You have free access to this content

Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 19

October 2011

Volume 38, Issue 19

  1. Atmospheric Science

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Imaging thunder

      J. B. Johnson, R. O. Arechiga, R. J. Thomas, H. E. Edens, J. Anderson and R. Johnson

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049162

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • We locate thunder with unprecedented resolution using acoustic array techniques
      • We compare thunder locations with lightning mapping array locations
      • Thunder excitation and VHF emissions reflect complementary processes
    2. You have free access to this content
      Intercontinental transport of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide and other pollutants: An infrared remote sensing case study

      Lieven Clarisse, Michael Fromm, Yasmine Ngadi, Louisa Emmons, Cathy Clerbaux, Daniel Hurtmans and Pierre-François Coheur

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048976

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • First infrared space observations of anthropogenic PAN, SO2, CH3OH and HCOOH
      • Analysis of a large uplift event w.r.t. transport, composition and chemistry
      • Measurement of a host of trace gases, beyond traditional CO/O3/aerosol studies
    3. You have free access to this content
      How important is biogenic isoprene in an urban environment? A study in London and Paris

      Erika von Schneidemesser, Paul S. Monks, Valerie Gros, Julie Gauduin and Olivier Sanchez

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048647

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Anthropogenic NMHCs have been reduced significantly over the past decade
      • Isoprene's importance for O3 formation has not increased despite HC reductions
      • Monitoring isoprene only as a proxy for biogenic influence may not be sufficient
    4. You have free access to this content
      The distribution of raindrops speeds

      Emmanuel Villermaux and Fabien Eloi

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048863

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The anomaly in randrops speeds is explained
      • Small fragments from bursting drops have an anomalously large fall velocity
      • A single drop breakup scenario accounts quantitatively for the anomaly
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Daily and intraseasonal relationships between lightning and NO2 over the Maritime Continent

      Katrina S. Virts, Joel A. Thornton, John M. Wallace, Michael L. Hutchins, Robert H. Holzworth and Abram R. Jacobson

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048578

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Elevated NO2 concentrations are observed on days of enhanced lightning
      • Coherent variability in lightning and NO2 at intraseasonal time scales
      • Madden-Julian Oscillation modulates lightning and NO2 over Indonesia
    6. You have free access to this content
      How does local tropical deforestation affect rainfall?

      L. Garcia-Carreras and D. J. Parker

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049099

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Rainfall over crop boundaries is 4-6 times higher compared to homogeneous land
      • Rainfall is strongly suppressed by 50% or more throughout all the forest
      • Total rainfall increases with increasing heterogeneity strength
    7. You have free access to this content
      The role of storm-relative advection of absolute angular momentum in strengthening of Atlantic tropical cyclones

      A. Martin and T. N. Krishnamurti

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048910

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Modeled inner core advection dynamics are strongly related to TC strength change
      • The same quantities are related to hurricane intensity change in observations
      • Current observation platforms can provide a new intensity prediction parameter
  2. Climate

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Land use change exacerbates tropical South American drought by sea surface temperature variability

      Jung-Eun Lee, Benjamin R. Lintner, C. Kevin Boyce and Peter J. Lawrence

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049066

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • There is an increase in the frequency of Amazon drought in recent decades
      • Simulations suggest land use change exacerbates SST-forced droughts over South America
      • The driest months appear most affected by land use change
    2. You have free access to this content
      Correction to “Comparison of observed and simulated tropical climate trends using a forward model of coral δ18O”

      D. M. Thompson, T. R. Ault, M. N. Evans, J. E. Cole and J. Emile-Geay

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049656

      This article corrects:
    3. You have free access to this content
      Remotely sensed heat anomalies linked with Amazonian forest biomass declines

      Michael Toomey, Dar A. Roberts, Christopher Still, Michael L. Goulden and Joseph P. McFadden

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049041

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Remotely sensed thermal anomalies widespread in 2005 and 2010 droughts
      • Thermal anomalies correlate with forest biomass declines
      • Both heat and moisture stress should be used in models of drought response
    4. You have free access to this content
      Impact of the Atlantic warm pool on United States landfalling hurricanes

