analyses possible
      • This methodology can improve the GMDN cosmic ray's real-time system monitotoring
    4. You have free access to this content
      Geomagnetic semiannual variation is not overestimated and is not an artifact of systematic solar hemispheric asymmetry

      L. Svalgaard

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048616

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      Key Points

      • There is no systematically alternating annual variation of magnetic activity
      • UT variation of geomagnetic activity has the imprint of the equinoctial theory
      • Semiannual variation is no artifact, is not overestimated, does not need revision
    5. You have free access to this content
      ENA periodicities and their phase relations to SKR emissions at Saturn

      J. F. Carbary, D. G. Mitchell, P. C. Brandt, S. M. Krimigis and D. A. Gurnett

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048418

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      Key Points

      • Saturn ENA and SKR have exactly the same periods
      • ENA modulations lead SKR by 1-3 hours
      • ENA sweeps from midnight to dawn, initiating SKR emissions near dawn
    6. You have free access to this content
      Numerical modeling of 3D weak turbulence driven by high-power VLF pump waves in the topside ionosphere

      V. L. Galinsky, V. I. Shevchenko, E. V. Mishin and M. J. Starks

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048441

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      Key Points

      • 3D numerical simulations of weak- turbulent VLF interactions in the ionosphere
      • Anomalous VLF absorption greatly exceeds collisional losses
      • In situ observations of broadband LH electrostatic waves are reproduced
    7. You have free access to this content
      Fermi and betatron acceleration of suprathermal electrons behind dipolarization fronts

      H. S. Fu, Y. V. Khotyaintsev, M. André and A. Vaivads

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048528

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      Key Points

      • Fermi acceleration dominates inside a decaying flux pileup region
      • Betatron acceleration dominates inside a growing flux pileup region
      • Betatron acceleration is caused by a local compression of magnetic field
    8. You have free access to this content
      Predicting space climate change

      L. Barnard, M. Lockwood, M. A. Hapgood, M. J. Owens, C. J. Davis and F. Steinhilber

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048489

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      Key Points

      • Cosmogenic radionucleides can be used to predict the evolution of space weather
      • Radiation hazards are likely to increase in future
      • Solar energetic particle event fluences and probabilities can be predicted
    9. You have free access to this content
      Extreme Poynting flux in the dayside thermosphere: Examples and statistics

      D. Knipp, S. Eriksson, L. Kilcommons, G. Crowley, J. Lei, M. Hairston and K. Drake

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048302

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      Key Points

      • Extreme dayside Poynting deposition occurs during large IMF By
      • Magnetopause flank-lobe merging is source of energy
      • Extreme events are not captured in models or databases
    10. You have free access to this content
      The existence of memory effect on hydrogen ordering in ice: The effect makes ice attractive

      Masashi Arakawa, Hiroyuki Kagi, Jaime A. Fernandez-Baca, Bryan C. Chakoumakos and Hiroshi Fukazawa

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048217

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      Key Points

      • Small hydrogen-ordered domains with ferroelectricity exist in normal ice
      • Ferroelectric ordered ice exist in wider area in space than ever believed
      • Small ordered domains could govern the evolution of icy grains in space

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