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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 22

November 2011

Volume 38, Issue 22

  1. Atmospheric Science

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Oxidation of ambient biogenic secondary organic aerosol by hydroxyl radicals: Effects on cloud condensation nuclei activity

      J. P. S. Wong, A. K. Y. Lee, J. G. Slowik, D. J. Cziczo, W. R. Leaitch, A. Macdonald and J. P. D. Abbatt

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049351

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      Key Points

      • OH oxidation leads to an increase in ambient organic aerosol hygroscopicity
      • Both gas- and aqueous-OH oxidation are important aerosol aging processes
      • Trend of CCN activity with SOA oxidation state agrees with previous lab studies
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      Mesospheric temperature trends at mid-latitudes in summer

      U. Berger and F.-J. Lübken

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049528

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      Key Points

      • For the first time a model explains large trends observed in the mesosphere
      • Trends are not uniform in time and are largest (3–5 K/decade) from 1979–1997
      • Trends in the mesosphere are significantly influenced by stratospheric ozone
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      On the surface wind speed probability density function over complex terrain

      P. A. Jiménez, J. Dudhia and J. Navarro

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049669

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      Key Points

      • Importance of atmospheric stability and scale of motion in the surface wind PDF
      • Local topography further modulates the shape of the PDF
      • The wind speed PDF departs from an unimodal Weibull PDF over complex terrain
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      Ionospheric detection of the 25 May 2009 North Korean underground nuclear test

      Jihye Park, Ralph R. B. von Frese, Dorota A. Grejner-Brzezinska, Yu Morton and Luis R. Gaya-Pique

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049430

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      Key Points

      • To monitor the underground nuclear explosion by the GNSS TEC disturbances
      • To Pinpoint the UNE location using TIDs that were observed by GNSS TEC
      • To estimate the velocity of TID manifasted by the UNE
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      Skillful predictions of decadal trends in global mean surface temperature

      J. C. Fyfe, W. J. Merryfield, V. Kharin, G. J. Boer, W.-S. Lee and K. von Salzen

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049508

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      Key Points

      • Initialized predictions are more accurate than uninitialzed predictions
  2. Climate

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Cold months in a warming climate

      Jouni Räisänen and Jussi S. Ylhäisi

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049758

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      Key Points

      • Cold months will still occur in the future, although gradually more seldom
      • Interannual variability strongly affects the expected frequency of cold months
      • Frequency of cold months in 2001–2010 was consistent with model simulations
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      Second century megadrought in the Rio Grande headwaters, Colorado: How unusual was medieval drought?

      Cody C. Routson, Connie A. Woodhouse and Jonathan T. Overpeck

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050015

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      Key Points

      • We present a new 2200-yr long tree-ring record from southern Colorado
      • Megadroughts have dire implications for Southwestern water and natural resources
      • Similar factors influenced our new megadrought and medieval period megadroughts
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      Sensitivity of distributions of climate system properties to the surface temperature dataset

      Alex G. Libardoni and Chris E. Forest

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049431

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      Key Points

      • Model parameter estimates are sensitive to the dataset used for evaluation
      • Climate sensitivity distributions are most sensitive to the surface dataset
      • The range of TCR is within the IPCC AR4 range but shifted to lower values
      Corrected by:

      Correction: Correction to “Sensitivity of distributions of climate system properties to the surface temperature data set”

      Vol. 40, Issue 10, 2309–2311, Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013

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      Sensitivity of the northeast Asian summer monsoon to tropical sea surface temperatures

      Sang-Ik Shin, Prashant D. Sardeshmukh and Sang-Wook Yeh

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049391

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      Key Points

      • Increasing precipitation trend over NEASM was observed and simulated
      • SST changes around Philippines and South China Sea are most critical to NEASM
      • Warming of these waters enhances the northward moisture transport
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      Limitations of nitrogen and phosphorous on the terrestrial carbon uptake in the 20th century

      Q. Zhang, Y. P. Wang, A. J. Pitman and Y. J. Dai

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049244

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      Key Points

      • Globally, P does not limit carbon uptake as strongly as nitrogen
      • P limitation should be included in studying the carbon-climate feedback
      • Regional carbon modelling s0-hould consider P limitation
  3. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Solitary wave behavior in sand dunes observed from space

      P. Vermeesch

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049610

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      Key Points

      • Colliding sand dunes can appear to traverse through one another unscathed
      • Solitons have been found in a 45-year sequence of satellite images from Chad
      • These findings validate an important class of numerical models
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      Hyporheic flow under periodic bed forms influenced by low-density gradients