      Chunzai Wang, Hailong Liu, Sang-Ki Lee and Robert Atlas

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049265

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • An eastward expansion of the AWP shifts the hurricane genesis location eastward
      • A large AWP induces the northward and northeastward steering flow anomalies
      • Other climate phenomena cannot explain the lacking of landfalling hurricanes
    5. You have free access to this content
      Vegetation dynamics contributes to the multi-decadal variability of precipitation in the Amazon region

      Guiling Wang, Shanshan Sun and Rui Mei

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049017

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • SST alone cannot explain the low-frequency variability of rainfall in the Amazon
      • Vegetation dynamics hances the low-frequency variability, acting as a damper
      • The dry season facilitates the strong effect of vegetation in a wet climate
    6. You have free access to this content
      Cloud variations and the Earth's energy budget

      A. E. Dessler

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049236

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Clouds are not causing climate change
      • Observations are not in disagreement with models on this point
      • Previous work on this is flawed
  3. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Correction to “Statistics of multifractal processes using the maximum entropy method”

      V. Nieves, J. Wang and R. L. Bras

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049786

      This article corrects:

      Statistics of multifractal processes using the maximum entropy method

      Vol. 38, Issue 17, Article first published online: 10 SEP 2011

    2. You have free access to this content
      Solar motion and discharge of Paraná River, South America: Evidence for a link

      A. Antico and D. M. Kröhling

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048851

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • First evidence for a link between solar motion and South American rivers
      • We support the hypothesis that solar motion could affect regional climate
      • Our results could help to improve long-term forecasts of river discharge
  4. Oceans

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Mapping near-inertial variability in the SE Bay of Biscay from HF radar data and two offshore moored buoys

      A. Rubio, G. Reverdin, A. Fontán, M. González and J. Mader

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048783

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Document the time-evolving 3D structure of NI oscillations in a coastal region
      • An effective approach to observe NI oscillations by HF radar and in-situ data
      • Provide hypotheses on the processes modulating the structure of NI oscillations
    2. You have free access to this content
      Directional spectra of hurricane-generated waves in the Gulf of Mexico

      Kelin Hu and Qin Chen

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049145

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Provides the most comprehensive picture of hurricane-generated waves
      • Identifies three types of bi-modal wave spectra based on in-situ data
      • Proves quadruplet interaction, whitecapping and wind input all are crucial
    3. You have free access to this content
      Nitrogen isotopes of organic nitrogen in reef coral skeletons as a proxy of tropical nutrient dynamics

      Atsuko Yamazaki, Tsuyoshi Watanabe and Urumu Tsunogai

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049053

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The nitrogen isotope of coral skeletons corresponds well with that of nitrate
      • We developed a method for 15N of coral skeleton to detect the seasonal variation
      • Coral skeletons can be a recorder of the nitrogen cycle in oligotrophic oceans
    4. You have free access to this content
      Proper estimation of marine gross O2 production with 17O/16O and 18O/16O ratios of dissolved O2

      Boaz Luz and Eugeni Barkan

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049138

      • image

      Key Points

      • Exact estimation of integrated marine productivity is possible from 17O/16O
      • Accurate values of 17O/16O and 18O/16O of marine photosynthetic O2 are essential
      • We present the first accurate 17O/16O and 18O/16O of marine photosynthetic O2
    5. You have free access to this content
      The climate influence on the mid-depth Northeast Atlantic gyres viewed by cold-water corals

      Jean-Carlos Montero-Serrano, Norbert Frank, Christophe Colin, Claudia Wienberg and Markus Eisele

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048733

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The Nd isotopic composition of the cold-water coral from the NE Atlantic
      • Variability of the mid-depth east Atlantic gyres over the past 300,000 years
      • Impact of climate change on North Atlantic mid-depth ocean circulation
    6. You have free access to this content
      Correction to “Energetics of a global ocean circulation model compared to observations”

