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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Geophysical Research Letters

28 September 2011

Volume 38, Issue 18

  1. The Cryosphere

    1. Top of page
    2. The Cryosphere
    3. Space Sciences
    4. Solid Earth
    5. Planets
    6. Oceans
    7. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Karakoram glacier surge dynamics

      D. J. Quincey, M. Braun, N. F. Glasser, M. P. Bishop, K. Hewitt and A. Luckman

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049004

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      Key Points

      • Recent Karakoram glacier surges are thermally controlled
      • Previous non-surge glaciers are showing surge-type activity
      • Thermal conditions may be changing across the Karakoram regionally
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Influence of initial conditions and climate forcing on predicting Arctic sea ice

      E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, C. M. Bitz and M. M. Holland

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048807

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      Key Points

      • Forced predictability overtakes initial value predictability after 3 years
      • Season of forecast initialization time is irrelevant beyond 1st year
      • Area and volume anomalies couple only seasonally
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      Changing seasonal sea ice predictor relationships in a changing Arctic climate

      Marika M. Holland and Julienne Stroeve

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049303

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      Key Points

      • Observed predictor relationships have been useful in sea ice forecasting
      • The predictor relationships are influenced by the climatological sea ice state
      • As the Arctic loses perennial ice, seasonal predictor relationships change
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      An increase in crevasse extent, West Greenland: Hydrologic implications

      William Colgan, Konrad Steffen, W. Scott McLamb, Waleed Abdalati, Harihar Rajaram, Roman Motyka, Thomas Phillips and Robert Anderson

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048491

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      Key Points

      • There has been a significant increase in crevassed area extent
      • Crevasse drainage is less efficient in enhancing sliding than moulin drainage
      • Increased crevasse extent could also potentially enhance mass loss
  2. Space Sciences

    1. Top of page
    2. The Cryosphere
    3. Space Sciences
    4. Solid Earth
    5. Planets
    6. Oceans
    7. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Magnetic reconnection in an anisotropic plasma: Observation and theory

      C.-C. Hung, L.-N. Hau and M. Hoshino

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049117

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      Key Points

      • First study of magnetic reconnection with single X line in anisotropic plasma
      • First theory which may explain the unique observational feature by Geotail
      • First theory and result on new type of Petschek's magnetic reconnection model
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cluster observations of whistler mode ducts and banded chorus

      N. Haque, U. S. Inan, T. F. Bell, J. S. Pickett, J. G. Trotignon and G. Facskó

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049112

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      Key Points

      • New high spatial resolution plasma densities
      • Correspondence between plasma densities and banded chorus emissions
      • Characterizes whether enhancement or depletion ducts can guide waves
    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Using the NARMAX approach to model the evolution of energetic electrons fluxes at geostationary orbit

      M. A. Balikhin, R. J. Boynton, S. N. Walker, J. E. Borovsky, S. A. Billings and H. L. Wei

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048980

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      Key Points

      • Use of ERR enables us to rank parameters effecting the radiation belt fluxes
      • Density has the greatest influence, not velocity
      • Flux saturation level and velocity distribution depend upon density
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      Did the January 2009 sudden stratospheric warming cool or warm the thermosphere?

      Tim Fuller-Rowell, Rashid Akmaev, Fei Wu, Mariangel Fedrizzi, Rodney A. Viereck and Houjun Wang

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048985

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      Key Points

      • Simulated temperature and density response to 2009 sudden stratospheric warming
      • Demonstrated main response is due to small changes in geomagnetic activity
      • Showed that the CHAMP satellite was probably unable to detect response to SSW
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Long term time variations of the suprathermal ions in Saturn's magnetosphere

      R. D. DiFabio, D. C. Hamilton, S. M. Krimigis and D. G. Mitchell

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048841

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      Key Points

      • The Enceladus source strength is relatively stable over these six years
      • H+/W+ and H2+/W+ ratios vary less than individual number densities
      • He++ and He+ decline significantly in 2009–2010 near solar minimum
    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fine structure of sporadic sodium layer observed with a sodium lidar at Tromsø, Norway

      T. T. Tsuda, S. Nozawa, T. D. Kawahara, T. Kawabata, N. Saito, S. Wada, C. M. Hall, S. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Suzuki, T. Ogawa, T. Takahashi, H. Fujiwara, R. Fujii, N. Matuura and A. Brekke

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048685

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      Key Points

      • 5-sec time-resolution measurement by a new sodium lidar at Tromso
      • Short-period waves and turbulence in frequency range of 0.0001-0.1 Hz
      • A rapid sodium atom production within 1-min
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      IBEX observations of heliospheric energetic neutral atoms: Current understanding and future directions

      D. J. McComas, H. O. Funsten, S. A. Fuselier, W. S. Lewis, E. Möbius and N. A. Schwadron

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048763

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      Key Points

      • Synthesize the recent IBEX observations of the heliospheric interaction
      • Examine the possible mechanisms for generating the IBEX ribbon emissions
      • Briefly examine some future directions of this work and the field
  3. Solid Earth

    1. Top of page
    2. The Cryosphere
    3. Space Sciences
    4. Solid Earth
    5. Planets
    6. Oceans
    7. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Three dimensional transport speed of wind-drifted ash plumes using ground-based radar

      Franck Donnadieu, Sébastien Valade and Séverine Moune

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049001

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      Key Points

      • Accurate 3-D transport speed of wind-drifted ash plumes
      • Applications for plume monitoring, modelling, and flux measurements
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Space-time correlation of slip and tremor during the 2009 Cascadia slow slip event

      Noel M. Bartlow, Shin'ichi Miyazaki, Andrew M. Bradley and Paul Segall

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048714

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      Key Points

      • Tremor and the actively slipping region migrate together during ETS
      • Tremor is likely composed of individual LFE patches, loaded directly by creep
      • Tremor can use used as a proxy for the actively slipping region in migrating ETS
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      Correction to “Exploring land surface temperature earthquake precursors: A focus on the Gujarat (India) earthquake of 2001”

      Matthew Blackett, Martin J. Wooster and Bruce D. Malamud

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049428

      This article corrects:
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The dynamics of a seismic wave field: Animation and analysis of kinematic GPS data recorded during the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, Japan

      Ronni Grapenthin and Jeffrey T. Freymueller

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048405

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      Key Points

      • Visualization/analysis of dynamic and static deformation due to earthquakes
      • Qualitative assessment of earthquake parameters from map view representation
      • Outline of method for displacement assisted earthquake early warning
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Anelasticity and viscosity of partially molten rock analogue: Toward seismic detection of small quantities of melt

      Christine McCarthy and Yasuko Takei

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048776

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      Key Points

      • A small amount of melt greatly affects anelasticity and viscosity
      • We provide a scaling law that connects laboratory data to mantle conditions
      • We clarify the relaxation mechanism of our anelasticity data
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      Relationship between glacial isostatic adjustment and gravity perturbations observed by GRACE

      A. Purcell, A. Dehecq, P. Tregoning, E.-K. Potter, S. C. McClusky and K. Lambeck

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048624

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      Key Points

      • Ratio of deformational & gravitational Love numbers is independent of ice model
      • Ratio of deformational & gravitational Love numbers is independent of rheology
      • Numerically-derived ratio values offer greater accuracy than earlier theory
    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Stuck in the mud? Earthquake nucleation and propagation through accretionary forearcs

      D. R. Faulkner, T. M. Mitchell, J. Behnsen, T. Hirose and T. Shimamoto

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048552

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      Key Points

      • Rapid acceleration of clay-rich sediments produces low friction
      • The fracture energy of wet clay-rich sediments is negligible
      • The lack of fracture energy and weakness is produced by thermal pressurization
    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Permeability of gypsum samples dehydrated in air

      Harald Milsch, Mike Priegnitz and Guido Blöcher

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048797

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      Key Points

      • First systematic permeability study on dehydrating gypsum
      • First study without mechanical and hydraulic feedbacks
      • Unequivocal correlation of permeability, porosity, and reaction progress
    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Automatic detection of long-period events at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy)