      Guangqiu Jin, Hongwu Tang, Ling Li and D. A. Barry

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049694

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      Key Points

      • The low-density effect leads to alteration of hyporheic flow rate and patterns
      • Modified hyporheic flows provide a relatively fast solute transport mechanism
      • Low-density enhances the overall mass exchange between the stream and bed
  4. Oceans

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Large internal waves advection in very weakly stratified deep Mediterranean waters

      Hans van Haren and Louis Gostiaux

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049707

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      Key Points

      • Large near-inertial internal waves observed in the deep-Mediterranean
      • Small-scale temperature-variations revealed due to slumped mixing
      • Coupled internal wave-turbulent mixing causes permanent dynamics in the deep
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      Amplification of hypoxic and acidic events by La Niña conditions on the continental shelf off California

      SungHyun Nam, Hey-Jin Kim and Uwe Send

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049549

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      Key Points

      • La Nina can amplify low oxygen events creating hypoxia even late in the season
      • Extra isopycnal uplifting, decreased productivity, strengthened undercurrent
      • A La Nina earlier in the season could cause even more extreme hypoxia
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      Observational changes and trends in northeast Pacific wave records

      Johannes Gemmrich, Bridget Thomas and Richard Bouchard

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049518

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      Key Points

      • Buoy data do not show a consistent increase in average wave height
      • Operational data sets may contain artificial step changes
      • Data do not support an increase in storm intensities
  5. Planets

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Plasma pressure in Mercury's equatorial magnetosphere derived from MESSENGER Magnetometer observations

      Haje Korth, Brian J. Anderson, Jim M. Raines, James A. Slavin, Thomas H. Zurbuchen, Catherine L. Johnson, Michael E. Purucker, Reka M. Winslow, Sean C. Solomon and Ralph L. McNutt Jr.

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049451

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      Key Points

      • Magnetic depressions indicative of plasmas are observed during most orbits
      • The equatorial plasma pressure shows a gradient from dusk to dawn
      • The pressure gradient is consistent with simulated particle drifts
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      Scattering function for energetic neutral hydrogen atoms off the lunar surface

      A. Schaufelberger, P. Wurz, S. Barabash, M. Wieser, Y. Futaana, M. Holmström, A. Bhardwaj, M. B. Dhanya, R. Sridharan and K. Asamura

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049362

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      Key Points

      • The lunar ENA's scattering profile strongly depends on the solar zenith angle
      • Four features concerning the amplitude, uniformity and mean scattering angle exist
      • Contrary to lab results, particles are preferentially sunward backscattered
  6. Solid Earth

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Fast slip-rate along the northern end of the Karakorum fault system, western Tibet

      Marie-Luce Chevalier, Haibing Li, Jiawei Pan, Junling Pei, Fuyao Wu, Wei Xu, Zhiming Sun and Dongliang Liu

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049921

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      Key Points

      • The right-lateral strike-slip Muji fault in the Chinese Pamir moves at >4.5 mm/y
      • The northern segment of the Karakorum fault is active
      • The northern Karakorum fault system could move at >9 mm/yr
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      Frequency-dependent energy radiation and fault coupling for the 2010 Mw8.8 Maule, Chile, and 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes

      Dun Wang and Jim Mori

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049652

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      Key Points

      • We clarified the two clear frequency-dependent earthquake sources
      • We found the relation between frequency-dependent energy radiation and coupling
      • Areas of high coupling are more likely to produce higher frequency radiation
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      Ocean noise triggering of rhythmic long period events at Deception Island volcano

      Daniel Stich, Javier Almendros, Vanessa Jiménez, Flor Mancilla and Enrique Carmona

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049671

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      Key Points

      • We have observed unusual, strictly periodic LP sequences on Deception Island
      • We propose that periodicity is due to dynamic triggering by ocean noise
      • We estimate the associate strain variations that produce LP periodicity
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      The 2010 Haiti earthquake: A complex fault pattern constrained by seismologic and tectonic observations

      Bernard Mercier de Lépinay, Anne Deschamps, Frauke Klingelhoefer, Yves Mazabraud, Bertrand Delouis, Valérie Clouard, Yann Hello, Jacques Crozon, Boris Marcaillou, David Graindorge, Martin Vallée, Julie Perrot, Marie-Paule Bouin, Jean-Marie Saurel, Philippe Charvis and Mildor St-Louis

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049799

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      Key Points

      • Active fault identification for the Jan.12, 2010 Haiti earthquake
      • Ocean Bottom Seismometer ued for aftershocks studies
      • Transpressive mechanism for the Jan.12, 2010 Haiti earthquake
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      Dolomite III: A new candidate lower mantle carbonate

