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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Geophysical Research Letters

28 August 2012

Volume 39, Issue 16

  1. Atmospheric Science

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California

      Seongeun Jeong, Chuanfeng Zhao, Arlyn E. Andrews, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Colm Sweeney, Laura Bianco, James M. Wilczak and Marc L. Fischer

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052307

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      Key Points

      • The 2008-2009 data show N2O emissions from Central CA are 2.1+/-0.4 times EDGAR4.2
      • Seasonal variation is strong (1.6+/-0.3 to 2.5+/-0.4 times EDGAR4.2)
      • Scaling EDGAR across CA suggests N2O comprises 8.1+/-1.4% of total GHG emissions
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      Aviation induced diurnal North Atlantic cirrus cover cycle

      Kaspar Graf, Ulrich Schumann, Hermann Mannstein and Bernhard Mayer

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052590

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      Key Points

      • Aviation induced cirrus identified from diurnal cycles of cirrus cover
      • Cirrus cover maxima follow air traffic density peaks with delay times of 2-4 h
      • The derived aviation induced cirrus cover amounts to 1-2 % of the regional area
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      Reconciling modeled and observed temperature trends over Antarctica

      N. Calvo, R. R. Garcia, D. R. Marsh, M. J. Mills, D. E. Kinnison and P. J. Young

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052526

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      Key Points

      • WACCM4 trends undistinguishable from radiosondes in SH polar cap for 1979-2003
      • Reported discrepancy between high top models and observations might not be such
      • Model trends undistinguishable from trends in ERA-Interim and MERRA
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      Long-lastingD-region ionospheric modifications, caused by intense lightning in association with elve and sprite pairs

      Christos Haldoupis, Morris Cohen, Benjamin Cotts, Enrico Arnone and Umran Inan

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052765

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      Key Points

      • Long lasting upper D region ionospheric modifications caused by lightning
      • Long recovery VLF perturbations in relation with elve and sprite pairs
      • Suggestion for a possible coupling process between elve and sprite ionization
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      Hurricane Irene (2011) “worst-case” estimates of wind damage to property from exigent analysis of ECMWF ensemble forecasts

      Ross N. Hoffman and Daniel Gombos

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052646

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      Key Points

      • Exploits information in a forecast ensemble to determine a worst-case scenario
      • Exigent scenarios are potentially useful for emergency planners
      • For Irene, exigent wind damage exceeds the mean by 3-4 standard deviations
  2. Climate

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      High alternative oxidase activity in cold soils and its implication to the Dole Effect

      Alon Angert, Mirco Rodeghiero and Kevin Griffin

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052719

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      Key Points

      • High O2 discrimination was found for cold (<6 degree C) soils respiration
      • No interaction between clay particles and diffusing O2
      • The results indicate high AOX activity with implications for the Dole Effect
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      Observed and simulated changes in the Southern Hemisphere surface westerly wind-stress

      N. C. Swart and J. C. Fyfe

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052810

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      Key Points

      • A strengthening of the SH westerly jet has occurred since 1979
      • There is not a robust shift in annual-mean jet position
      • Climate models have an equatorward biased jet, and underestimate strengthening
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      Atmospheric impact on the northwestern Pacific under a global warming scenario

      Woo Geun Cheon, Young-Gyu Park, Sang-Wook Yeh and Baek-Min Kim

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052364

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      Key Points

      • The KOE jet will be intensified under global warming scenario
      • Changes in the ocean are due to changes in wind stress
      • The model results are resolution dependent
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      On the interpretation of constrained climate model ensembles

      Benjamin M. Sanderson and Reto Knutti

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052665

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      Key Points

      • CMIP models appear more truth centric due to model tuning
      • Future simulations may become increasingly indistinguishable
      • Neither truth plus error nor indistinguishable interpretations are correct
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      Maximum wind speeds and US hurricane losses

      R. J. Murnane and J. B. Elsner

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052740

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      Key Points

      • There's an exponential relationship between wind speed at landfall and loss
      • Loss increases at a rate of 5%/m/s increase in wind speed at landfall
      • Loss from a US hurricane can be estimated from maximum wind speed at landfall
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      Solar influence on winter severity in central Europe

