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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 7

April 2012

Volume 39, Issue 7

  1. Atmospheric Science

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      Hemispheric dispersion of radioactive plume laced with fission nuclides from the Fukushima nuclear event

      Shih-Chieh Hsu, Chih-An Huh, Chuen-Yu Chan, Shuen-Hsin Lin, Fei-Jan Lin and Shaw Chen Liu

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL049986

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      Key Points

      • A round of hemispheric transport for Japan radiation clouds is about 18 days
      • The first two waves of radiation clouds transported at distinctive altitudes
      • A schematic model is constructed for the hemispheric dispersion
  2. Solid Earth

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      Normal-faulting earthquakes beneath the outer slope of the Japan Trench after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: Implications for the stress regime in the incoming Pacific plate

      Koichiro Obana, Gou Fujie, Tsutomu Takahashi, Yojiro Yamamoto, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Shuichi Kodaira, Narumi Takahashi, Yoshiyuki Kaneda and Masanao Shinohara

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050399

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      Key Points

      • OBS observations for outer trench slope earthquakes after the 2011 Tohoku EQ
      • Normal-faulting earthquakes in oceanic crust and mantle of the incoming plate
      • Stress regime in the Pacific plate was changed by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake
  3. Oceans

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      The 2011 Japan tsunami current velocity measurements from survivor videos at Kesennuma Bay using LiDAR

      Hermann M. Fritz, David A. Phillips, Akio Okayasu, Takenori Shimozono, Haijiang Liu, Fahad Mohammed, Vassilis Skanavis, Costas E. Synolakis and Tomoyuki Takahashi

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050686

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      Key Points

      • Application of LiDAR in post-tsunami survey
      • Tsunami video analysis using PIV
      • Video based tsunami water level time series
  4. Atmospheric Science

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      The effect of translation speed upon the intensity of tropical cyclones over the tropical ocean

      Wei Mei, Claudia Pasquero and François Primeau

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050765

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      Key Points

      • The intensity of TCs correlates with their translation speed in the tropics
      • Ave cold wake temperature is determined by TC intensity and translation speed
      • TC-induced ocean cooling feeds back onto the TC intensification process
  5. Oceans

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      Quantifying the impact of anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on oceanic nitrous oxide

      Parvadha Suntharalingam, Erik Buitenhuis, Corinne Le Quéré, Frank Dentener, Cynthia Nevison, James H. Butler, Hermann W. Bange and Grant Forster

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011GL050778

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      Key Points

      • Anthropogenic N deposition has modest global but high local impact on ocean N2O
      • Highest impact where high N deposition overlays hypoxic zones of high N2O yield
      • Previous scaling estimates omitted a source of new nitrogen in their analysis
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      The Arctic Ocean warms from below

      Eddy C. Carmack, William J. Williams, Sarah L. Zimmermann and Fiona A. McLaughlin

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL050890

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      Key Points

      • The deep water is warming at a measurable rate of ~0.0004 deg C yr-1
      • This heating is not escaping along the basin perimeter
      • A greater fraction of the heat escapes vertically than previously thought
  6. Solid Earth

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      Imaging of Erebus volcano using body wave seismic interferometry of Strombolian eruption coda

      J. A. Chaput, D. Zandomeneghi, R. C. Aster, H. Knox and P. R. Kyle

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL050956

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      Key Points

      • High resolution scattering image of an active volcano
      • Body seismic interferometry applied to eruption coda
  7. Climate

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
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      A reassessment of lake and wetland feedbacks on the North African Holocene climate

      G. Krinner, A.-M. Lézine, P. Braconnot, P. Sepulchre, G. Ramstein, C. Grenier and I. Gouttevin

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL050992

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      Key Points

      • Open-water surfaces lead to increased precipitation rates in North Africa
      • This provides a major positive feedback to the mid-Holocene
      • Climate models should take this effect into account
  8. Atmospheric Science

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      Diagnosing the influence of diabatic processes on the explosive deepening of extratropical cyclones

      Andreas H. Fink, Susan Pohle, Joaquim G. Pinto and Peter Knippertz

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051025

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      Key Points

      • Novel version of the classical surface pressure tendency equation is presented
      • Role of diabatic processes to deepening of extratropical cyclones is quantified
      • Predominance of diabatic contribution to deepening found for Xynthia and Klaus
  9. Solid Earth

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      Coseismic and postseismic deformation of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake constrained by GRACE gravimetry

      Lei Wang, C. K. Shum, Frederik J. Simons, Byron Tapley and Chunli Dai

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051104

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      Key Points

      • The total seismic moment is estimated from GRACE data
      • GRACE data are sensitive to the after-slip of the earthquake
      • Inversion of GRACE data can now quantify the earthquake deformation mechanism
  10. Oceans

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      The effect of wind mixing on the vertical distribution of buoyant plastic debris

      T. Kukulka, G. Proskurowski, S. Morét-Ferguson, D. W. Meyer and K. L. Law

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051116

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      Key Points

      • Plastic debris is vertically distributed due to wind-driven upper ocean mixing
      • Traditional measurements significantly underestimate marine plastic content
      • A geophysical approach must be taken to quantify marine plastic pollution
  11. Solid Earth

    1. Top of page
    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and cascading failure of the plate interface

      Eric Kiser and Miaki Ishii

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051170

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      Key Points

      • The 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake has frequency-dependent rupture behavior
      • Near-trench ruptures updip and south of the epicenter may be tsunami sources
      • Seismicity surrounding the mainshock gives insights into future seismic hazards
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      Tidal triggering of earthquakes prior to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.1)

      Sachiko Tanaka

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051179

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      Key Points

      • Tidal triggering prior to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake is observed
      • Triggering occurred in and near the initial rupture site of the mainshock
      • Influence existed over a decade-long period before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake
  12. Atmospheric Science

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      Ammonia sources in the California South Coast Air Basin and their impact on ammonium nitrate formation

      J. B. Nowak, J. A. Neuman, R. Bahreini, A. M. Middlebrook, J. S. Holloway, S. A. McKeen, D. D. Parrish, T. B. Ryerson and M. Trainer

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051197

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      Key Points

      • Mass of SoCAB ammonia emissions is similar from automobile and dairy sources
      • SoCAB dairy ammonia emissions are underrepresented in inventories
      • Dairy ammonia emissions have larger impact on SoCAB ammonium nitrate formation
  13. Space Sciences

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      First observations of 4fce auroral roar emissions

      Y. Sato, T. Ono, N. Sato and Y. Ogawa

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051205

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      Key Points

      • First observations of auroral roar near 4 times electron cyclotron frequency
      • The 4fce auroral roar occurs only under the sunlit condition from noon to evening
      • Its origin should be upper hybrid waves favorably generated at fUH ~ 4fce
  14. Solid Earth

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      Scale dependence of in-situ permeability measurements in the Nankai accretionary prism: The role of fractures

      David F. Boutt, Demian Saffer, Mai-Linh Doan, Weiren Lin, Takatoshi Ito, Yasuyuki Kano, Peter Flemings, Lisa C. McNeill, Timothy Byrne, Nicholas W. Hayman and Kyaw Thu Moe

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051216

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      Key Points

      • We present in-situ measurements of permeability in the active interior wedge
      • In-situ permeability is 3 orders of magnitude larger than core-based measures
      • Fractures and faults in the interior wedge material are fluid conduits
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      Satellite geodetic imaging reveals internal deformation of western Tibet

      H. Wang and T. J. Wright

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051222

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      Key Points

      • A new method to derive dense, regional-scale velocity fields from InSAR and GPS
      • High strain found away from the major mapped faults of western Tibet
      • Low slip rate of the Karakoram Fault (< 6 mm/yr) confirmed
  15. Atmospheric Science

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
    12. Solid Earth
    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
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    21. Oceans
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      Properties of deep convection in tropical continental, monsoon, and oceanic rainfall regimes

      Weixin Xu and Edward J. Zipser

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051242

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      Key Points

      • Clear regime separation exists among continent, monsoon, and oceanic convection
      • Regime variations are most evident in mixed-phase precipitation processes
      • Monsoon actives (breaks) are slightly more continental (oceanic) in nature
  16. Oceans

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
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    11. Oceans
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    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
    15. Solid Earth
    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
    19. Planets
    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      Direct measurement of volume flux in the Faroe-Shetland Channel and over the Iceland-Faroe Ridge

      T. Rossby and C. N. Flagg

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051269

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      Key Points

      • First direct measurement of exchange between the North Atlantic and Nordic Sea
      • Power of the direct measurement of currents from vessels in regular traffic
      • Will make accurate measurement of heat and salt flux possible
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      High frequency barotropic ocean variability observed by GRACE and satellite altimetry

      Katherine J. Quinn and Rui M. Ponte

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051301

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      Key Points

      • First global observational evidence for the barotropic ocean variability
      • Confirms previous theoretical and model-based studies of barotropic behavior
      • GRACE contains significant information over the oceans at subseasonal periods
  17. Space Sciences

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    2. Atmospheric Science
    3. Solid Earth
    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
    7. Solid Earth
    8. Climate
    9. Atmospheric Science
    10. Solid Earth
    11. Oceans
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    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
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    16. Atmospheric Science
    17. Oceans
    18. Space Sciences
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    20. Space Sciences
    21. Oceans
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      Modeling Arecibo conjugate heating effects with SAMI2

      T.-W. Wu, J. D. Huba, G. Joyce and P. A. Bernhardt

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051311

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      Key Points

      • Arecibo heater can affect topside conjugate ionosphere
      • Likely to occur for low-density ionosphere F region
      • Electron-N2 collisions primarily inhibit conjugate effects
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      Earth-based detection of Uranus' aurorae

      L. Lamy, R. Prangé, K. C. Hansen, J. T. Clarke, P. Zarka, B. Cecconi, J. Aboudarham, N. André, G. Branduardi-Raymont, R. Gladstone, M. Barthélémy, N. Achilleos, P. Guio, M. K. Dougherty, H. Melin, S. W. H. Cowley, T. S. Stallard, J. D. Nichols and G. Ballester

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051312

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      Key Points

      • We report the first Earth-based detections of Uranus aurorae
      • This enabled us to investigate the atypical Uranian magnetosphere
      • This opens a wide field of investigations of this poorly understood magnetosphere
  18. Planets

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    4. Oceans
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    8. Climate
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    13. Atmospheric Science
    14. Space Sciences
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      The density and porosity of lunar rocks

      Walter S. Kiefer, Robert J. Macke, Daniel T. Britt, Anthony J. Irving and Guy J. Consolmagno

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051319

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      Key Points

      • Accurate lunar rock densities are needed for geophysical modeling of the Moon
      • We provide density and porosity results for all 3 major lunar rock types
      • New densities and porosities are ~5 times more accurate than literature values
  19. Space Sciences

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    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
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    8. Climate
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      A suggestion that two-dimensional turbulence contributes to polar cap convection for Bz north

      M. C. Kelley and H.-J. Kim

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051347

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      Key Points

      • We explain polar cap convection when Bz is northward
      • High-latitude 2-D turbulence is driven by Alfven waves
      • The 2-D turbulence supports an inverse cascade related to 2 of the polar cap scales
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      First in-situ measurements of HF radar echoing targets

      J. Moen, K. Oksavik, T. Abe, M. Lester, Y. Saito, T. A. Bekkeng and K. S. Jacobsen

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051407

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      Key Points

      • First documentation of 10-m scale electron density structures
      • Shows how 10-m scale structures are located relative to km scale gradients
      • Gradients are sufficient for the gradient drift instability to operate
  20. Oceans

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    2. Atmospheric Science
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    4. Oceans
    5. Atmospheric Science
    6. Oceans
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    8. Climate
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      Storm-induced upwelling of high pCO2 waters onto the continental shelf of the western Arctic Ocean and implications for carbonate mineral saturation states

      Jeremy T. Mathis, Robert S. Pickart, Robert H. Byrne, Craig L. McNeil, G. W. K. Moore, Laurie W. Juranek, Xuewu Liu, Jian Ma, Regina A. Easley, Matthew M. Elliot, Jessica N. Cross, Stacey C. Reisdorph, Frank Bahr, Jamie Morison, Trina Lichendorf and Richard A. Feely

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051574

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      Key Points

      • Low pressure storm systems in the Arctic induce strong upwelling along the shelf
      • Upwelling leads to large fluxes of CO2 out of the ocean
      • Upwelling causes broad carbonate mineral suppression and undersaturation

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