      Zhu Mao, Matt Armentrout, Emma Rainey, Craig E. Manning, Przemyslaw Dera, Vitali B. Prakapenka and Abby Kavner

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049519

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      Key Points

      • Fe-bearing dolomite undergoes two phase transitions at high pressure-temperature
      • High-pressure phases of dolomite is stable to 1500 K and lower-mantle pressures
      • The new phases could be potential carriers to deliver carbon to the lower mantle
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      Past and present-day ice mass variation on Svalbard revealed by superconducting gravimeter and GPS measurements

      O. C. D. Omang and H. P. Kierulf

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049266

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      Key Points

      • Both the uplift and the gravity shows significant non linear changes/behaviour
      • The changes are in accordance with the ongoing deglaciation in the area
      • The uplift and gravity rates are larger than predicted by geophysical models
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      Widespread low rates of Antarctic glacial isostatic adjustment revealed by GPS observations

      Ian D. Thomas, Matt A. King, Michael J. Bentley, Pippa L. Whitehouse, Nigel T. Penna, Simon D. P. Williams, Riccardo E. M. Riva, David A. Lavallee, Peter J. Clarke, Edward C. King, Richard C. A. Hindmarsh and Hannu Koivula

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049277

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      Key Points

      • Spatially extensive GPS observations of Antarctic GIA show low rates
      • GIA models are systematically biased, mainly too high
      • Recent secular Antarctic ice mass loss estimates are also systematically biased
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      Ballistics and ash plumes discriminated by Doppler radar

      Sébastien Valade and Franck Donnadieu

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049415

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      Key Points

      • We monitor pyroclastic emissions at Arenal using a ground-based Doppler radar
      • We discriminate volcanic ballistics and ash plumes emitted simultaneously
      • We constrain both the mass loading and the dynamics of ballistics and ash plumes
  7. Space Sciences

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      The persistence of solar activity indicators and the descent of the Sun into Maunder Minimum conditions

      M. Lockwood, M. J. Owens, L. Barnard, C. J. Davis and F. Steinhilber

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049811

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      Key Points

      • Can we predict the onset of the next grand solar minimum
      • Grand minima can be predicted using some solar indices
      • The design and operation of systems influenced by space climate can be optimised
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      First ionospheric images of the seismic fault slip on the example of the Tohoku-oki earthquake

      Elvira Astafyeva, Philippe Lognonné and Lucie Rolland

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049623

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      Key Points

      • TEC images seismic fault position 509 sec after a quake
      • The Tohoku quake generated shock-acoustic waves propagating at supersonic speed
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      Jet front-driven mirror modes and shocklets in the near-Earth flow-braking region

      Bertalan Zieger, Alessandro Retinò, Rumi Nakamura, Wolfgang Baumjohann, Andris Vaivads and Yuri Khotyaintsev

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049746

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      Key Points

      • Magnetic pileup and compression regions are observed ahead of braking jets
      • Mirror-mode structures are generated in the pileup region
      • Mirror modes can steepen into kinetic shocklets
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      Satellite observations of Schumann resonances in the Earth's ionosphere

      Fernando Simões, Robert Pfaff and Henry Freudenreich

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049668

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      Key Points

      • Schumann resonances have been detected definitely in the ionosphere
      • Observations support a leaky cavity and call for revision of propagation models
      • Observations suggest remote sensing capability for investigating other planets
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      Whistler turbulence forward cascade: Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

      Ouliang Chang, S. Peter Gary and Joseph Wang

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049827

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      Key Points

      • The first three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation of whistler turbulence
      • Magnetic spectra are less steep functions of wavenumber in 3D than in 2D
      • Magnetic spectra are more anisotropic in 3D than in 2D
  8. The Cryosphere

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Quantifying the influence of sea ice on ocean microseism using observations from the Bering Sea, Alaska

      Victor C. Tsai and Daniel E. McNamara

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049791

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      Key Points

      • We present microseism variability from three seismic stations in the Bering Sea
      • A simple model of sea ice damping predicts 75-90% of this variability
      • Microseism can eventually be used to monitor the strength of sea ice
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      The spatial distribution of solar radiation under a melting Arctic sea ice cover

      Karen E. Frey, Donald K. Perovich and Bonnie Light

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049421

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      Key Points

      • The under-ice light field is spatially heterogeneous and unexpectedly complex
      • Subsurface transmission peaks are due to interspersion of bare and ponded ice
      • The complexity of under-ice radiation fields may impact biological processes

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