      Prasad G. Thoppil, James G. Richman and Patrick J. Hogan

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049632

      Key Points

      • Model EKE is compared with a variety of observations
      • The present OGCM running at 10 km resolution is deficient of EKE
      • Both increasing the resolution and data assimilation improve the model EKE
      This article corrects:

      Energetics of a global ocean circulation model compared to observations

      Vol. 38, Issue 15, Article first published online: 9 AUG 2011

    7. You have free access to this content
      Contrasting calcification responses to ocean acidification between two reef foraminifers harboring different algal symbionts

      Mana Hikami, Hiroyuki Ushie, Takahiro Irie, Kazuhiko Fujita, Azumi Kuroyanagi, Kazuhiko Sakai, Yukihiro Nojiri, Atsushi Suzuki and Hodaka Kawahata

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048501

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Benthic foraminifers were cultured under varying pCO2 and HCO3-concentration
      • Two reef benthic foraminifers showed opposing responses to ocean acidification
      • The most influential carbonate speciation in seawater is varied between species
    8. You have free access to this content
      The role of ocean acidification in systemic carbonate mineral suppression in the Bering Sea

      Jeremy T. Mathis, Jessica N. Cross and Nicholas R. Bates

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048884

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Seasonal calcite undersaturation was observed in the southeastern Bering Sea
      • These undersaturations were the result of the absorption of anthropogenic CO2
      • Continued change may pass a tipping point with negative ecosystem implications
  5. Planets

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Intense plasma wave emissions associated with Saturn's moon Rhea

      O. Santolík, D. A. Gurnett, G. H. Jones, P. Schippers, F. J. Crary, J. S. Leisner, G. B. Hospodarsky, W. S. Kurth, C. T. Russell and M. K. Dougherty

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049219

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Very intense plasma waves are observed in the vicinity of Saturn's moon Rhea
      • These waves coincide with unstable electron distributions generated by Rhea
      • Large-amplitude whistler-mode waves can have similar effects as chorus emissions
    2. You have free access to this content
      Biological implications of high-energy cosmic ray induced muon flux in the extragalactic shock model

      Dimitra Atri and Adrian L. Melott

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049027

      • image

      Key Points

      • Cosmic ray variations over geological timescales enhance the radiation dose
      • Muon irradiation is the most significant one and can can cause mutations
      • Proposed mechanism could possibly explain the trends in fossil biodiversity
    3. You have free access to this content
      Solar wind access to lunar polar craters: Feedback between surface charging and plasma expansion

      M. I. Zimmerman, W. M. Farrell, T. J. Stubbs, J. S. Halekas and T. L. Jackson

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048880

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The lunar crater-solar wind interaction is self-consistently simulated in 2D
      • The surface-plasma interaction is critical to the local wake environment
      • Protons are drawn into the crater by the wake electric field
    4. You have free access to this content
      Possible climate-related signals in high-resolution topography of lobate debris aprons in Tempe Terra, Mars

      Peter M. Grindrod and Stephen A. Fawcett

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049295

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Spectral analysis of high-resolution topography of lobate debris aprons on Mars
      • Two scales of periodic topography: polygons and ridges
      • Topography records recent cyclic environmental conditions
  6. Solid Earth

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      On the feasibility of magma fracture within volcanic conduits: Constraints from earthquake data and empirical modelling of magma viscosity

      S. De Angelis and S. M. Henton

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049297

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Shear fracture of magma is feasible at shallow depth in volcanic conduits
      • High magma crystallinity and/or elevated strain rates are necessary
      • LF earthquake locations are compatible with magma fracture processes
    2. You have free access to this content
      The stability of magnesite in the transition zone and the lower mantle as function of oxygen fugacity

      V. Stagno, Y. Tange, N. Miyajima, C. A. McCammon, T. Irifune and D. J. Frost

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049560

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Oxygen fugacity required for magnesite being stable at high pressure conditions
      • Ferric iron content of mantle minerals coexisting with diamond and magnesite
      • Redox reactions involving ferric iron bearing minerals and diamond/magnesite
    3. You have free access to this content
      No link between the Panjal Traps (Kashmir) and the Late Permian mass extinctions