      A. Ciaramella, E. De Lauro, M. Falanga and S. Petrosino

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049065

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      Key Points

      • Detection of seismic transients from background noise
    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Focussing of stress by continents in 3D spherical mantle convection with self-consistent plate tectonics

      T. Rolf and P. J. Tackley

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048677

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      Key Points

      • 3D simulations with self-consistent plate tectonics and deformable continents
      • Increase of critical yield strength due to presence of continents
      • Regime of mantle convection depends on size and thickness of the continent
  4. Planets

    1. Top of page
    2. The Cryosphere
    3. Space Sciences
    4. Solid Earth
    5. Planets
    6. Oceans
    7. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A fracture history on Enceladus provides evidence for a global ocean

      D. Alex Patthoff and Simon A. Kattenhorn

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048387

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      Key Points

      • The fracture sets on Enceladus suggests nonsynchronous rotation of an ice shell
      • The ice shell is decoupled from the interior by a global liquid ocean
      • There is a prolonged history of fracture activity and eruptive plumes
  5. Oceans

    1. Top of page
    2. The Cryosphere
    3. Space Sciences
    4. Solid Earth
    5. Planets
    6. Oceans
    7. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Automatic discrimination of underwater acoustic signals generated by teleseismic P-waves: A probabilistic approach

      Alexey Sukhovich, Jean-Olivier Irisson, Frederik J. Simons, Anthony Ogé, Yann Hello, Anne Deschamps and Guust Nolet

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048474

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      Key Points

      • New probabilistic scheme for automatic signal recognition using wavelets and SNR
      • Successful application to recognition of teleseismic P-waves
      • Applicable to the recognition of signals of other origins
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      On the relationship between stratification and primary productivity in the North Atlantic

      M. Susan Lozier, Apurva C. Dave, Jaime B. Palter, Lisa M. Gerber and Richard T. Barber

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049414

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      Key Points

      • There is no linkage between stratification and productivity on interannual time
      • Upper ocean overturn depends upon local wind and buoyancy forcing
      • Interannual variability within a season is not predictive of surface productivity
    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Responses of marine ecosystem to typhoon passages in the western subtropical North Pacific

      Ryota Shibano, Yasuhiro Yamanaka, Naosuke Okada, Takashi Chuda, Shin-ichi Suzuki, Hiroshi Niino and Mitsuhiro Toratani

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048717

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      Key Points

      • The biological processes play essential roles after the typhoon passage
      • Slow-moving typhoons would have strongly impact subtropical ecosystems
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Wave dissipation by flexible vegetation

      Kassi C. Riffe, Stephen M. Henderson and Julia C. Mullarney

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048773

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      Key Points

      • Vegetation flexibility is important when predicting dissipation
      • A simple model of vegetated drag predicts parameters to within a factor of two
      • A flexible vegetation model predicts parameters closer to the expected range
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dual overflows into the deep Sulu Sea

      Arnold L. Gordon, Zachary D. Tessler and Cesar Villanoy

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048878

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      Key Points

      • The sub-sill Sulu Sea is not homogeneous, as would be expected
      • The deep Sulu Sea is ventilated via two pathways
      • The shallower overflow sill provides the denser overflow product
    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Climate forcing multiplies biological productivity in the coastal Arctic Ocean

      J.-É. Tremblay, S. Bélanger, D. G. Barber, M. Asplin, J. Martin, G. Darnis, L. Fortier, Y. Gratton, H. Link, P. Archambault, A. Sallon, C. Michel, W. J. Williams, B. Philippe and M. Gosselin

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048825

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      Key Points

      • Ice loss can multiply productivity under upwelling-favorable conditions
      • Productivity is partly preconditioned by climate forcing in previous fall
      • Early ice melt is not necessarily detrimental to ice algae, zooplankton, benthos
    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Importance of the assimilation of Argo float measurements on the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the South Atlantic

      Shenfu Dong, Molly Baringer, Gustavo Goni and Silvia Garzoli

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048982

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      Key Points

      • The boundary currents are too weak in GFDL models
      • Assimilating Argo improves the boundary currents and MOC processes
      • The importance of in situ measurements to improve model performance
    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Luxury uptake of aerosol iron by Trichodesmium in the western tropical North Atlantic

      Ying Chen, Antonio Tovar-Sanchez, Ronald L. Siefert, Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy and Guoshun Zhuang

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048972

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      Key Points

      • Significant and rapid uptake of aerosol Fe by Trichodesmium
      • The uptake amount is affected by P:Fe ratio of Tricho and total aerosol Fe
      • The uptake amount is higher than needed for the maximum growth of Trichodesmium
    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Revisiting the Earth's sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008

      John A. Church, Neil J. White, Leonard F. Konikow, Catia M. Domingues, J. Graham Cogley, Eric Rignot, Jonathan M. Gregory, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Andrew J. Monaghan and Isabella Velicogna

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048794

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      Key Points

      • The sea level budget is closed from 1972
      • Oceans are continuing to warm and sea level toi rise
      • Aerosol loading has increased since 2000
      Corrected by:

      Correction: Correction to “Revisiting the Earth's sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008”

      Vol. 40, Issue 15, 4066, Article first published online: 8 AUG 2013

  6. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

    1. Top of page
    2. The Cryosphere
    3. Space Sciences
    4. Solid Earth
    5. Planets
    6. Oceans
    7. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Crossing properties for geophysical systems forced by Poisson noise

      S. Tamea, F. Laio, L. Ridolfi and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049074

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      Key Points

      • The probability distribution of excursion times of Poisson processes is unknown
      • We derive the initial value and propose approximations of such distribution
      • Two applications relative to geophysical processes are provided
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Statistical analysis of rainfall intermittency at small spatial and temporal scales

      M. Schleiss, J. Jaffrain and A. Berne

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049000

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      Key Points

      • Rainfall intermittency can be described by a scaled exponential function
      • The evolution of the model parameters with the space-time resolution is provided
      • The analysis focuses on small scales (0–30 km ; 0–6h)
    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Global long-term passive microwave satellite-based retrievals of vegetation optical depth

      Yi Y. Liu, Richard A. M. de Jeu, Matthew F. McCabe, Jason P. Evans and Albert I. J. M. van Dijk

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048684

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      Key Points

      • First long-term global microwave-based vegetation product (VOD) was developed
      • Notable similarities and differences exist between VOD and NDVI product
      • Mutually independent products will provide a more comprehensive analysis
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Long-term direct CO2 flux measurements over a boreal lake: Five years of eddy covariance data

      Jussi Huotari, Anne Ojala, Elina Peltomaa, Annika Nordbo, Samuli Launiainen, Jukka Pumpanen, Terhi Rasilo, Pertti Hari and Timo Vesala

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048753

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      Key Points

      • Lakes are an integral part of terrestrial carbon cycling
      • Lake stratification controls CO2 flux dynamics
      • Eddy covariance technique is suited for long-term CO2 measurements over lakes
  7. Climate

    1. Top of page
    2. The Cryosphere
    3. Space Sciences
    4. Solid Earth
    5. Planets
    6. Oceans
    7. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Improvement of the GEOS-5 AGCM upon updating the air-sea roughness parameterization

      C. I. Garfinkel, A. M. Molod, L. D. Oman and I.-S. Song

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048802

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      Key Points

      • Updating the air-sea roughness parameterization improves the model
      • Other modeling groups use a scheme similar to our old one
      • Changes extend well beyond the surface
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Milankovitch-paced Termination II in a Nevada speleothem?

      Jeremy D. Shakun, Stephen J. Burns, Peter U. Clark, Hai Cheng and R. Lawrence Edwards

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048560

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      Key Points

      • Nevada speleothem disagrees with nearby Devils Hole record on Termination-II
      • Timing of Termination-II in the speleothem is consistent with Milankovitch
      • Devils Hole link to Pacific sea surface temperatures is questioned
  8. Atmospheric Science

    1. Top of page
    2. The Cryosphere
    3. Space Sciences
    4. Solid Earth
    5. Planets
    6. Oceans
    7. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article

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