      Frank Sirocko, Heiko Brunck and Stephan Pfahl

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052412

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      Key Points

      • Freezing of the Rhine occurred from 1780-1963 regularly during sunspot minima
      • Coldest winter continue to occur during sunspot minima even today
      • This cooling is a regional phenomenon, but not a hemispheric signal
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      The influence of ENSO on global terrestrial water storage using GRACE

      T. Phillips, R. S. Nerem, Baylor Fox-Kemper, J. S. Famiglietti and B. Rajagopalan

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052495

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      Key Points

      • GRACE can detect ENSO induced anomaly patterns
      • Anomalies in water storage can lag in time
      • Linear regression is not necessarily the correct method, but we need more data
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      Pre-Columbian deforestation as an amplifier of drought in Mesoamerica

      B. I. Cook, K. J. Anchukaitis, J. O. Kaplan, M. J. Puma, M. Kelley and D. Gueyffier

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052565

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      Key Points

      • Pre-Columbian deforestation reduces annual precipitation by 5%-15%
      • This could account for up to 60% of the total drying during the Maya collapse
      • Future deforestation could contribute to regional climate change
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      Influence of bias correction on simulated landcover changes

      Stephanie A. McAfee, Joellen L. Russell and Robert S. Webb

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052808

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      Key Points

      • Regional biases in GCMs may influence projected land cover changes
      • Bias propagation could complicate interpretation of results from coupled models
      • Bias is important in regions with strong climate feedbacks
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      Evaluating global climate responses to different forcings using simple indices

      Frank Drost and David Karoly

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052667

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      Key Points

      • Observed trends in climate indices cannot be explained by natural forcings alone
      • The ensemble mean trends in NS and MTG are larger in CMIP5 then in CMIP3
      • Observed and multi-model ensemble mean trends for all indices are significant
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      Trends in record-breaking temperatures for the conterminous United States

      Clinton M. Rowe and Logan E. Derry

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052775

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      Key Points

      • Standard methods of identifying record-setting trends are complex and not robust
      • Record low minimums decreasing, record high maximums increasing
      • Novel, simple method presented here will be useful for climate impact studies
  3. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Numerical modeling of the Mount Steller landslide flow history and of the generated long period seismic waves

      L. Moretti, A. Mangeney, Y. Capdeville, E. Stutzmann, C. Huggel, D. Schneider and F. Bouchut

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052511

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      Key Points

      • Importance of erosion processes
      • Flow history
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      Relationship between hourly extreme precipitation and local air temperature in the United States

      Vimal Mishra, John M. Wallace and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052790

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      Key Points

      • Strong relationship between hourly extreme precipitation and temperature
      • Regression slopes are higher in summer than winter
      • Stations in the northern U.S. show higher slopes
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      Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

      Ray G. Anderson, Min-Hui Lo and James S. Famiglietti

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052400

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      Key Points

      • Surface water consumption observations are needed for hydrology and agriculture
      • We developed an approach to estimate consumption using remote sensing data
      • Our approach estimated water consumption to <6% (17 mm/year) for California
  4. Oceans

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Upper ocean manifestations of a reducing meridional overturning circulation

      M. D. Thomas, A. M. de Boer, D. P. Stevens and H. L. Johnson

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052702

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      Key Points

      • Interior subtropical ocean remains in Sverdrup balance throughout climate change
      • Overturning circulation changes occur solely on the western boundary
      • The subtropical gyre circulation slows as climate warms in our model
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      An avenue of eddies: Quantifying the biophysical properties of mesoscale eddies in the Tasman Sea

      J. D. Everett, M. E. Baird, P. R. Oke and I. M. Suthers

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053091

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      Key Points

      • A region of high eddy activity adjacent to the EAC is quantified
      • In this region eddies are larger, have higher SLA's and faster rotation
      • Region has strongly differentiated biological properties compared to Tasman Sea
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      Determining the mixing of oil and sea water using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar

      Brent Minchew

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052304

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      Key Points

      • Synthetic aperture radar can be used to infer properties of oil on the ocean
      • A new classification is presented to quickly determine oil properties
      • Oil spilled from the Deepwater Horizon was mostly mixed with sea water
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      Dispersive modeling of the 2009 Samoa tsunami

      Hongqiang Zhou, Yong Wei and Vasily V. Titov

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053068

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      Key Points

      • The earthquake-doublet generated a tsunami with strong dispersive effects
      • Neglecting dispersion can result in over-predicated wave heights and speeds
      • MOST may be applied to modeling weakly dispersive tsunamis at basin scales
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      First air-sea flux mooring measurements in the Southern Ocean

      E. W. Schulz, S. A. Josey and R. Verein

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052290

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      Key Points

      • Southern Ocean air-sea fluxes are under-observed, leading to large uncertainty
      • The first year-long air-sea flux observations quantify an annual cycle
      • Shows seasonal cycle, small annual net ocean heat loss and extreme events
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      Sea spray spume droplet production in high wind speeds

      F. Veron, C. Hopkins, E. L. Harrison and J. A. Mueller

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052603

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      Key Points

      • Presents new measurements of sea spray concentration in high wind speeds
      • Illustrates a previously unobserved sea spray generation mechanism
      • New knowledge for modeling of spray mediated air-sea fluxes in high winds
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      Deep-water seamount wakes on SEASAT SAR image in the Gulf Stream region

      Quanan Zheng, Benjamin Holt, Xiaofeng Li, Xinan Liu, Qing Zhao, Yeli Yuan and Xiaofeng Yang

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052661

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      Key Points

      • Satellite SAR may detect ocean bottom topographic feature up to a depth of 600 m
      • Seamount wakes appear as streak-like patterns on SAR images
      • Gulf Stream is a dynamical source to generate seamount wakes
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      Whitecaps in deep water

      William J. Plant

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052732

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      Key Points

      • Wind-wave interference patterns do not move at the dominant wave group speed
      • Waves that produce whitecaps in deep water are shorter than dominant waves
      • Peaks of HH Doppler spectra are at the same speed as peaks of Lambda(c)
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      Ocean circulation promotes methane release from gas hydrate outcrops at the NEPTUNE Canada Barkley Canyon node

      Laurenz Thomsen, Christopher Barnes, Mairi Best, Ross Chapman, Benoît Pirenne, Richard Thomson and Joachim Vogt

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052462

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      Key Points

      • Oscillatory currents modulate methane seepage
      • Internet operated vehicles improve deep sea science
      • Oscillatory currents and methane seepage must be further studied
  5. Planets

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Wind-induced atmospheric escape: Titan

      R. E. Hartle, R. E. Johnson, E. C. Sittler Jr., M. Sarantos and D. G. Simpson

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052774

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      Key Points

      • A horizontal wind at the exobase of Titan increases its escape rates
      • The escape enhancement caused by horizontal winds occurs on other bodies
      • Continually improved thermosphere models yield improved exobase level winds
  6. Solid Earth

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Precursory diffuse CO2 and H2S emission signatures of the 2011–2012 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

      Nemesio M. Pérez, Germán D. Padilla, Eleazar Padrón, Pedro A. Hernández, Gladys V. Melián, José Barrancos, Samara Dionis, Dácil Nolasco, Fátima Rodríguez, David Calvo and Íñigo Hernández

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052410

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      Key Points

      • The finding of anomalous diffuse CO2
      • First time to observe a increasing on diffuse H2S emission
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      The role of velocity-neutral creep on the modulation of tectonic tremor activity by periodic loading

      Thomas J. Ader, Jean-Paul Ampuero and Jean-Philippe Avouac

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052326

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      Key Points

      • Small values of a-b lead to high sensitivity of NVTs to stress perturbations
      • Explain exp relationship between amplitude of seismic waves and NVTs intensity
      • The observed phase between NVTs and perturbing stresses is explained
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      Improving on mass flow rate estimates of volcanic eruptions

      W. Degruyter and C. Bonadonna

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052566

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      Key Points

      • New analytical expression to derive mass flow rate of volcanic plumes
      • New dimensionless parameter to assess influence of wind on plume height
      • Examination of mass flow rates associated with two important eruptions
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      Acoustic emission monitoring of hydraulic fracturing laboratory experiment with supercritical and liquid CO2

      Tsuyoshi Ishida, Kazuhei Aoyagi, Tomoya Niwa, Youqing Chen, Sumihiko Murata, Qu Chen and Yoshiki Nakayama

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052788

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      Key Points

      • CO2 injection extends cracks three dimensionally rather than along a flat plane
      • The breakdown pressure with CO2 injection is lower than with water injection
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      Flux of carbonate melt from deeply subducted pelitic sediments: Geophysical and geochemical implications for the source of Central American volcanic arc

      Kyusei Tsuno, Rajdeep Dasgupta, Lisa Danielson and Kevin Righter

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052606

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      Key Points

      • Subduction of lo-Al carbonated pelite to 7 GPa generates carbonatite
      • Na-carbonatite from 200-250 km depth can explain Nicaragua arc geochemistry
      • Silicate-carbonate immiscibility can explain Nicaraguan wedge seismic properties
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      Physical parameterization of Strombolian eruptions via experimentally-validated modeling of high-speed observations

      J. Taddeucci, M. A. Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, M. Moroni, L. Tornetta, A. Capponi, P. Scarlato, D. B. Dingwell and D. De Rita

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052772

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      Key Points

      • A new method to retrieve the pressure, mass and volume of gas in erupting magma
      • The method is experimentally validated and applied to Strombolian explosions
      • Gas pressure during one single Strombolian explosion may vary by a factor of 5
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      Recent unrest of Changbaishan volcano, northeast China: A precursor of a future eruption?

      Jiandong Xu, Guoming Liu, Jianping Wu, Yuehong Ming, Qingliang Wang, Duxin Cui, Zhiguan Shangguan, Bo Pan, Xudong Lin and Junqing Liu

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052600

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      Key Points

      • The unrest of Changbaishan volcano during 2002-2006 was detected
      • The unrest process may be a long term precursor of eruptive activity in future
      • Need to keep close watch on the volcano
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      Geodetic constraints on afterslip characteristics following the March 9, 2011, Sanriku-oki earthquake, Japan

      Yusaku Ohta, Ryota Hino, Daisuke Inazu, Mako Ohzono, Yoshihiro Ito, Masaaki Mishina, Takeshi Iinuma, Junichi Nakajima, Yukihito Osada, Kensuke Suzuki, Hiromi Fujimoto, Kenji Tachibana, Tomotsugu Demachi and Satoshi Miura

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052430

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      Key Points

      • Afterslip located in up-dip extension of coseismic slip of foreshock
      • Time series data indicate rapid decay time constants
      • Aftershocks triggered by strain may have nucleated the Tohoku earthquake
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      Damage in step-overs may enable large cascading earthquakes

      Y. Finzi and S. Langer

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052436

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      Key Points

      • Damage in step-overs promotes large rupture jumps and triggered seismicity
      • Material interfaces and fault damage increase the risk of cascading earthquakes
      • Earthquake ruptures can jump step-overs as wide as 10 km
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      Three-dimensional surface displacements and rotations from differencing pre- and post-earthquake LiDAR point clouds

      Edwin Nissen, Aravindhan K. Krishnan, J. Ramón Arrowsmith and Srikanth Saripalli

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052460

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      Key Points

      • ICP can measure earthquake surface deformation from pre- and post-event LiDAR
      • It yields a dense field of displacements with precisions of a few cm
      • ICP resolves complex deformation patterns and can directly measure rotations
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      Coal maturation by frictional heat during rapid fault slip

      Manami Kitamura, Hideki Mukoyoshi, Patrick M. Fulton and Takehiro Hirose

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052316

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      Key Points

      • Vitrinite can mature during rapid faulting in the order of seconds
      • Thermal maturity of vitrinite occurs typically in shear localized zone
      • Commonly used kinetic models of vitrinite cannot predict fault temperature
  7. Space Sciences

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Multi-pass whistler gain in a magnetospheric cavity due to induced nonlinear scattering