      J. G. Shellnutt, G. M. Bhat, M. E. Brookfield and B.-M. Jahn

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049032

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The age of the Panjal Traps is 289 Ma
      • The Panjal Traps are not coincident with a mass extinction
      • The Panjal Traps are related to the opening of the Neo-Tethys
    4. You have free access to this content
      Rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and absolute elastic strain release

      Yuji Yagi and Yukitoshi Fukahata

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048701

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Estimation of the detailed rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake
      • Use of a novel inverse method considering uncertainty of Green's function
      • Suggestion of the release of roughly all accumulated strain by the earthquake
    5. You have free access to this content
      Evidence of large scale repeating slip during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

      Shiann-Jong Lee, Bor-Shouh Huang, Masataka Ando, Hung-Chie Chiu and Jeen-Hwa Wang

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049580

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Large scale repeating slip was found during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake
      • Repeating slip suggests by high resolution joint source inversion analysis
      • The repetition of slip resulted in >50 m slips and complex rupture process
    6. You have free access to this content
      Lithospheric control on the spatial pattern of Azores hotspot seafloor anomalies: Constraints from a model of plume-triple junction interaction

      Jennifer E. Georgen

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048742

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A three-dimensional model of plume-triple junction interactions is calculated
      • Model simulates Azores region during a period of strong volcanism ∼7 Ma
      • Ridge geometry near the Azores affects spatial distribution of plume
    7. You have free access to this content
      Time corrections to teleseismic P delays derived from SKS splitting parameters and implications for western U.S. P-wave tomography

      Leland J. O'Driscoll, Eugene D. Humphreys and Brandon Schmandt

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049031

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Quantify relation between azimuthal anisotropy and P-wave travel time
      • Tomographic imaging is systematically biased by anisotropy
      • 3D anisotropy is important when considering effects on travel time
    8. You have free access to this content
      Plate tectonics may control geomagnetic reversal frequency

      F. Pétrélis, J. Besse and J.-P. Valet

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048784

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Explanation for long-term evolution of the geomagnetic reversals frequency
      • Multi-disciplinary approach links plate tectonics and the dynamo process
      • Point out connection in the internal envelopes of the Earth from core to surface
    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High strain rate damage of Carrara marble

      Mai-Linh Doan and Andrea Billi

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049169

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • We made uniaxial tests on Carrara marble at strain rate at around 100/s
      • Transition to pulverization is controlled by strain, not strain rate
      • Marble is easy to pulverize, yet field observation of pulverized rocks is scarce
    10. You have free access to this content
      Friction velocity dependence of clay-rich fault material along a megasplay fault in the Nankai subduction zone at intermediate to high velocities

      Akito Tsutsumi, Olivier Fabbri, Anne Marie Karpoff, Kohtaro Ujiie and Atsushi Tsujimoto

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049314

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Clay-rich splay fault within the Nankai Trough exhibits velocity weakening
      • The weakening could provide a condition to initiate unstable fault motion
      • The velocity weakening may explain mechanism of the shallow VLF earthquakes
  7. Space Sciences

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cassini magnetometer observations over the Enceladus poles

      Y.-D. Jia, C. T. Russell, K. K. Khurana, H. Y. Wei, Y. J. Ma, J. S. Leisner, A. M. Persoon and M. K. Dougherty

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049013

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The dust in the plume is predominantly negatively charged
      • Direct observations of the current system in the flank region are presented
      • Saturn magnetospheric response to the torus plasma density variation
    2. You have free access to this content
      Electron and ion Bernstein waves excited in the ionosphere by high power EM waves at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency

      P. A. Bernhardt, C. A. Selcher and S. Kowtha

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049390

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Second harmonic HF transmissions yield electron and ion Bernstein waves
      • Premise verified with both theory and measurements at HAARP
      • Stimulated Bernstein waves are indicators of strong ionospheric modification
    3. You have free access to this content
      The origin of the nonmigrating tidal structure in the column number density ratio of atomic oxygen to molecular nitrogen

      Hyosub Kil and Larry J. Paxton

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049432

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • O/N2-ratio variation is determined by the OI 135.6 emission in the F region
      • The origin of the tidal structure in the O/N2 ratio is the ionosphere
      • Daytime OI 135.6 radiance data are a new tool for ionospheric study
    4. You have free access to this content
      Solar cycle 24: Implications for energetic particles and long-term space climate change

      M. J. Owens, M. Lockwood, L. Barnard and C. J. Davis

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049328

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Solar cycle 24 is well under way and will likely be weak
      • The risk of a major SEP event is higher than the previous cycle
      • The Sun is likely entering into a prolong period of anomalously low activity
    5. You have free access to this content
      Amazon vegetation greenness as measured by satellite sensors over the last decade

      P. M. Atkinson, J. Dash and C. Jeganathan

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049118

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • It's not possible to detect the drought effects on Amazon by vegetation indices
      • Vegetation index can't be used to link drought, productivity & CO2 flux in Amazon
      • A long-term decline in vegetation greenness was observed from 2000–2010
    6. You have free access to this content
      Spatial structure and temporal evolution of a dayside poloidal ULF wave event

      W. Liu, T. E. Sarris, X. Li, Q.-G. Zong, R. Ergun, V. Angelopoulos and K. H. Glassmeier

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049476

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Spatial and temporal effects are investigated with multi-point measurements
      • Coupling of surface wave with field line resonance at plasmapause is discussed
      • Observational evidences of ULF wave generated by surface wave are presented
    7. You have free access to this content
      Observation of the multifractal spectrum at the termination shock by Voyager 1

      W. M. Macek, A. Wawrzaszek and V. Carbone

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049261

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The multifractal spectrum at the termination shock
      • Modulation of the universal multifractal spectrum by the solar activity
      • Asymmetry of the multifractal spectrum at the termination shock
    8. You have free access to this content
      Determination of the most pertinent EUV proxy for use in thermosphere modeling

      T. Dudok de Wit and S. Bruinsma

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049028

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Identification of the best solar proxy
      • Multiscale statistics for comparing different proxies
      • Transfer function model for the dynamic response of the thermosphere
    9. You have free access to this content
      East-West Coast differences in total electron content over the continental US

      Shun-Rong Zhang, John C. Foster, Anthea J. Coster and Philip J. Erickson

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049116

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • US East-West Coast differences in TEC up to 100%, varying with local time
      • Morning-evening variability minimum near zero magnetic dec
      • Varying magnetic dec over US, combined with zonal wind effects
  8. The Cryosphere

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Mountain snow distribution governed by an altitudinal gradient and terrain roughness

      Michael Lehning, Thomas Grünewald and Michael Schirmer

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048927

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Terrain roughness as determined by a scaling analysis influences snow depth
      • Snow depth in terrain sub-units is determined by roughness and elevation
      • The model can map snow distribution on complex alpine terrain
    2. You have free access to this content
      A mass conservation approach for mapping glacier ice thickness

      M. Morlighem, E. Rignot, H. Seroussi, E. Larour, H. Ben Dhia and D. Aubry

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048659

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Combination of surface velocities and mass conservation to infer ice thickness
      • Optimization of ice thickness to fit track measurements
      • Error analysis of mass conserving ice thickness
    3. You have free access to this content
      Refugium for surface life on Snowball Earth in a nearly-enclosed sea? A first simple model for sea-glacier invasion

      Adam J. Campbell, Edwin D. Waddington and Stephen G. Warren

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048846

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Eukaryotes may have survived in long, narrow inland seas during Snowball Earth
    4. You have free access to this content
      Trends in Arctic sea ice drift and role of wind forcing: 1992–2009

      Gunnar Spreen, Ron Kwok and Dimitris Menemenlis

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048970

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Between 1992 and 2009 the trend in Arctic sea ice drift speed is +11%/decade
      • During the same period wind speed increased by only 1-2%/decade
      • Wind contributed to the Central Arctic drift trend but not in the entire basin

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION