Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Geophysical Research Letters

16 January 2013

Volume 40, Issue 1

Pages 1–231

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. Space Sciences

      Simulation of the seeding of equatorial spread F by circular gravity waves (pages 1–5)

      J. Krall, J. D. Huba, G. Joyce and Matthew Hei

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054022

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      Key points

      • The growth rate as function of field line maps the
      • Coupling to the F layer depends on the electron density at the
      • Coupling is strongest for non-plane gravity waves
    2. Modeling the plasmasphere with SAMI3 (pages 6–10)

      J. Huba and J. Krall

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054300

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      Key Points

      • First comprehensive 3D model of plasmasphere
      • Quiet time plasmasphere density profiles reproduced
      • Storm time contraction and plume formation demonstrated
    3. The dependence of magnetic reconnection on plasma β and magnetic shear: Evidence from magnetopause observations (pages 11–16)

      T. D. Phan, G. Paschmann, J. T. Gosling, M Oieroset, M. Fujimoto, J. F. Drake and V. Angelopoulos

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054528

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      Key Points

      • Reconnection onset conditions revealed
      • Findings in good agreement with theory
      • Findings applicable to all space and laboratory plasmas
    4. The lunar wake current systems (pages 17–21)

      S. Fatemi, M. Holmström, Y. Futaana, S. Barabash and C. Lue

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054635

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      Key Points

      • The current systems in the Lunar plasma wake are shown
      • The currents depend on the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field
      • The wake currents bound different plasma regions in the Lunar wake
    5. Spontaneous formation of dipolarization fronts and reconnection onset in the magnetotail (pages 22–27)

      M. I. Sitnov, N. Buzulukova, M. Swisdak, V. G. Merkin and T. E. Moore

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054701

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      Key Points

      • Spontaneous reconnection onset is possible in the magnetotail
      • Onset conditions are consistent with the tearing stability theory
      • Magnetotail reconnection starts from the formation of a dipolarization front
    6. Planets

      On the origin of mascon basins on the Moon (and beyond) (pages 28–32)

      Andrew J. Dombard, Steven A. Hauck II and Jeffrey A. Balcerski

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054310

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      Key Points

      • We remove region trends to explore gravity anomalies of large lunar craters
      • Most possess a bulls-eye pattern, with the remaining likely evolved away
      • Formation of mascon basins may be common on the terrestrial planets
    7. High pressure and temperature electrical resistivity of iron and implications for planetary cores (pages 33–37)

      Liwei Deng, Christopher Seagle, Yingwei Fei and Anat Shahar

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054347

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      Key Points

      • High pressure and temperature electrical resistance of Fe were measured
      • Temperature dependences of thermal conductivity of Fe were determined
      • Heat flux conducted at Mercury's and Martian outmost core were estimated
    8. Topographic characterization of lunar complex craters (pages 38–42)

      Jessica Kalynn, Catherine L. Johnson, Gordon R. Osinski and Olivier Barnouin

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053608

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      Key Points

      • New depth-diameter relationships for mare and highland complex craters
      • New central peak height-diameter relationship for mare, highland complex craters
      • Significantly deeper depths than previously reported
    9. Compositional effects in Titan's thermospheric gravity waves (pages 43–47)

      J. Cui, Y. Lian and I. C. F. Müller-Wodarg

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054621

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      Key Points

      • Wave structures are persistently seen in Titan's upper atmosphere
      • Compositional effects are seen in the N2, CH4, H2, and 29N2 wave structures
      • Wave-induced diffusion is important for CH4 and H2
    10. Solid Earth

      3-D active source tomography around Simeulue Island offshore Sumatra: Thick crustal zone responsible for earthquake segment boundary (pages 48–53)

      Genyang Tang, Penny J. Barton, Lisa C. McNeill, Timothy J. Henstock, Frederik Tilmann, Simon M. Dean, Muhammad D. Jusuf, Yusuf S. Djajadihardja, Haryadi Permana, Frauke Klingelhoefer and Heidrun Kopp

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054148

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      • Active travel-time tomography gives velocity model of Sumatra subduction zone
      • Top of the oceanic crust is imaged by multichannel seismic data
      • Thick crustal zone exerts control on the segmentation of the subduction zone
    11. Climatic impact of the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano in China: New insights from high-precision radiocarbon wiggle-match dating (pages 54–59)

      Jiandong Xu, Bo Pan, Tanzhuo Liu, Irka Hajdas, Bo Zhao, Hongmei Yu, Ruoxin Liu and Ping Zhao

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054246

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      Key Points

      • A new chronology of A.D. 946 for the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano
      • Millennium eruption has smaller climatic effects than implied by its magnitude
    12. Earthquake source parameters from GPS-measured static displacements with potential for real-time application (pages 60–65)

      Thomas B. O'Toole, Andrew P. Valentine and John H. Woodhouse

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054209

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      Key Points

      • Iterative inversion of static displacements for earthquake source parameters
      • Real-time inversion on a single standard workstation without precomputed kernels
      • No need for a priori knowledge of fault plane location and geometry
    13. Simultaneous partitioning of silicon and oxygen into the Earth's core during early Earth differentiation (pages 66–71)

      Kyusei Tsuno, Daniel J. Frost and David C. Rubie

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054116

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      Key Points

      • Multianvil experiments to understand the Si and O partitioning into the core
      • Both Si and O into the 's core, that explain the outer-core density deficit
      • O- and Si-enriched buoyant layer at the top of the outer core
    14. The role of Coulomb stress changes for injection-induced seismicity: The Basel enhanced geothermal system (pages 72–77)

      Flaminia Catalli, Men-Andrin Meier and Stefan Wiemer

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054147

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      Key Points

      • Static stress changes are estimated for an injection-induced sequence
      • Earthquake interactions alone play a role in the triggering process
      • A sensitivity analysis of the Coulomb model is performed
    15. Deformation at depth associated with the 12 May 2008 MW 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake from seismic ambient noise monitoring (pages 78–82)

      B. Froment, M. Campillo, J.H. Chen and Q.Y. Liu

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053995

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      Key Points

      • Seismic velocity changes are used to study deformation around the Wenchuan event
      • We examine velocity changes which are related to deformation in the middle crust
      • Observations suggest a post-seismic and geology-dependent deformation
    16. Systematic changes in the incoming plate structure at the Kuril trench (pages 88–93)

      Gou Fujie, Shuichi Kodaira, Mikiya Yamashita, Takeshi Sato, Tsutomu Takahashi and Narumi Takahashi

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054340

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      Key Points

      • Wide-angle seismic survey in NW Pacific margin before subduction in Kuril trench
      • Changes in Vp/Vs ratio within the incoming Pacific plate
      • Increase of water content within the oceanic crust before subduction
    17. First principles viscosity and derived models for MgO-SiO2 melt system at high temperature (pages 94–99)

      Bijaya B. Karki, Jian Zhang and Lars Stixrude

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054372

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      Key Points

      • Melt viscosity of entire MgO-SiO2 varying with temperature
      • First intensive first principles viscosity results and models
      • Thermal regime expected in magma ocean sampled and implication
    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Can teleseismic mb be affected by rock damage around explosions? (pages 100–104)

      Steven R. Taylor and Howard J. Patton

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054526

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      Key Points

      • Teleseismic P waves are simulated with a source model for explosions + damage
      • P waves from damage interfere with explosion P waves, affecting mb yield scaling
      • Seismic radiation from damage can affect yield estimation, source discrimination
    19. The magnetism of mantle xenoliths and potential implications for sub-Moho magnetic sources (pages 105–110)

      Eric C. Ferré, Sarah A. Friedman, Fatíma Martín-Hernández, Joshua M. Feinberg, James A. Conder and Dmitri A. Ionov

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054100

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      Key Points

      • The uppermost mantle systematically host magnetite
      • The uppermost mantle can be cold enough to carry a magnetic remanence
      • The mantle has different magnetic properties in different tectonic settings
    20. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

      Subsurface mass transport affects the radioxenon signatures that are used to identify clandestine nuclear tests (pages 111–115)

      J. D. Lowrey, S. R. Biegalski, A. G. Osborne and M. R. Deinert

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053885

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      Key Points

      • Subsurface transport affects the identification of below ground nuclear tests
      • Barometric cycling and a time dependent source for radioxenon couple
      • Current standards for detecting nuclear tests will miss some
    21. Enhanced transfer of terrestrially derived carbon to the atmosphere in a flooding event (pages 116–122)

      Thomas S. Bianchi, Fenix Garcia-Tigreros, Shari A. Yvon-Lewis, Michael Shields, Heath J. Mills, David Butman, Christopher Osburn, Peter Raymond, G. Christopher Shank, Steven F. DiMarco, Nan Walker, Brandi Kiel Reese, Ruth Mullins-Perry, Antonietta Quigg, George R. Aiken and Ethan L. Grossman

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054145

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      Key Points

      • Flooding resulted net changes in waters from a net sink to source of CO2
      • Terrestrially-derived carbon was correlated with CO2 fluxes
      • Flooding resulted in significant changes in microbial population species
    22. Toward quantifying discrete groundwater discharge from frozen seepage faces using thermal infrared images (pages 123–127)

      Priyanka Pandey, Tom Gleeson and Michel Baraer

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054315

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      Key Points

      • We observed two distinct thermal zones at the surface of the ice formations
      • Discharge from discrete features can be quantified using infrared imaging
    23. Statistics of bedload transport over steep slopes: Separation of time scales and collective motion (pages 128–133)

      J. Heyman, F. Mettra, H. B. Ma and C. Ancey

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054280

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      Key points

      • Review of the possible physical origins for collective dynamics in bedload.
      • Experimental results of bedload transport over a steep slope flume.
      • Theoretical analysis of a stochastic model and comparison with experiments.
    24. Cryosphere

      Marine ice deformation experiments: an empirical validation of creep parameters (pages 134–138)

      Marie Dierckx and Jean-Louis Tison

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054197

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      Key points

      • Experimental value of marine ice creep parameters
      • Confirmation of a generalized temperature/viscosity relationship
      • Leads to a new understanding of the observed low viscosities for marine ice
    25. Oceans

      Multi-decadal trends in the advection and mixing of natural carbon in the Southern Ocean (pages 139–142)

      Nicole S. Lovenduski, Matthew C. Long, Peter R. Gent and Keith Lindsay

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054483

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      Key Points

      • GCM predicts Southern Ocean CO2 outgassing trend driven by wind increase
      • Increased eddy-induced advection of carbon opposes Eulerian tendency
      • Eddy-induced advection of carbon is sensitive to parameterization coefficient
    26. Contribution of ocean current to the increase in N abundance in the Northwestern Pacific marginal seas (pages 143–148)

      Seung-Kyu Kim, Kyung-Il Chang, Bongguk Kim and Yang-Ki Cho

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054545

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      Key Points

      • Rapid increase of N abundance in the Northwestern Pacific Marginal Seas
      • N budget considering the major current system was quantitatively calculated
      • Ocean currents is crucial factor causing the variation in the N:P ratio
    27. Modeling the impact of reduced sea ice cover in future climate on the Baltic Sea biogeochemistry (pages 149–154)

      K. Eilola, S. Mårtensson and H. E. M. Meier

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054375

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      Key Points

      • Sea ice retreat increases underwater light and causes earlier spring bloom
      • Accelerated winds on ice free areas increases wave height and mixing
      • Increased wave action causes increased sediment resuspension in the Baltic Sea
    28. Linking atmospheric dimethyl sulfide and the Arctic Ocean spring bloom (pages 155–160)

      Ki-Tae Park, Kitack Lee, Young-Jun Yoon, Hyun-Woo Lee, Hyun-Cheol Kim, Bang-Yong Lee, Ove Hermansen, Tae-Wook Kim and Kim Holmén

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054560

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      Key Points

      • The airborne DMS reflected meteorological and ocean states
      • Variations (>1 week) in airborne DMS were associated with variations in chl-a
      • Variations (<1 week) in airborne DMS were associated with meteorological state
    29. Variable behavior in pycnocline mixing over shelf seas (pages 161–166)

      M. R. Palmer, J. A. Polton, M. E. Inall, T. P. Rippeth, J. A. M. Green, J. Sharples and J. H. Simpson

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054638

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      Key Points

      • Turbulence follows different ordered distribution dependent on forcing mechanism
      • Mixing models have varying success in predicting different mixing features
      • There are concerns over missing physics in models and measurement length scales
    30. A unique seasonal pattern in dissolved elemental mercury in the South China Sea, a tropical and monsoon-dominated marginal sea (pages 167–172)

      C. M. Tseng, C. H. Lamborg and S. C. Hsu

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054457

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      • A unique seasonal DEM exhibited a summer maximum and winter minimum
      • The elevated DEM concentration in summer appears mainly abiologically driven
      • High Hg emission rate data implies the SCS may receive environmental pollution
    31. Climate

      Seismic anisotropy of subducting oceanic uppermost mantle from fossil spreading (pages 173–177)

      Pascal Audet

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054328

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      Key points

      • We find ubiquity of seismic anisotropy of uppermost subducting slab mantle
      • Anisotropy is consistent with alignment of olivine within dry mantle
      • Fast axis orientation is consistent with fabric from fossil spreading
    32. Cirrus cloud seeding has potential to cool climate (pages 178–182)

      T. Storelvmo, J. E. Kristjansson, H. Muri, M. Pfeffer, D. Barahona and A. Nenes

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054201

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      Key Points

      • Cirrus seeding could potentially counter global warming
      • Successful seeding requires improved knowledge of upper tropospheric conditions
      • Premature implementation may have the opposite of desired effect
    33. How stationary is the relationship between Siberian snow and Arctic Oscillation over the 20th century? (pages 183–188)

      Y. Peings, E. Brun, V. Mauvais and H. Douville

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054083

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      Key Points

      • Fall snow cover from 20CR reanalysis is realistic over the 20th century
      • The snow-AO teleconnection is not stationary over the 20th century
      • The snow-AO relationship could have been modulated by the QBO
    34. Global warming in an independent record of the past 130 years (pages 189–193)

      D. M. Anderson, E. M. Mauk, E. R. Wahl, C. Morrill, A. J. Wagner, D. Easterling and T. Rutishauser

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054271

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      Key points

      • Global warming is observed in an independent record of the past 130 years
      • Vets upward trend in thermometer record including two periods of upward trend
      • Paleo data with physical links to temperature can be used without calibration
    35. Carbonate leaching processes in the Red Clay Formation, Chinese Loess Plateau: Fingerprinting East Asian summer monsoon variability during the late Miocene and Pliocene (pages 194–198)

      Tong He, Yang Chen, William Balsam, Xiaoke Qiang, Lianwen Liu, Jun Chen and Junfeng Ji

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053786

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      Key Points

      • Carbonate leaching in Red Clay relates to changes in MS and marine d18O
      • The Pliocene Asian monsoon operated in a manner similar to the Quaternary
      • The presences of intense EAM event do not support Pliocene permanent El Nino
    36. Direct ventilation of the North Pacific did not reach the deep ocean during the last deglaciation (pages 199–203)

      S. L. Jaccard and E. D. Galbraith

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054118

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      Key points

      • No North Pacific deep water ventilation during HS1
      • Deep North Pacific ventilation increased at the onset of B/A
    37. Delayed winter warming: A robust decadal response to strong tropical volcanic eruptions? (pages 204–209)

      Davide Zanchettin, Claudia Timmreck, Oliver Bothe, Stephan J. Lorenz, Gabriele Hegerl, Hans-F. Graf, Jürg Luterbacher and Johann H. Jungclaus

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054403

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      Key Points

      • Volcanic forcing has long-lasting repercussions on European winter climate
      • The decadal climate response to volcanic forcing entails European warm winters
      • This delayed winter warming is tractable only in a statistical sense
    38. Climate

      The sign of the radiative forcing from marine cloud brightening depends on both particle size and injection amount (pages 210–215)

      K. Alterskjær and J. E. Kristjánsson

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054286

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      Key Points

      • Sign of radiative forcing from cloud seeding is particle size dependent
      • Sign of radiative forcing from cloud seeding is injection amount dependent
      • Injecting the wrong sea salt size or amount may warm the climate system
    39. Atmospheric Science

      Electromagnetic waves observed on a flight over a Venus electrical storm (pages 216–220)

      C. T. Russell, H. Leinweber, T. L. Zhang, J. T. M. Daniels, R. J. Strangeway and H. Wei

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054308

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      Key Points

      • There is electrical activity in the atmosphere of Venus
      • A new phenomenon is seen: ULF waves propagating upward out of the atmosphere
      • Transient ELF waves near storms exhibit dispersion
    40. Large interannual variations in nonmethane volatile organic compound emissions based on measurements of carbon monoxide (pages 221–226)

      Keyhong Park, Louisa K. Emmons, Zhihui Wang and John E. Mak

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052303

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      Key Points

      • Large interannual variation of NMVOC-derive CO
      • Robust correlation between NMHC-derive CO and Oceanic Niño Index
      • Strong temperature dependence of the NH extra-tropical NMVOC-derived CO
    41. The impact of rain on ice nuclei populations at a forested site in Colorado (pages 227–231)

      A. J. Prenni, Y. Tobo, E. Garcia, P. J. DeMott, J. A. Huffman, C. S. McCluskey, S. M. Kreidenweis, J. E. Prenni, C. Pöhlker and U. Pöschl

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053953

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      Key Points

      • Ice nuclei were measured directly during precipitation events
      • Ice nuclei were observed to increase during and after precipitation events
      • A fraction of these ice nuclei were of biological origin

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