      Gurudas Ganguli, Leonid Rudakov, Christopher Crabtree and Manish Mithaiwala

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052942

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      Key Points

      • Nonlinear scattering generates a long-lasting wave cavity in radiation belts
      • Smaller obliqueness of waves can be maintained by induced nonlinear scattering
      • Multi-pass whistler gain leads to rapid electron precipitation
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      Collisionless and collisional dissipation of magnetospherically reflecting whistler waves

      C. Crabtree, L. Rudakov, G. Ganguli and M. Mithaiwala

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052921

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      Key Points

      • Collisional and collisionless damping of whistlers are important in plasmasphere
      • Collisional dissipation is sensitive to plasmaspheric density and temperature
      • Accurate temperature and suprathermal fluxes are important for whistler damping
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      How the inclination of Earth's orbit affects incoming solar irradiance

      L. E. A. Vieira, A. Norton, T. Dudok de Wit, M. Kretzschmar, G. A. Schmidt and M. C. M. Cheung

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052950

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      Key Points

      • The orbital inclination affects the level of irradiance
      • Orbital inclination changes do not cause the 100 kyrs climate variability
      • The Sun is subdued in photometric variability compared to its stellar analogues
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      On the sunrise oscillation of the F region in the equatorial ionosphere

      K. M. Ambili, J.-P. St.-Maurice and R. K. Choudhary

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052876

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      Key Points

      • The F peak at the dip equator undulates rapidly at sunrise
      • The effect looks like the sunset PRE but is driven by different processes
      • Electrodynamics matters for the removal of plasma from the previous day
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      Statistical study of broadband whistler-mode waves detected by Kaguya near the Moon

      Y. Tsugawa, Y. Katoh, N. Terada, T. Ono, H. Tsunakawa, F. Takahashi, H. Shibuya, H. Shimizu, M. Matsushima, Y. Saito, S. Yokota and M. N. Nishino

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052818

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      Key Points

      • Occurrence of broadband waves is high near lunar magnetic anomalies on dayside
      • Relationship between broadband and narrowband waves is identified
      • Wave activities are associated with reflected ions and energized electrons
  8. The Cryosphere

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Glacier volume-area relation for high-order mechanics and transient glacier states

      S. Adhikari and S. J. Marshall

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052712

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      Key Points

      • Randomly characterized steady-state glaciers give a power-law exponent of 1.46
      • This declines to 1.38 after 100 years of retreat in accord with observations
      • Scaling laws based on glacier shape, slope and size improve volume estimates
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      Basal crevasses on the Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica: Implications for meltwater ponding and hydrofracture

      Daniel McGrath, Konrad Steffen, Harihar Rajaram, Ted Scambos, Waleed Abdalati and Eric Rignot

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052413

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      Key Points

      • Basal crevasses are large-scale structural features of ice shelves
      • Drive formation of surface depressions and surface crevasses
      • Contribute to meltwater-driven crevasse propagation style ice shelf collapse
    3. You have free access to this content
      Trends in Arctic sea ice extent from CMIP5, CMIP3 and observations

      Julienne C. Stroeve, Vladimir Kattsov, Andrew Barrett, Mark Serreze, Tatiana Pavlova, Marika Holland and Walter N. Meier

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052676

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      Key Points

      • CMIP5 models continue to underestimate rate of sea ice loss
      • CMIP5 models are more consistent with observations than CMIP3
      • CMIP5 suggests 60% of 1979-2011 rate of decline is externally forced
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      Shifting balance of thermokarst lake ice regimes across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska

      C. D. Arp, B. M. Jones, Z. Lu and M. S. Whitman

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052518

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      Key Points

      • Thermokarst lake ice regimes vary with ice thickness and water balance
      • Thinning ice trend explains a shift from bedfast- to floating-ice lakes
      • Floating-ice lakes enhance heat storage, permafrost thaw, and winter habitat
    5. You have free access to this content
      Overcoming the stauchwall: Viscoelastic stress redistribution and the start of full-depth gliding snow avalanches

      P. Bartelt, T. Feistl, Y. Bühler and O. Buser

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052479

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      Key Points

      • We define the release conditions for full-depth snow avalanches
      • We show why the snowcover fails using a simple mathematical model
      • We show why avalanche theories that ignore inertial forces are incorrect

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