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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Geophysical Research Letters

November 2012

Volume 39, Issue 21

  1. Atmospheric Science

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Oceans
    5. Planets
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      The effect of energetic electron precipitation on middle mesospheric night-time ozone during and after a moderate geomagnetic storm

      M. Daae, P. Espy, H. Nesse Tyssøy, D. Newnham, J. Stadsnes and F. Søraas

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053787

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      Key Points

      • EEP in moderate geomagnetic storms causes large atmospheric chemistry effects
      • Mesospheric NO enhanced and O3 substantially reduced following an EEP event
      • EEP produced O3 loss in mesosphere can be common throughout the Solar Cycle
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      Long-lasting convective systems in the outer region of tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific

      Cheng-Shang Lee, Buo-Fu Chen and Russell L. Elsberry

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053685

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      Key Points

      • Outer mesoscale convective systems in 22% of typhoons
      • Outer-MCS heavy rainfall as in Typhoon Morakot
      • Low-level jets contribute to continuous convection
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      Multi-decadal decline of mercury in the North Atlantic atmosphere explained by changing subsurface seawater concentrations

      Anne L. Soerensen, Daniel J. Jacob, David G. Streets, Melanie L. I. Witt, Ralf Ebinghaus, Robert P. Mason, Maria Andersson and Elsie M. Sunderland

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053736

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      Key Points

      • The atmospheric Hg decrease is confined to the Northern Hemisphere
      • Decreasing subsurface seawater Hg can explain the Northern Hemisphere decrease
      • Historical input of Hg from effluents are more important than currently believed
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      First satellite identification of volcanic carbon monoxide

      Sara Martínez-Alonso, Merritt N. Deeter, Helen M. Worden, Cathy Clerbaux, Debbie Mao and John C. Gille

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053275

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      Key Points

      • Satellite identification of volcanic CO has been achieved for the first time
      • We estimate that global annual volcanic CO emissions are non-negligible
      • Volcanic CO emissions are relevant to climate models and volcanic forecasting
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      Observed impacts of vertical velocity on cloud microphysics and implications for aerosol indirect effects

      Chunsong Lu, Yangang Liu, Shengjie Niu and Andrew M. Vogelmann

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053599

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      Key Points

      • Vertical velocity effects on cloud microphysics are confirmed observationally
      • Vertical velocity effects on cloud microphysics are opposite to aerosol effects
      • The empirical relationships can be fitted well with power law functions
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      Atmospheric methane removal by boreal plants

      Elin Sundqvist, Patrick Crill, Meelis Mölder, Patrik Vestin and Anders Lindroth

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053592

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      Key Points

      • In situ measurements show that boreal plants are a significant sink of methane
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      Satellite detection of orographic gravity-wave activity in the winter subtropical stratosphere over Australia and Africa

      S. D. Eckermann and D. L. Wu

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053791

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      Key Points

      • First observations of orographic waves in southern subtropical stratosphere
      • Waves from Australian and African mountains propagate deep into stratosphere
      • Activity varies with winds according to orographic gravity-wave theory
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      Simulating regime structures in weather and climate prediction models

      A. Dawson, T. N. Palmer and S. Corti

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053284

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      Key Points

      • Regimes not represented in an atmosphere model at typical climate resolution
      • Skillful representation of regimes at higher weather model resolution
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      Sensitivity of equatorial mesopause temperatures to the 27-day solar cycle

      C. von Savigny, K.-U. Eichmann, C. E. Robert, J. P. Burrows and M. Weber

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053563

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      Key Points

      • Evidence for a solar driven 27-day signature in mesopause temperature
      • Sensitivities for 27-day and 11-year solar cycle agree
      • Our results are in good agreement with recent model simulations
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      The ‘too few, too bright’ tropical low-cloud problem in CMIP5 models

      C. Nam, S. Bony, J.-L. Dufresne and H. Chepfer

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053421

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      Key Points

      • Low clouds too optically thick; particularly shallow cumulus clouds
      • Compensating errors: underestimate low-cloud & overestimate high-cloud fraction
      • Relative frequency of stratocumulus & shallow cumulus clouds not captured well
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      Regime-based analysis of aerosol-cloud interactions

      Edward Gryspeerdt and Philip Stier

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053221

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      Key Points

      • Sensitivity of cloud droplet number to aerosol optical depth differs by regime
      • The negative sensitivity observed over land is from low cloud fraction regimes
      • High cloud fraction regimes are the largest proportion of the total sensitivity
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      Beyond bulk entrainment and detrainment rates: A new framework for diagnosing mixing in cumulus convection

      Ji Nie and Zhiming Kuang

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053992

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      Key Points

      • A new framework for diagnosing mixing in cumulus convection is proposed
      • It provides a reference against which simple models can be compared
      • It is applied to examine the response of convection to a small perturbation
  2. Climate

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Oceans
    5. Planets
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Reliability of decadal predictions

      S. Corti, A. Weisheimer, T. N. Palmer, F. J. Doblas-Reyes and L. Magnusson

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053354

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      Key Points

      • A reliability analysis has been applied to probabilistic decadal predictions
      • Multi-annual temperature forecasts in the ECMWF model are, in general, reliable
      • Long-term climate trends are a major but not the only source of skill
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      Emerging local warming signals in observational data

      Irina Mahlstein, Gabriele Hegerl and Susan Solomon

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053952

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      Key Points

      • Significant shift in observed temperatures
      • Large parts of the Earth have seen a significant change
    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Relationship between the Pacific and Atlantic stepwise climate change during the 1990s

      Y. Chikamoto, M. Kimoto, M. Watanabe, M. Ishii and T. Mochizuki

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053901

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      Key Points

      • Pacific decadal climate change is predictable with a help of North Atlantic
      • Decadal ENSO variability is predictable beyond 1 year
      • Initialization contributes to the accurate temperature change
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      Correction to “Are tropical SST trends changing the global teleconnection during La Niña?”

      Arun Kumar, Bhaskar Jha and Michelle L'Heureux

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054139

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      This article corrects:

      Are tropical SST trends changing the global teleconnection during La Niña?

      Vol. 37, Issue 12, Article first published online: 17 JUN 2010

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      The role of large-scale atmospheric flow and Rossby wave breaking in the evolution of extreme windstorms over Europe

      John Hanley and Rodrigo Caballero

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053408

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      Key Points

      • 22 of the top 25 most destructive European windstorms have a similar evolution
      • They occur during exceptionally persistent, high NAO events which shift eastward
      • These conditions can be dynamically interpreted using Rossby wave breaking
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      Soil moisture-temperature coupling: A multiscale observational analysis

      D. G. Miralles, M. J. van den Berg, A. J. Teuling and R. A. M. de Jeu

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053703

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      Key Points

      • Soil moisture-temperature coupling at different timescales using new diagnostic
      • New field of global satellite evaporation to study land-atmosphere interaction
      • Transitional climate zones as hotspots and variable coupling during heatwaves
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      Fingerprints of changes in annual and seasonal precipitation from CMIP5 models over land and ocean

      Beena Balan Sarojini, Peter A. Stott, Emily Black and Debbie Polson

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053373

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      Key Points

      • Humans have increased global and regional precipitation over land and oceans
      • The greatest moistening has occurred in the Arctic and north subtropical oceans
      • Observed global and regional trends could be misleading due to sparse coverage
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      The amplitude of decadal to multidecadal variability in precipitation simulated by state-of-the-art climate models

      T. R. Ault, J. E. Cole and S. St. George

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053424

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      Key Points

      • Decadal to multidecadal (D2M) variability is prominent in observed precipitation
      • CMIP5 simulations underestimate the amplitude of D2M precipitation variability
      • Projected risks of prolonged droughts and pluvials may also be underestimated
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      Mediterranean precipitation climatology, seasonal cycle, and trend as simulated by CMIP5

      Colin Kelley, Mingfang Ting, Richard Seager and Yochanan Kushnir

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053416

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      Key Points

      • The new CMIP5 models are slightly improved in simulation of climatology
      • The new models underestimate the annual cycle of precipitation and its trend
      • External forcing is more dominant in the eastern Mediterranean
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      Decadal variability of the NAO: Introducing an augmented NAO index

      Y.-H. Wang, Gudrun Magnusdottir, H. Stern, X. Tian and Y. Yu

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053413

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      Key Points

      • The centers of action of the NAO can be seen to shift on decadal time scales
      • The Angle index describes the relative location of the NAO centers of action
      • The Angle index gives added information on variability over the smooth NAO index
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      The fingerprint of human-induced changes in the ocean's salinity and temperature fields

      David W. Pierce, Peter J. Gleckler, Tim P. Barnett, Benjamin D. Santer and Paul J. Durack

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053389

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      Key Points

      • Climate change has altered the salinity field of the world's oceans
      • Changes match model predictions over the top 125 m
      • The signal is even stronger when salinity is taken jointly with temperature
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      Sea level trends, interannual and decadal variability in the Pacific Ocean

      Xuebin Zhang and John A. Church

      Article first published online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053240

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      Key Points

      • Sea level linear trend over short period is complicated by climate variability
      • We separate interannual and decadal sea level variability from trend in Pacific
      • Decadal sea level variability can be erroneously aliased into sea level trend
  3. Oceans

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Oceans
    5. Planets
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
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      Chlorophyll a in Antarctic sea ice from historical ice core data

      K. M. Meiners, M. Vancoppenolle, S. Thanassekos, G. S. Dieckmann, D. N. Thomas, J.-L. Tison, K. R. Arrigo, D. L. Garrison, A. McMinn, D. Lannuzel, P. van der Merwe, K. M. Swadling, W. O. Smith Jr., I. Melnikov and B. Raymond

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053478

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      Key Points

      • Antarctic sea ice chlorophyll a shows maxima in early spring and late summer
      • Surface, internal and bottom ice layers contribute equally to integrated biomass
      • The vertical distribution of chlorophyll a critically depends on ice thickness
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      Temperature-induced marine export production during glacial period

      M. O. Chikamoto, A. Abe-Ouchi, A. Oka and S. Lan Smith

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053828

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      Key Points

      • Phytoplankton growth and remineralization are sensitive to glacial cooling
      • Less remineralization than production in polar region enhances export production
      • High export production can be simulated even under glacial stratified conditions
  4. Planets

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Oceans
    5. Planets
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
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      Visible and thermal infrared observations of the Martian surface during three Phobos shadow transits

      Sylvain Piqueux and Philip R. Christensen

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053352

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      Key Points

      • THEMIS VIS and IR observations of 3 Phobos transits show no surface cooling
      • Thermal modeling requires that the top material is coarser than dust
      • No surface dust is consistent with other remote sensing techniques
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      Formation of recurring slope lineae by liquid brines on present-day Mars

      Vincent F. Chevrier and Edgard G. Rivera-Valentin

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054119

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      Key Points

      • Melting of salt-ice mixtures forms liquids on Mars in sufficient amounts
      • These melts can accumulate in the subsurface in the summer to form flow features
      • Rapid evaporation and freezing makes these features small scale and seasonal
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      Investigating the transition from central peak to peak-ring basins using central feature volume measurements from the Global Lunar DTM 100 m

      Veronica J. Bray, Corwin Atwood-Stone and Alfred M. McEwen

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053693

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      Key Points

      • Peak and peak ring volumes show similar trends
      • Volume data better support peak-collapse model of peak-ring formation
      • Some peak-ring volume is hidden by inner crater melt and other infill
  5. Solid Earth

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Oceans
    5. Planets
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
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      Coseismic and postseismic stress rotations due to great subduction zone earthquakes

      Jeanne L. Hardebeck

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053438

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      Key Points

      • Subduction zone earthquakes cause coseismic and postseismic stress rotations
      • Coseismic and postseismic stress rotations imply low stress and weak faults
      • Post-mainshock stress field explains observed normal faulting aftershocks
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      Detecting hidden volcanic explosions from Mt. Cleveland Volcano, Alaska with infrasound and ground-coupled airwaves

      Silvio De Angelis, David Fee, Matthew Haney and David Schneider

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053635

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      Key Points

      • Strong atmospheric ducts enhance long-range infrasound propagation
      • Distant infrasonic detection are effective to monitor volcanoes
      • Air-to-ground coupling of acoustic waves is observed at regional distances
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      Comparisons of dynamic triggering near Beijing, China following recent large earthquakes in Sumatra

      Jing Wu, Zhigang Peng, Weijun Wang, Xuan Gong, Qifu Chen and Chunquan Wu

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053515

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      Key Points

      • The 2012 Mw8.6 Sumatra earthquake triggered in Beijing, but not the Mw8.2
      • Amplitude and frequency content of the triggering waves control triggering
      • The elapsed time since last trigger may affect the triggering potential
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      Precursory inflation of shallow magma reservoirs at west Sunda volcanoes detected by InSAR

      Estelle Chaussard and Falk Amelung

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053817

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      Key Points

      • We present the first InSAR time-series survey covering an entire volcanic arc
      • Unambiguous evidence of inflation of multiple arc volcanoes prior to eruptions
      • Shallow magma reservoirs suggesting regional trends in magma storage
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      Challenges of anticipating the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami using coastal geology

      Yuki Sawai, Yuichi Namegaya, Yukinobu Okamura, Kenji Satake and Masanobu Shishikura

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053692

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      Key Points

      • Even excellent geology can't lead conclusion of the largest possible earthquake
      • These efforts showed recurrence intervals shorter than previously inferred
      • Geological data for coastal subsidence aids in modeling source of AD869 tsunami
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      Seismicity precursors to large earthquakes unified in a stress accumulation framework

      Arnaud Mignan

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053946

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      Key Points

      • All seismicity precursors can be explained by static stress accumulation
      • Coupling of different precursory patterns or non-occurrence of any is possible
      • Microseismicity is crucial in the emergence of precursory patterns
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      Geologic heterogeneity can produce aseismic slip transients

      R. M. Skarbek, A. W. Rempel and D. A. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053762

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      Key Points

      • Aseismic slip is produced by a balance between frictional heterogeneities
      • Varying the abundance of heterogeneities produces stable, slow, or fast sliding
      • Model stability is well described by a double spring-slider system
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      Tensile rock mass strength estimated using InSAR

      Sigurjón Jónsson

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053309

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      Key Points

      • Tensional bulk strength of rock is much lower than laboratory estimates
      • New method to estimate bulk strength of rocks is presented
      • InSAR observations used to derive 3D displacement and strain
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      Supershear rupture on multiple faults for the Mw 8.6 Off Northern Sumatra, Indonesia earthquake of April 11, 2012

      Dun Wang, Jim Mori and Takahiko Uchide

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053622

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      Key Points

      • This is one of the most complicated earthquakes, with 4 separate faults
      • The rupture speed is faster than local S-wave velocity
      • Some oceanic events with fast speeds may have been overlooked in the past
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      Shallow magma-mingling-driven Strombolian eruptions at Mt. Yasur volcano, Vanuatu

      Simon Kremers, Yan Lavallée, Jonathan Hanson, Kai-Uwe Hess, Magdalena Oryaëlle Chevrel, Joachim Wassermann and Donald B. Dingwell

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053312

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      Key Points

      • We sampled the eruptive products of Strombolian activity at Mt. Yasur
      • First observation of multiple glass transition peaks in a homogeneous sample
      • The multiple peaks can be explained by the bimodal oxidation state of iron
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      Effect of grain size distribution on the development of compaction localization in porous sandstone

      Cecilia S. N. Cheung, Patrick Baud and Teng-fong Wong

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053739

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      Key Points

      • Grain size distribution is key parameter controlling compaction localization
      • Elucidating process inhibits strain localization in a poorly sorted rock
      • Our laboratory results in good agreement with recent field analysis
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      Amorphization of quartz by friction: Implication to silica-gel lubrication of fault surfaces

      Yu Nakamura, Jun Muto, Hiroyuki Nagahama, Ichiko Shimizu, Takashi Miura and Ichiro Arakawa

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053228

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      Key Points

      • Frictional strength of quartz was reduced by amorphization and hydration
      • Velocity-weakening occurred at aseismic slip rates under low normal stresses
      • Detailed amorphization process was clarified by Raman spectroscopic imaging
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      “Equator Crossing” of Shatsky Rise?: New insights on Shatsky Rise tectonic motion from the downhole magnetic architecture of the uppermost lava sequences at Tamu Massif

      Masako Tominaga, Helen F. Evans and Gerardo Iturrino

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052967

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      Key Points

      • Visualization of the volcanic plateau formation and the plate motion over time
      • Documentation of a new insight on the plateau formation using magnetic logging
      • Determining the hemisphere origin, timing of volcanism, and plateau motion
  6. Space Sciences

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Oceans
    5. Planets
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      D region meteoric smoke and neutral temperature retrieval using the poker flat incoherent scatter radar

      J. T. Fentzke, V. Hsu, C. G. M. Brum, I. Strelnikova, M. Rapp and M. Nicolls

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053841

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      Key Points

      • First meteor smoke and Tn variability at high latitude derived by HPLA radar
      • Observational evidence needed for PMC and microphysics of ice particle formation
      • New technique for height resolved daytime neutral temperatures at the mesopause
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      Gravity waves in the thermosphere during a sudden stratospheric warming

      Erdal Yiğit and Alexander S. Medvedev

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053812

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      Key Points

      • Gravity wave effects are modeled during a stratospheric warming
      • Gravity wave activity and drag increase dramatically in the thermosphere
      • Gravity wave effects in the thermosphere are extremely variable during an SSW
  7. The Cryosphere

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Oceans
    5. Planets
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
    1. You have free access to this content
      Seasonal forecasts of Arctic sea ice initialized with observations of ice thickness

      R. Lindsay, C. Haas, S. Hendricks, P. Hunkeler, N. Kurtz, J. Paden, B. Panzer, J. Sonntag, J. Yungel and J. Zhang

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053576

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      Key Points

      • New ice thickness observations are now available in near real time
      • These observations can be used to improve seasonal sea ice prediction efforts
      • Even with the new observations there is large uncertainty in ice predictions
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      Snowfall-driven mass change on the East Antarctic ice sheet

      Carmen Boening, Matthew Lebsock, Felix Landerer and Graeme Stephens

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053316

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      Key Points

      • Mass increase (GRACE) equal to snow accumulation (CloudSat)
      • Unprecedented snowfall events in over 3 decades
      • Snowfall associated with anomalous wind patterns

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