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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Geophysical Research Letters

28 October 2012

Volume 39, Issue 20

  1. Atmospheric Science

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Detrainment in deep convection

      S. J. Böing, A. P. Siebesma, J. D. Korpershoek and H. J. J. Jonker

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053735

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      Key Points

      • Intensity of atmospheric deep convection governed by detrainment
      • Detrainment closely coupled to free tropospheric stability and relative humidity
      • Simple model captures sensitivity of detrainment to these variables
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      Traveling planetary-scale Rossby waves in the winter stratosphere: The role of tropospheric baroclinic instability

      Daniela I. V. Domeisen and R. Alan Plumb

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053684

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      Key Points

      • Stratospheric variability increases in an atmosphere without synoptic motions
      • Synoptic waves weaken the generation of planetary waves
      • Baroclinic instability of long waves causes stratospheric warmings
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      Lateral entrainment rate in shallow cumuli: Dependence on dry air sources and probability density functions

      Chunsong Lu, Yangang Liu, Shengjie Niu and Andrew M. Vogelmann

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053646

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      Key Points

      • Dependence of entrainment rate on dry air sources is studied for the first time
      • Probability density functions of entrainment rate are studied for the first time
      • Implications of the results for convection parameterizations are discussed
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      Identification of the biogenic compounds responsible for size-dependent nanoparticle growth

      Paul M. Winkler, John Ortega, Thomas Karl, Luca Cappellin, Hans R. Friedli, Kelley Barsanti, Peter H. McMurry and James N. Smith

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053253

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      Key Points

      • Chemical composition of biogenic nanoparticles is size-dependent
      • Experimental data in good agreement with thermodynamic growth model
      • High time resolution measurements needed to quantify nanoparticle growth
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      Modelling future changes to the stratospheric source gas injection of biogenic bromocarbons

      R. Hossaini, M. P. Chipperfield, S. Dhomse, C. Ordóñez, A. Saiz-Lopez, N. L. Abraham, A. Archibald, P. Braesicke, P. Telford, N. Warwick, X. Yang and J. Pyle

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053401

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      Key Points

      • Increased transport of VSLS to the stratosphere with climate change
      • 2100 simulations show significant increase in Br from VSLS in lower stratosphere
      • Significant differences in tropospheric oxidizing capacity between RCP 4.5 and 8.5
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      A conceptual model for self-sustained active-break Indian summer monsoon

      Fei Liu and Bin Wang

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053663

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      Key Points

      • Air-sea interaction is a key in sustaining Indian summer monsoon oscillation
      • A precipitation dipole can develop more easily than a precipitation monopole
      • Strong air-sea interaction will shorten the oscillation period
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      The influence of the SAL and lightning on tropospheric ozone variability over the Northern Tropical Atlantic: Results from Cape Verde during 2010

      Gregory S. Jenkins, Miliaritiana L. Robjhon, Jonathan W. Smith, Jonathan Clark and Luis Mendes

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053532

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      Key Points

      • The SAL leads to an increase in O3 values at its base
      • There is evidence of reduced ozone above the SAL's base
      • A large dust event on 8 July produced elevated ozone levels above the surface
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      High supersaturation inside cirrus in well-developed tropical tropopause layer over Indonesia

      Y. Inai, T. Shibata, M. Fujiwara, F. Hasebe and H. Vömel

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053638

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      Key Points

      • Many cases of high supersaturations inside cirrus in the TTL were found
      • The sensors for water vapor and cirrus were the most reliable instruments
      • Dependence of supersaturation on phase of large-scale disturbance was suggested
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      Relationship of environmental relative humidity with North Atlantic tropical cyclone intensity and intensification rate

      Longtao Wu, Hui Su, Robert G. Fovell, Bin Wang, Janice T. Shen, Brian H. Kahn, Svetla M. Hristova-Veleva, Bjorn H. Lambrigtsen, Eric J. Fetzer and Jonathan H. Jiang

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053546

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      Key Points

      • ERH above the boundary layer generally decreases with time
      • ERH generally increase with increasing TC intensity and intensification rate
      • At Q1, RI is associated with a sharp decrease of ERH in the UT
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      How may low-cloud radiative properties simulated in the current climate influence low-cloud feedbacks under global warming?

      F. Brient and S. Bony

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053265

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      Key Points

      • Correlation between low-cloud radiative effects in present and future climates
      • Due to a positive radiative feedback between low clouds and relative humidity
      • Observations help constrain the strength of climate change low-cloud feedbacks
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      The MJO-Kelvin wave transition

      A. H. Sobel and D. Kim

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053380

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      Key Points

      • MJO events turn into Kelvin waves as they move east
      • The transition often occurs in the Indian Ocean
      • Apparent slow Kelvin waves in spectra may possibly be transitions
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      Aerosols in central California: Unexpectedly large contribution of coarse mode to aerosol radiative forcing

      Evgueni Kassianov, Mikhail Pekour and James Barnard

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053469

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      Key Points

      • Large contribution of coarse mode aerosol to total volume for clean area
      • Important role of coarse mode aerosol in changing aerosol radiative forcing
      Corrected by:

      Atmospheric Science: Correction to “Aerosols in central California: Unexpectedly large contribution of coarse mode to aerosol radiative forcing”

      Vol. 39, Issue 22, Article first published online: 27 NOV 2012

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      Ice cloud depolarization for nadir and off-nadir CALIPSO measurements

      Kenneth Sassen, Vinay Kumar Kayetha and Jiang Zhu

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053116

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      Key Points

      • Lidar depolarization in ice clouds varies significantly
      • Lidar depolarization implies complicated simulations
      • CALIPSO is a powerful tool for cloud research
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      Ubiquitous low-level liquid-containing Arctic clouds: New observations and climate model constraints from CALIPSO-GOCCP

      G. Cesana, J. E. Kay, H. Chepfer, J. M. English and G. de Boer

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053385

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      Key Points

      • New CALIPSO-GOCCP observations show ubiquitous liquid-containing Arctic clouds
      • Insufficient liquid-containing Arctic cloud leads to radiation biases in models
      • Reproducing observed cloud phase is an important target for model improvement
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      How well do climate models simulate cloud vertical structure? A comparison between CALIPSO-GOCCP satellite observations and CMIP5 models

      G. Cesana and H. Chepfer

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053153

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      Key Points

      • To evaluate the cloud vertical structure of models using CALIPSO satellite
      • Five GCMs underestimate the total cloud cover at all latitudes except in Arctic
      • Discrepancies are more pronounced in tropics and poles, and over continents
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      Fraction of natural area as main predictor of net CO2 emissions from cities

      Annika Nordbo, Leena Järvi, Sami Haapanala, Curtis R. Wood and Timo Vesala

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053087

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      Key Points

      • Fraction of natural area can be used as a proxy for annual urban CO2 budgets
      • The proxy's strength is corroborated using emission inventories from 56 cities
      • The proxy is used for continental-scale mapping of urban CO2 emissions
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      The vertical and spatial structure of ENSO in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from GPS radio occultation measurements

      B. Scherllin-Pirscher, C. Deser, S.-P. Ho, C. Chou, W. Randel and Y.-H. Kuo

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053071

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      Key Points

      • Utilize GPS radio occultation (RO) data to detect the 3-dim ENSO structure
      • Coherent upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric ENSO signals
      • Differences in zonal-mean and eddy ENSO components
  2. Climate

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Correction to “Alternatives to stabilization scenarios”

      D. J. Frame, D. A. Stone, P. A. Stott and M. R. Allen

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053647

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      Relating the strength of the tropospheric biennial oscillation (TBO) to the phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO)

      Gerald A. Meehl and Julie M. Arblaster

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053386

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      Key Points

      • The phase of the IPO affects the amplitude of the TBO
      • When the IPO is in a positive phase the TBO has low amplitude
      • When the IPO is in a negative phase the TBO has high amplitude
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      Increasing frequency, intensity and duration of observed global heatwaves and warm spells

      S. E. Perkins, L. V. Alexander and J. R. Nairn

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053361

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      Key Points

      • Global heatwaves have increased in frequency, intensity and duration
      • Non-summer events are driving annual changes
      • Nighttime heatwaves have increased faster than daytime and daily-average events
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      Spatial and glacial-interglacial variations in provenance of the Chinese Loess Plateau

      Guoqiao Xiao, Keqing Zong, Gaojun Li, Zhaochu Hu, Guillaume Dupont-Nivet, Shuzhen Peng and Kexin Zhang

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053304

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      Key Points

      • The provenance of Chinese loess is studied by detrital zircon ages
      • The provenance of Chinese Loess Plateau is heterogeneous and spatially variable
      • Glacial-interglacial provenance changes are coupled with the wind patterns
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      Evaluation of monsoon seasonality and the tropospheric biennial oscillation transitions in the CMIP models

      Yue Li, Nicolas C. Jourdain, Andréa S. Taschetto, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Karumuri Ashok and Alexander Sen Gupta

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053322

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      Key Points

      • The Indian-Australian monsoon predictability to TBO is assessed in CMIP models
      • CMIP5 models show improved simulation of Indian-Australian monsoon system
      • Observations & CMIP show enhanced predictability of India-Australia transition
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      The decadal modulation of coupled bred vectors

      Yoo-Geun Ham, Michele M. Rienecker, Siegfried Schubert, Jelena Marshak, Sang-Wook Yeh and Shu-Chih Yang

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053719

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      Key Points

      • The nature of a decadal modulation in the coupled bred vectors (BVs) is examined
      • The decadal location shift of BV is consistent with El Nino action center shift
      • This shift is due to the strengthening of the mean zonal temperature gradient
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      Clouds and Snowball Earth deglaciation

      Dorian S. Abbot, Aiko Voigt, Mark Branson, Raymond T. Pierrehumbert, David Pollard, Guillaume Le Hir and Daniel D. B. Koll

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052861

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      Key Points

      • We run a suite of GCMs with Snowball Earth boundary conditions
      • We find that clouds can reduce the CO2 needed to deglaciate by 10-100
      • Snowball deglaciation no longer seems a serious problem for the hypothesis
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      Can aerosol loading explain the solar dimming over the Tibetan Plateau?

      Kun Yang, Baohong Ding, Jun Qin, Wenjun Tang, Ning Lu and Changgui Lin

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053733

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      Key Points

      • Solar dimming and total cloud cover decreasing co-existed
      • Aerosol impact on solar dimming was not significant over TP
      • Deep cloud cover and water vapor content increased
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      Stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: A model intercomparison

      Andrew J. Weaver, Jan Sedláček, Michael Eby, Kaitlin Alexander, Elisabeth Crespin, Thierry Fichefet, Gwenaëlle Philippon-Berthier, Fortunat Joos, Michio Kawamiya, Katsumi Matsumoto, Marco Steinacher, Kaoru Tachiiri, Kathy Tokos, Masakazu Yoshimori and Kirsten Zickfeld

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053763

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      Key Points

      • All climate models project very similar behavior during the 21st century
      • No model exhibits an abrupt change of the MOC
      • More than 1/2 of the models are in the bistable regime ==> not overly stable
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      Evidence for external forcing on 20th-century climate from combined ocean-atmosphere warming patterns

      Jan Sedláček and Reto Knutti

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053262

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      Key Points

      • Ocean warming of the last century cannot be explained by natural variability
      • The warming signal is visible throughout the whole ocean
      • Forced patterns are smooth and patterns of natural variability are heterogeneous
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      Trends in the global tropopause thickness revealed by radiosondes

