Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 10

28 May 2013

Volume 40, Issue 10

Pages 1895–2477

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Space Sciences

      Global distribution of equatorial magnetosonic waves observed by THEMIS (pages 1895–1901)

      Qianli Ma, Wen Li, Richard M. Thorne and Vassilis Angelopoulos

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50434

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • Study the locations and conditions for the strongest MS waves and AE* effects
      • Compare the MS wave distribution inside and outside the plasmapause
      • Present the lower and higher frequency bands MS wave distributions
    2. Longitude dependences of Saturn's ultraviolet aurora (pages 1902–1906)

      J. F. Carbary

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50430

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • First statistical FUV map of Saturn aurora in SLS4 radio longitude system
      • Aurora patterns emerge in both intensity and boundaries only in SLS4 south
      • Tentative identification of predicted ionospheric vortex -- but only in south
    3. Observations of exosphere variations during geomagnetic storms (pages 1907–1911)

      J. Bailey and M. Gruntman

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50443

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • First observations of exosphere variations during geomagnetic events
      • Correlation of exospheric density with time-integrated main-phase Dst index
      • Limited duration of exospheric density enhancements
  2. Regular Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Space Sciences

      High time resolution observations of HF cross-modulation within the D region ionosphere (pages 1912–1916)

      J. Langston and R. C. Moore

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50391

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • HAARP-modified D-region absorption is quantified.
      • HF cross-modulation probing can be applied to long-duration heating experiments.
      • Large HAARP-induced HF Doppler shifts are reported for the first time.
    2. Effect of the ring current on preconditioning the magnetosphere for steady magnetospheric convection (pages 1917–1921)

      L. Juusola, N. Partamies and E. Tanskanen

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50405

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The ring current is enhanced during the majority of SMCs
      • Solar wind driving is similar but the ring current weaker before the SMC
      • The ring current is similar but solar wind driving weaker/stronger after the SMC
  3. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Space Sciences

      The importance of pickup oxygen ion precipitation to the Mars upper atmosphere under extreme solar wind conditions (pages 1922–1927)

      Xiaohua Fang, Stephen W. Bougher, Robert E. Johnson, Janet G. Luhmann, Yingjuan Ma, Yung-Ching Wang and Michael W. Liemohn

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50415

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • pickup O+ is important to the Mars thermosphere during space weather events
      • Temperature can be greatly enhanced and composition and wind can be altered
      • Sputtering loss and possibly heavy species thermal escape become more important
    2. Annual/semiannual variation of the ionosphere (pages 1928–1933)

      Liying Qian, Alan G. Burns, Stanley C. Solomon and Wenbin Wang

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50448

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Turbulent mixing in the mesopause drives composition change in the thermosphere
      • The turbulent mixing shows seasonal changes
      • Composition change drives the annual/semiannual variation in the ionosphere
    3. Langmuir “snakes” and electrostatic decay in the solar wind (pages 1934–1939)

      D. B. Graham, Iver H. Cairns and P. A. Robinson

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50475

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Observed Langmuir waveforms and spectra are consistent with predictions
      • Evidence for electrostatic decay in type III source regions is found
    4. EMIC waves growth and guiding in the presence of cold plasma density irregularities (pages 1940–1944)

      M. de Soria-Santacruz, M. Spasojevic and L. Chen

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50484

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Plasmaspheric plume structures result in both increased/suppressed wave activity
      • We do not observe growth in depletion ducts for any initial wave normal angle
      • Wave guiding possible for structure size of the order of EMIC wavelength
    5. Variation in total electron content above large thunderstorms (pages 1945–1949)

      Erin H. Lay, Xuan-Min Shao and Charles S. Carrano

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50499

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • TEC deviations are associated with a large nighttime mesoscale thunderstorm
      • Largest variation is ~1.4 TECU over a background value of several TECUs
      • Variations near storm have periods of minutes to tens of minutes
  4. Corrections

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Space Sciences

      You have free access to this content
      Correction to “Pc2 EMIC waves generated high off the equator in the dayside outer magnetosphere” (pages 1950–1951)

      Y. H. Liu, B. J. Fraser, F. W. Menk, J.-C. Zhang, L. M. Kistler and I. Dandouras

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50283

      • image
      This article corrects:

      Pc2 EMIC waves generated high off the equator in the dayside outer magnetosphere

      Vol. 39, Issue 17, Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012

  5. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Planets

      The semidiurnal tide in the middle atmosphere of Mars (pages 1952–1959)

      Armin Kleinböhl, R. John Wilson, David Kass, John T. Schofield and Daniel J. McCleese

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50497

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • MCS observes a strong semi-diurnal tide in Mars' atmosphere at all seasons.
      • Radiatively active water ice clouds provide tidal forcing.
      • The vertical structure of aerosols is essential to model Mars' atmosphere.
    2. The dependence of peak electron density in the ionosphere of Mars on solar irradiance (pages 1960–1964)

      Z. Girazian and P. Withers

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50344

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A proxy for the ionizing flux can be calculated by integrating solar spectra
      • Peak densities are proportional to the square-root of the ionizing flux
      • F10.7 and E10.7 are inaccurate proxies for the ionizing flux at Mars
    3. Geochemical profile of a layered outcrop in the Atacama analogue using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Implications for Curiosity investigations in Gale (pages 1965–1970)

      Pablo Sobron, Catherine Lefebvre, Richard Leveille, Alex Koujelev, Timothy Haltigin, Hongwei Du, Alian Wang, Nathalie Cabrol, Kris Zacny, Jack Craft and The LiTA 2012 Team

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50261

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Fast LIBS analysis generate semi-quantitative chemical profiles
      • LIBS is a tactical tool on MSL for remote, rapid survey of layered outcrops
      • Combined Raman/LIBS provides mineralogical/chemical evaluation of targets
    4. Solid Earth

      New insights into the 2012 Emilia (Italy) seismic sequence through advanced numerical modeling of ground deformation InSAR measurements (pages 1971–1977)

      P. Tizzani, R. Castaldo, G. Solaro, S. Pepe, M. Bonano, F. Casu, M. Manunta, M. Manzo, A. Pepe, S. Samsonov, R. Lanari and E. Sansosti

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50290

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Detection of active seismogenic structures responsible for ground deformation
      • Evaluate the role of tectonic constrain on the modulation of ground deformation
      • Provide a detailed characterization of the rock failure mechanisms
    5. Pleistocene loess in the humid subtropical forest zone of East Asia (pages 1978–1983)

      Janet E. Nichol and Douglas W. Nichol

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50426

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Thick deposits of loess dated to late Pleistocene discovered in east Asia
      • Source of loess is east Asian shelf exposed during Pleistocene arid phases
      • Recent reconstructions of Pleistocene aridity in east Asia may be conservative.
    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Tectonic overpressure in weak crustal-scale shear zones and implications for the exhumation of high-pressure rocks (pages 1984–1988)

      Stefan M. Schmalholz and Yuri Y. Podladchikov

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50417

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Viscous heating generates weak and stable crustal shear zones during shortening
      • High tectonic overpressure occurs in shear zone despite low differential stress
      • HP-UHP rocks can form in weak crustal thrust-type shear zones
    7. The plumbing of Old Faithful Geyser revealed by hydrothermal tremor (pages 1989–1993)

      J. Vandemeulebrouck, P. Roux and E. Cros

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50422

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Hydrothermal tremor sources are precisely localized using array processing
      • Tracking of tremor sources reveals a cavity that acts as a recharge reservoir
      • Oscillating behavior can be explained by fluid compressibility in the cavity
    8. Coupling of Hawaiian volcanoes only during overpressure condition (pages 1994–1999)

      Manoochehr Shirzaei, Thomas R. Walter and Roland Bürgmann

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50470

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Identifying Hawaiian volcano coupling during mantle surge
      • Discovering an earthquake-volcano-volcano interaction on Hawaii
      • InSAR-based time-dependent model of deformation sources on Hawaii
    9. Formation mechanism of steep convergent intracontinental margins: Insights from numerical modeling (pages 2000–2005)

      Lin Chen, Taras V. Gerya, Zhong-Jie Zhang, Alan Aitken, Zhong-Hai Li and Xiao-Feng Liang

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50446

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Eastern Tibet margin was formed by collision of plates with distinct characters
      • Eastern Tibet margin is typical of steep intracontinental convergent margins
      • Lower crustal flow is not a pre-requisite for growth of steep topography margin
    10. Seismic evidence for high pore pressures in the oceanic crust: Implications for fluid-related embrittlement (pages 2006–2010)

      Takahiro Shiina, Junichi Nakajima and Toru Matsuzawa

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50468

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Estimation of Vp in the crust of the Pacific slab using PS-converted waves
      • Reduction in Vp in the forearc by ~10% from MORB model
      • A link between crustal seismicity and low-velocity in the subduting crust
    11. Geometrical effects of a subducted seamount on stopping megathrust ruptures (pages 2011–2016)

      Hongfeng Yang, Yajing Liu and Jian Lin

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50509

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A seamount can stop ruptures with a reduction in normal stress
      • The reduction in normal stress is dependent on seamount-nucleation distance
      • The reduction in normal stress also depends on seamount height-width ratio
    12. Buoyant currents arrested by convective dissolution (pages 2017–2022)

      Christopher W. MacMinn and Ruben Juanes

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50473

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Convective dissolution will arrest the upslope migration of the buoyant CO2
      • Our experiments elucidate the coarsening behavior of the convective fingering
      • Convective dissolution exerts a powerful control on CO2 sequestration
    13. Microfractures within the fault damage zone record the history of fault activity (pages 2023–2027)

      Kazuo Mizoguchi and Keiichi Ueta

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50469

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Microfracture analysis can be used to examine the history of fault activity
    14. An experimental study of the influence of graphite on the electrical conductivity of olivine aggregates (pages 2028–2032)

      Duojun Wang, Shun-ichiro Karato and Zhenting Jiang

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50471

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Graphite formed from diamond at high P,T has thin disk-shape morphology
      • For graphite to enhance conductivity depends on volume fraction and geometry
      • Higher carbon content may explain the observed high conductivity in some regions
    15. Seismoelectric effects due to mesoscopic heterogeneities (pages 2033–2037)

      Damien Jougnot, J. Germán Rubino, Marina Rosas Carbajal, Niklas Linde and Klaus Holliger

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50472

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Seismoelectric effects due to mesoscopic heterogeneities are simulated
      • Measurable seismoelectric signals for typical laboratory conditions are observed
      • These responses contain information on key hydraulic properties of the medium
    16. Montserrat geothermal system: A 3D conceptual model (pages 2038–2043)

      G. A. Ryan, J. R. Peacock, E. Shalev and J. Rugis

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50489

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Geothermal system conceptual model derived from three geophysical data sets
      • