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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 6

March 2012

Volume 39, Issue 6

  1. Atmospheric Science

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Determination of and evidence for non-core-shell structure of particles containing black carbon using the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2)

      Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Ernie R. Lewis, Lawrence Kleinman, Jianzhong Xu and Qi Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL050905

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      Key Points

      • Analysis technique developed for determination of near-surface black carbon
      • A large fraction of BC-containing particles may exist with BC near the surface
      • Near-surface BC particles may be associated with biomass burning
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      Evidence linking Arctic amplification to extreme weather in mid-latitudes

      Jennifer A. Francis and Stephen J. Vavrus

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051000

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      Key Points

      • Enhanced Arctic warming reduces poleward temperature gradient
      • Weaker gradient affects waves in upper-level flow in two observable ways
      • Both effects slow weather patterns, favoring extreme weather
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      Gasoline emissions dominate over diesel in formation of secondary organic aerosol mass

      R. Bahreini, A. M. Middlebrook, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, M. Trainer, C. A. Brock, H. Stark, S. S. Brown, W. P. Dube, J. B. Gilman, K. Hall, J. S. Holloway, W. C. Kuster, A. E. Perring, A. S. H. Prevot, J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, S. Szidat, N. L. Wagner, R. J. Weber, P. Zotter and D. D. Parrish

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050718

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      Key Points

      • Diesel emissions contribute significantly to primary organic aerosol
      • Gasoline exhaust emissions dominate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation
      • Globally, SOA from gasoline exhaust may reach 16% of biogenic SOA
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      Height-resolved variability of midlatitude tropospheric water vapor measured by an airborne lidar

      Lucas Fischer, Christoph Kiemle and George C. Craig

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050621

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      Key Points

      • Airborne lidar water vapor measurements show power law scaling from 10 to 100 km
      • Two-dimensional cross sections show properties depending on height level
      • Levels influenced by convection have shallower slopes, higher intermittency
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      Where is the ideal location for a US East Coast offshore grid?

      Michael J. Dvorak, Eric D. Stoutenburg, Cristina L. Archer, Willett Kempton and Mark Z. Jacobson

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050659

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      Key Points

      • Interconnecting wind sites driven by meso and synoptic scales reduces variability
      • Offshore wind farm interconnection reduces variability
      • Interconnection benefits can be realized offshore only over distances >450 km
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      Applying stochastic small-scale damage functions to German winter storms

      B. F. Prahl, D. Rybski, J. P. Kropp, O. Burghoff and H. Held

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL050961

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      Key Points

      • Power-law damage function for residential storm loss vs. daily max. wind speed
      • Regionally varying large power-law exponents in the range of 8-12
      • Correlations between parameters enable reduction of local parameters
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      A stochastic parameterization of non-orographic gravity waves: Formalism and impact on the equatorial stratosphere

      F. Lott, L. Guez and P. Maury

      Article first published online: 31 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051001

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      Key Points

      • An improved stochastic parameterization of GWs is proposed
      • It can be use to help models to simulate the QBO
      • It also improves the models to reproduce large-scale equatorial waves
  2. Climate

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Increase of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal?

      Pang-chi Hsu, Tim Li, Jing-Jia Luo, Hiroyuki Murakami, Akio Kitoh and Ming Zhao

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051037

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      Key Points

      • The increase of global monsoon area, precipitation and intensity is robust
      • Those changes are consistent with CMIP3 and CMIP5 model projections
      • Moisture convergence and evaporation contribute to enhanced monsoon rainfall
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Biomarkers challenge early Miocene loess and inferred Asian desertification

      Tingjiang Peng, Jijun Li, Chunhui Song, Zhijun Zhao, Jun Zhang, Zhengchuang Hui and John W. King

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL050934

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      Key Points

      • Tianshui sediments show the ubiquitous presence of middle-chain n-alkanes
      • Different patterns between Tianshui sediments and Quaternary loess were observed
      • Early Miocene onset of Asian interior desertification needs reevaluate
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      Comparative performance of paleoclimate field and index reconstructions derived from climate proxies and noise-only predictors

      Eugene R. Wahl and Jason E. Smerdon

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051086

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      Key Points

      • Climate proxy data generate high quality reconstructions of temperature fields
      • A probabilistic ensemble approach allows clear identification of proxy efficacy
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      Is a bipolar seesaw consistent with observed Antarctic climate variability and trends?

      David P. Schneider and David C. Noone

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050826

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      Key Points

      • A spurious bipolar seesaw arises from sparse data, especially in the Antarctic
      • Caution is advised in analyzing gridded data for Antarctic climate studies
      • Regional differences in Antarctic trends partly reflect tropical influences
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      Nonstationarities of regional climate model biases in European seasonal mean temperature and precipitation sums

      D. Maraun

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051210

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      Key Points

      • Bias correction in general improves future climate simulations
      • Cloud cover, soil moisture and albedo changes may cause temperature bias changes
      • Precipitation biases in arid regions are affected by internal variability
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      Holocene subsurface temperature variability in the eastern Antarctic continental margin

      Jung-Hyun Kim, Xavier Crosta, Veronica Willmott, Hans Renssen, Jérôme Bonnin, Peer Helmke, Stefan Schouten and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051157

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      Key Points

      • Applying a newly developed archaeal membrane lipid-based paleothermometer
      • High subsurface temperature variability during the late Holocene
      • Variability of Modified Circumpolar Deep Water intrusion into the continental shelf
  3. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatially variable stage-driven groundwater-surface water interaction inferred from time-frequency analysis of distributed temperature sensing data

      Kisa Mwakanyamale, Lee Slater, Frederick Day-Lewis, Mehrez Elwaseif and Carole Johnson

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050824

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      Key Points

      • Time-frequency analysis provides information on strength of groundwater exchange
      • S-transform analysis proved a robust indicator of groundwater discharge zones
      • Correlation coefficient proved an unreliable indicator of groundwater discharge
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      21st century runoff sensitivities of major global river basins

      Qiuhong Tang and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050834

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      Key Points

      • Large river runoff sensitivity to global warming is independent of emissions pathway
      • Runoff sensitivity to global warming is slightly larger for small temperature changes
      • Runoff sensitivity to local forcing changes is generally consistent with observations
    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Velocity-dependent capillary pressure in theory for variably-saturated liquid infiltration into porous media

      Markus Hilpert

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051114

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      Key Points

      • Theory for two-phase flow accounts for velocity-dependent capillary pressure
      • Saturation overshoot can be described as function of initial liquid content
      • The hydrostatic pressure distribution is correctly predicted
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      On the temporal variability of the virtual water network

      Joel A. Carr, Paolo D'Odorico, Francesco Laio and Luca Ridolfi

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051247

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      Key Points

      • The network has become more homogeneous but most of the flow is in few links/hub
      • 6–8% of the global population controls >50% of the net virtual water exports
      • The network is extremely dynamic and intermittent with few permanent links
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Vertical propagation of lakewide internal waves

      Stephen M. Henderson and Bridget R. Deemer

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050534

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      Key Points

      • In a small lake, observed seiche-like waves propagated vertically
      • Drag coefficient model predicted wave absorption in bottom boundary layer
      • Theoretically, propagation is favored in short, deep, strongly-stratified lakes
    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Hillslope asymmetry maps reveal widespread, multi-scale organization

      Michael J. Poulos, Jennifer L. Pierce, Alejandro N. Flores and Shawn G. Benner

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051283

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      Key Points

      • Hillslope asymmetry is mappable at local to global scales
      • Hillslope asymmetry is widespread, and varies at multiple scales
      • Asymmetry maps facilitate comparison with variations in environmental drivers
    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spontaneous formation and degradation of pool-riffle morphology and sediment sorting using a simple fractional transport model

      Gustavo Adolfo Mazza de Almeida and José F. Rodríguez

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051059

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      Key Points

      • Stream width variations play a key role in the formation of pools and riffles
      • The characteristic pool-riffle bed sorting cannot be achieved with steady flows
      • Flow-sediment-bed spatio-temporal interactions reinforce pool-riffle structure
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      A theoretical framework for the morphodynamics of bedrock channels

      Peter A. Nelson and Giovanni Seminara

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050806

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      Key Points

      • Existing morphodynamic theory requires sufficient sediment supply everywhere
      • We extend morphodynamic theory to address problems in bedrock channels
      • Sediment cover in bedrock channels tends to become spatially concentrated
    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Gross ecosystem photosynthesis causes a diurnal pattern in methane emission from rice

      Jaclyn A. Hatala, Matteo Detto and Dennis D. Baldocchi

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051303

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      Key Points

      • Gross ecosystem photosynthesis drives a diurnal pattern in rice methane flux
      • Fluctuations in soil temperature cannot explain the diurnal pattern
      • Close photosynthesis-methanogenesis coupling presides the entire rice season
  4. Oceans

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The impact of advective transport by the South Indian Ocean Countercurrent on the Madagascar plankton bloom

      F. Huhn, A. von Kameke, V. Pérez-Muñuzuri, M. J. Olascoaga and F. J. Beron-Vera

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051246

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      Key Points

      • SICC largely controls Madagascar plankton bloom
      • SICC provides eastward transport and meridional confinement
      • Bloom's origin probably located at south tip of Madagascar
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Tasman leakage in a fine-resolution ocean model

      Erik van Sebille, Matthew H. England, Jan D. Zika and Bernadette M. Sloyan

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051004

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      Key Points

      • In the OFES model, Tasman leakage is on average 4.2 Sv, 30% of ITF flux
      • Tasman leakage heat flux is between 0.08 and 0.18 PW, which is not insignificant
      • Less then half of Tasman leakage is within eddies, which affects monitoring
    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      On the impact of wind forcing on the seasonal variability of Weddell Sea Bottom Water transport

      Q. Wang, S. Danilov, E. Fahrbach, J. Schröter and T. Jung

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051198

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      Key Points

      • Answer how wind forcing influences the shelf water export
      • Answer how important is the gyre circulation for WSBW transport
      • Unstructured models are useful for answering questions linking different scales
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Linkages among interannual variations of shoreline, wave and climate at Hasaki, Japan

      Y. Kuriyama, M. Banno and T. Suzuki

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050704

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      Key Points

      • Interannual shoreline variation was induced by wave fluctuation
      • 45% of the shoreline variation was attributable to large-scale climate variation
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      Summer thermal structure and anticyclonic circulation of Lake Erie

      Dmitry Beletsky, Nathan Hawley, Yerubandi R. Rao, Henry A. Vanderploeg, Raisa Beletsky, David J. Schwab and Steven A. Ruberg

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051002

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      Key Points

      • Currents measured in the central basin were anticyclonic
      • Bowl-shaped thermocline is linked to Ekman pumping
    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      On nitrogen fixation and preferential remineralization of phosphorus

      F. M. Monteiro and M. J. Follows

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL050897

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      Key Points

      • Differential remineralization may explain observed subsurface maximum of N*
      • It may also account for observed temporal variability of N*
      • N*-geochemical methods could underestimate marine nitrogen fixation rates
    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Detection and projection of carbonate dissolution in the water column and deep-sea sediments due to ocean acidification

      Tatiana Ilyina and Richard E. Zeebe

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051272

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      Key Points

      • Carbonate dissolution has low potential to mitigate ocean acidification
      • Calcite undersaturation extending up to 100 m after 2100
      • Detectable dissolution-driven changes projected after 2070 in the surface ocean
  5. Solid Earth

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ambient-field Green's functions from asynchronous seismic observations

      Shuo Ma and Gregory C. Beroza

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050755

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      Key Points

      • The coda of amibent-noise Green's functions is stable over time
      • It is possible to extract Green's functions from data recorded asynchronously
      • A new mode for observational seismology is suggested
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      On the reported ionospheric precursor of the 1999 Hector Mine, California earthquake

      J. N. Thomas, J. J. Love, A. Komjathy, O. P. Verkhoglyadova, M. Butala and N. Rivera

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051022

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      Key Points

      • The essential results of Pulinets et al. (2007) are reproduced
      • Anomalous signal is part of normal global-scale TEC variation
      • The method of Pulinets at al. could not have been used for prediction
    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evidence of a partitioned dynamo reversal process from paleomagnetic recordings in Tahitian lavas

      Kenneth A. Hoffman and Nobutatsu Mochizuki

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050830

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      Key Points

      • Axial dipole and flux in the shallow core reverse quasi-independently
      • Two-stage geodynamo reversal process, possibly due to stratification
      • Supports contention of a long-held influence over pattern by lower-most mantle
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Elasticity of phase D and implication for the degree of hydration of deep subducted slabs

      Angelika D. Rosa, Carmen Sanchez-Valle and Sujoy Ghosh

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL050927

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      Key Points

      • Elasticity of phase D, a water carrier in cold suducted slabs
      • Plausible candidate to explain low velocity zones and shear splitting in Tonga
      • Implications for the degree of hydration of the deep subducted slab
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Influence of hydrogen on the electronic states of olivine: Implications for electrical conductivity

      Duojun Wang, Shun-ichiro Karato and Zaiyang Liu

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051046

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      Key Points

      • Dissolution of hydrogen in olivine modifies its electronic structure
      • Charged hydrogen-related species increase number of electron holes
      • Increased number of electron holes enhances electrical conductivity and creep
    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A year of lava fountaining at Etna: Volumes from SEVIRI

      G. Ganci, A. J. L. Harris, C. Del Negro, Y. Guehenneux, A. Cappello, P. Labazuy, S. Calvari and M. Gouhier

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051026

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      Key Points

      • Characterisation of radiant heat flux curves for Etna's 2011-12 lava fountains
      • A new cooling model to yield magnitude and intensity of fountaining events
      • Consistency of annual DRE volume and mean TADR with Etna's recent eruptive activity
    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      First volatile inventory for Gorely volcano, Kamchatka

      A. Aiuppa, G. Giudice, M. Liuzzo, G. Tamburello, P. Allard, S. Calabrese, I. Chaplygin, A. J. S. McGonigle and Y. Taran

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051177

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      Key Points

      • First gas inventory for Gorelyi volcano; refinement of Kamchatka gas budget
      • Assessment of volatile abundances and origins in NW Pacific mantle source
      • New constraints on volatile recycling at destructive (arc) plate margins
    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Are megaquakes clustered?

      Eric G. Daub, Eli Ben-Naim, Robert A. Guyer and Paul A. Johnson

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051465

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      Key Points

      • Large earthquakes do not cluster in time
      • Below M=7.3, earthquakes are clustered, though possibly due to data uncertainty
      • Transparent statistical measures can be used to study earthquake clustering
    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Recent geodetic unrest at Santorini Caldera, Greece

      Andrew V. Newman, Stathis Stiros, Lujia Feng, Panos Psimoulis, Fanis Moschas, Vasso Saltogianni, Yan Jiang, Costas Papazachos, Dimitris Panagiotopoulos, Eleni Karagianni and Domenikos Vamvakaris

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051286

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      Key Points

      • Santorini is deforming appreciably for the 1st time since its last eruption
      • A dense GPS network has unprecedented data coverage
      • Activity is centered in the region that blew-out in the 1650 BC Minoan Eruption
  6. Space Sciences

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Solar flare impacts on ionospheric electrodyamics

      Liying Qian, Alan G. Burns, Stanley C. Solomon and Phillip C. Chamberlin

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051102

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      Key Points

      • Flares have significant impacts on ionosphere electrodynamics
      • Upward ExB drifts initially weaken causing weakening of the Appleton anomaly
      • Upward ExB drifts strengthen for extended time causing extended TEC disturbance
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of amplitude modulation on nonlinear interactions between electrons and chorus waves

      X. Tao, J. Bortnik, R. M. Thorne, J. M. Albert and W. Li

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051202

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      Key Points

      • A method is shown to model realistic chorus packets
      • Chorus subpackets can affect nonlinear electron-chorus interactions
      • The subpackets should be included in modeling the electron-chorus interactions
    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Statistical modeling of plasmaspheric hiss amplitude using solar wind measurements and geomagnetic indices

      D. I. Golden, M. Spasojevic, W. Li and Y. Nishimura

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051185

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      Key Points

      • A model of hiss amplitude vs. L and MLT is described
      • This model is more accurate than a model which uses only AE* as input
      • Evolution of plasmaspheric hiss amplitude as a function of storm phase is shown
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Kelvin-Helmholtz stability of reconnection exhausts in the solar wind

      Y. L. Sasunov, V. S. Semenov, M. F. Heyn, I. V. Kubyshkin and H. K. Biernat

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051273

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      Key Points

      • Tangential discontinuities as boundaries of solar wind exhaust regions
      • Riemannian decay of a current sheet due to reconnection
      • Kelvin-Helmholtz analysis of solar wind exhaust boundaries
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Electric structure of dipolarization front at sub-proton scale

      H. S. Fu, Y. V. Khotyaintsev, A. Vaivads, M. André and S. Y. Huang

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051274

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      Key Points

      • We calculate E at DF using single- and four- spacecraft methods
      • Normal E is balanced by the Hall (dominant) and pressure gradient terms
      • At dawn flank, E is dawnward; At dusk flank, E is duskward
    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Plasma pressure generated auroral current system: A case study

      S. B. Mende, S. L. England and H. U. Frey

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051211

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      Key Points

      • Describes how pressure gradients produce auroral currents
      • In a case study shows that the currents are large enough to create auroras
      • Shows that closed magnetic field lines must be stretched for aurora generation
    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sudden intensity increases and radial gradient changes of cosmic ray MeV electrons and protons observed at Voyager 1 beyond 111 AU in the heliosheath

      W. R. Webber, F. B. McDonald, A. C. Cummings, E. C. Stone, B. Heikkila and N. Lal

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051171

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      Key Points

      • Structure in the outer heliosheath and the proximity to the heliopause
      • Galactic electron intensity increases and the overall heliospheric modulation
      • Periodic 13-27 day variations and their relation to the wavy current sheet
    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spacecraft charging near Enceladus

      H.-W. Hsu, M. Horányi, S. Kempf and E. Grün

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL050999

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      Key Points

      • Two dust currents are introduced for the spacecraft charging calculation
      • The spacecraft potential is neutralized by the dust currents
      • Dust impact plasma may affect in-situ thermal plasma measurements
  7. The Cryosphere

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Climate
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies
    5. Oceans
    6. Solid Earth
    7. Space Sciences
    8. The Cryosphere
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Regions of rapid sea ice change: An inter-hemispheric seasonal comparison

      Sharon Stammerjohn, Robert Massom, David Rind and Douglas Martinson

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL050874

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      Key Points

      • In some regions the ice-free season has increased by >3 months over the last 32 years
      • Anomalies in sea ice retreat & subsequent advance show strong correspondence
      • Results support a positive atmospheric-ocean-ice feedback over summer but not winter

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