      Sha Feng, Yunfei Fu and Qingnong Xiao

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053460

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      Key Points

      • Tropopause layer has been thickening in recent decades for the entire globe
      • Remarkable rising trends are observed in the top of TL
      • The entire TL may be raised for positive trends in both the bottom and top of it
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      Arctic sea ice reduction and European cold winters in CMIP5 climate change experiments

      Shuting Yang and Jens H. Christensen

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053338

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      Key Points

      • Probability of European cold winters in the future
      • Linkage between European cold winters and the Barents-Kara Sea ice reduction
      • CMIP5 analysis
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      Antarctic climate response to stratospheric ozone depletion in a fine resolution ocean climate model

      C. M. Bitz and L. M. Polvani

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053393

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      Key Points

      • It is unlikely that ozone depletion caused recent Antarctic sea ice expansion
      • The sea ice response is similar with resolved and parameterized eddies
      • The ocean warming is more moderate when eddies are resolved
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      Impact of solar-induced stratospheric ozone decline on Southern Hemisphere westerlies during the Late Maunder Minimum

      V. Varma, M. Prange, T. Spangehl, F. Lamy, U. Cubasch and M. Schulz

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053403

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      Key Points

      • Southern westerlies and stratospheric ozone during Late Maunder Minimum
      • Application of coupled climate modeling
      • Support for model evidence from reconstructed data
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      Uncertainty in the ENSO amplitude change from the past to the future

      Masahiro Watanabe, Jong-Seong Kug, Fei-Fei Jin, Mat Collins, Masamichi Ohba and Andrew T. Wittenberg

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053305

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      Key Points

      • We constructed perturbed physics ensembles (PPEs) to examine ENSO changes
      • Nino3 mean precip gives a good metric of ENSO amplitude in PPEs and also in MME
      • Detectable ENSO amplification from the past to present, explained by #2
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      The impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation on maximum temperature extremes

      Julie M. Arblaster and Lisa V. Alexander

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053409

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      Key Points

      • Marked contrasts in observed maximum temperature extremes during ENSO phases
      • Two coupled models show ENSO fidelity crucial for impact on temperature extremes
      • Similar relationships found in a simulation of future climate change
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      Mitigation of 21st century Antarctic sea ice loss by stratospheric ozone recovery

      Karen L. Smith, Lorenzo M. Polvani and Daniel R. Marsh

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053325

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      Key Points

      • Stratospheric ozone recovery will mitigate Antarctic projected sea ice loss
      • Ocean temperatures affect Antarctic sea ice on longer time scales, not the SAM
      • Regulation of CFCs has climate impacts beyond the reduction of UV radiation
  3. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Linking fluvial bed sediment transport across scales

      Yong Zhang, Mark M. Meerschaert and Aaron I. Packman

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053476

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      Key Points

      • Quantify sediment transport across scales using a unified stochastic model
      • Explain the variance scaling of bed-load transport
      • Test the random-walk model using well-known experiments
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      Mixing, entropy and reactive solute transport

      Gabriele Chiogna, David L. Hochstetler, Alberto Bellin, Peter K. Kitanidis and Massimo Rolle

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053295

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      Key Points

      • Application of information entropy to reactive solute transport problems
      • Metrics for mixing: flux-related dilution index and its rate of change
      • Quantification of complex interplay between dilution and reaction processes
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      Interception of the Fukushima reactor accident-derived137Cs, 134Cs and 131I by coniferous forest canopies

      Hiroaki Kato, Yuichi Onda and Takashi Gomi

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052928

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      Key Points

      • Initial behavior of deposited radionuclides is examined in a forest environment
      • Contrastive canopy interception was found between radiocesium and I-131
      • Marked penetration of I-131 through forest canopy was observed
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      Has the Three-Gorges Dam made the Poyang Lake wetlands wetter and drier?

      Q. Zhang, L. Li, Y.-G. Wang, A. D. Werner, P. Xin, T. Jiang and D. A. Barry

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053431

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      Key Points

      • The 3GD induces major changes in the downstream river discharge near the dam
      • The 3GD causes considerable effects on the Poyang Lake water level
      • The lake behavior is controlled by local factors modulated by the dam
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      Two dimensional bias correction of temperature and precipitation copulas in climate models

      C. Piani and J. O. Haerter

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053839

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      Key Points

      • A full 2D bias correction was developed
      • Tested using temperature and precipitation copulas
      • Results are positive for all observation stations used
  4. Oceans

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Autonomous underwater gliders monitoring variability at “choke points” in our ocean system: A case study in the Western Mediterranean Sea

      Emma E. Heslop, Simón Ruiz, John Allen, José Luís López-Jurado, Lionel Renault and Joaquín Tintoré

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053717

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      Key Points

      • New glider monitoring reveals hidden high variability in inter basin exchanges
      • Glider flight parameters are ideal for monitoring critical ocean choke points
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      Haline hurricane wake in the Amazon/Orinoco plume: AQUARIUS/SACD and SMOS observations

      Semyon A. Grodsky, Nicolas Reul, Gary Lagerloef, Gilles Reverdin, James A. Carton, Bertrand Chapron, Yves Quilfen, Vladimir N. Kudryavtsev and Hsun-Ying Kao

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053335

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      Key Points

      • Hurricane passage produces a high salinity wake in areas of barrier layer
      • Destruction of this barrier layer decreases SST cooling
      • Decreased SST cooling results in less negative feedback on a hurricane
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      Deep mesoscale eddies in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

      J. R. Carpenter and M.-L. Timmermans

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053025

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      Key Points

      • An active deep eddy field is observed in the Arctic Ocean
      • The eddy field is spatially localized and derives from the same source
      • We identify an outflow mechanism for eddy formation and vertical structure
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      The reduction of storm surge by vegetation canopies: Three-dimensional simulations

      Y. Peter Sheng, Andrew Lapetina and Gangfeng Ma

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053577

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      Key Points

      • Vegetation reduces coastal surge flooding 5-40%
      • Vegetation dissipation increases with hurricane intensity and forward speed
      • Vegetation dissipation increases with canopy height, density, and width
  5. Planets

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      First observation of the Venus UV dayglow at limb from SPICAV/VEX

      Jean-Yves Chaufray, Jean-Loup Bertaux and Francois Leblanc

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053626

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      Key Points

      • First observations of the brightest UV airglow emissions on Venus
      • First vertical profiles of a dayglow emission associated to CO2
      • Comparison between Mars and Venus UV dayglow
  6. Solid Earth

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
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      Electrical conductivity of magnetite-bearing serpentinite during shear deformation

      Seiya Kawano, Takashi Yoshino and Ikuo Katayama

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053652

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      Key Points

      • Percolation threshold for magnetite in serpentinite is 25 vol.%
      • Shear deformation does not induce establishment of magnetite connectivity
      • Magnetite-bearing serpentinite is not a cause of the conductivity anomaly
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      Complex characteristics of slow slip events in subduction zones reproduced in multi-cycle simulations

      Harmony V. Colella, James H. Dieterich, Keith Richards-Dinger and Allan M. Rubin

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053276

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      Key Points

      • Simulations of SSEs reproduce complex tremor migration patterns remarkably well
      • Analytical solutions support results from our numerical modeling method
      • Results suggest rapid back propagation is a consequence of frictional healing
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      Singing-sand avalanches without dunes

      S. Dagois-Bohy, S. Courrech du Pont and S. Douady

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052540

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      Key Points

      • Singing sand can emit sound during avalanches like in the field without a dune
      • By sieving the grains, one can separate the frequencies emitted
      • Frequency peaks correspond to the peaks in the grain size distribution
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      How do volcanic rift zones relate to flank instability? Evidence from collapsing rifts at Etna

      Joel Ruch, Susi Pepe, Francesco Casu, Valerio Acocella, Marco Neri, Giuseppe Solaro and Eugenio Sansosti

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053683

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      Key Points

      • First evidence of steady-state volcano rift instability at basaltic volcanoes
      • New insights between magmatism and flank instability relationships at volcanoes
      • Increase InSAR coherence on the summit of seasonally snow-capped volcanoes
    5. You have free access to this content
      P-V-T equation of state for ε-iron up to 80 GPa and 1900 K using the Kawai-type high pressure apparatus equipped with sintered diamond anvils

      Daisuke Yamazaki, Eiji Ito, Takashi Yoshino, Akira Yoneda, Xinzhuan Guo, Baohua Zhang, Wei Sun, Akira Shimojuku, Noriyoshi Tsujino, Takehiro Kunimoto, Yuji Higo and Ken-ichi Funakoshi

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053540

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      Key Points

      • Precise determination of volume at high temperature under pressure
      • Newly developed pressure generation technique enable us to do this research
      • Density deficit of inner core of ~3% is largely smaller than that of outer core
    6. You have free access to this content
      The great escape: An intra-Messinian gas system in the eastern Mediterranean

      Michael Lazar, Uri Schattner and Moshe Reshef

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053484

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      Key Points

      • Unique exposure of deep basin sea floor destabilized sub-sea floor gas systems
      • Lowering sea levels allow gas to escape to water column and atmosphere
      • Tectonic driven Mediterranean desiccation induced Mid-Messinian climatic shift
    7. You have free access to this content
      Out-of-sequence thrusting in experimental Coulomb wedges: Implications for the structural development of mega-splay faults and forearc basins

      Saad S. B. Haq

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053176

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      Key Points

      • Small variations in strength cause reorganization of deformation in a wedge
      • Out-of-sequence faulting is inevitable in frontally accreting wedges
      • Out-of-sequence backthrusting may be as common as forethrusting
    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Long period seismic source characterization at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico

      Alejandra Arciniega-Ceballos, Phillip Dawson and Bernard A. Chouet

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053494

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      Key Points

      • Source properties quantification of long-period signals at Popocatepetl volcano
      • Imagining seismic source mechanism associated with LP and VLP seismicity
      • LP and VLP seismicity obey interaction of magmatic and hydrothermal processes
    9. You have free access to this content
      Decade-scale decrease inb value prior to the M9-class 2011 Tohoku and 2004 Sumatra quakes

      K. Z. Nanjo, N. Hirata, K. Obara and K. Kasahara

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052997

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      Key Points

      • Decrease in b value is a precursor to the M9-class Tohoku and Sumatra quakes
      • The b value is an important indicator of an impending great earthquake
      • The first report on M9-class quakes to confirm a change in b value
    10. You have free access to this content
      New detection of tremor triggered in Hokkaido, northern Japan by the 2004 Sumatra–Andaman earthquake

      Kazushige Obara

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053339

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      Key Points

      • Triggered tremor was detected where tectonic tremor has not been detected
      • One tremor activity is close to source of volcanic low-frequency earthquake
      • Another tremor activity correlates with compressional strain by surface wave
    11. You have free access to this content
      Challenging the rate-state asperity model: Afterslip following the 2011 M9 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake

      Kaj M. Johnson, Jun'ichi Fukuda and Paul Segall

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052901

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      Key Points

      • Postseismic deformation is inconsistent with the rate-state asperity model
      • Afterslip occurred on asperities or stress accumulated between asperities
      • The simple asperity model for subduction zone coupling needs modification
    12. You have free access to this content
      Seismic-afterslip characterization of the 2010 MW 8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake based on moment tensor inversion

      Hans Agurto, Andreas Rietbrock, Isabelle Ryder and Matthew Miller

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053434

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      Key Points

      • Seismic afterslip occurs mostly offshore in between patches of co-seismic slip
      • Major aftershocks occur on the megathrust, in areas of medium coseismic slip
      • High co-seismic slip areas are dominated by small aftershocks
    13. You have free access to this content
      Experimental craters formed by single and multiple buried explosions and implications for volcanic craters with emphasis on maars

      Greg A. Valentine, James D. L. White, Pierre-Simon Ross, Jamal Amin, Jacopo Taddeucci, Ingo Sonder and Peter J. Johnson

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053716

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      Key Points

      • Craters from multiple buried explosions compared with single-explosion crater
      • Diameter is a poor gauge of individual explosion energy for multi-explosion craters
      • Crater shape and ejecta emplacement differ in multi- vs single-explosion
  7. Space Sciences

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Consequences of negative ions for Titan's plasma interaction

      Stephen A. Ledvina and Stephen H. Brecht

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053835

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      Key Points

      • Negative ions in Titan's ionosphere can effect Titan's plasma interaction
      • Detectable levels of negative ions can be lost to Saturn's magnetosphere
      • More work is needed to characterize the negative ions at Titan
    2. You have free access to this content
      Enhancement of thermospheric mass density by soft electron precipitation

      B. Zhang, W. Lotko, O. Brambles, M. Wiltberger, W. Wang, P. Schmitt and J. Lyon

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053519

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      Key Points

      • Soft electron precipitation models are implemented in global simulations
      • Soft electrons affect the F-region plasma state and Pedersen conductivity
      • Soft electrons can cause thermospheric mass density enhancement at 400 km
    3. You have free access to this content
      Monoenergetic high-energy electron precipitation in thin auroral filaments

      H. Dahlgren, N. Ivchenko and B. S. Lanchester

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053466

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      Key Points

      • Observations of monoenergetic, high energy precipitation in auroral filaments
      • High resolution, multispectral observations are crucial to advance the field
      • There is currently no existing consistent theory to explain the observations
  8. The Cryosphere

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Planets
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Space Sciences
    9. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Effects of more extreme precipitation regimes on maximum seasonal snow water equivalent

      Mukesh Kumar, Rui Wang and Timothy E. Link

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052972

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      Key Points

      • More intense snowfalls generally result in larger SWEmax
      • More extreme precipitation may alleviate the decrease in SWEmax due to warming
      • Sensitivity of SWEmax changes for a range of air temperature and seasonal snow
    2. You have free access to this content
      Recent changes in the dynamic properties of declining Arctic sea ice: A model study

      Jinlun Zhang, Ron Lindsay, Axel Schweiger and Ignatius Rigor

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053545

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      Key Points

      • Arctic sea ice volume during 2007-2011 is reduced by 33%
      • Sea ice speed and deformation increase by 13% and 17%
      • Ice volume export is reduced
    3. You have free access to this content
      The extreme melt across the Greenland ice sheet in 2012

      S. V. Nghiem, D. K. Hall, T. L. Mote, M. Tedesco, M. R. Albert, K. Keegan, C. A. Shuman, N. E. DiGirolamo and G. Neumann

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053611

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      Key Points

      • Satellites reveal the 2012 extreme melt across most of the Greenland ice sheet
      • In-situ temperature data and field observations confirm the melt event
      • Extreme melt is rare: last one in 1889, and next previous ~7 centuries earlier
    4. You have free access to this content
      Automated mapping of Earth's annual minimum exposed snow and ice with MODIS

      Thomas H. Painter, Mary J. Brodzik, Adina Racoviteanu and Richard Armstrong

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053340

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      Key Points

      • We must systematically determine Earth's current total glacier cover
      • MODICE provides annual, consistently derived map of the world's glaciers
      • MODICE data support assessments of sea level rise and impacts of global warming

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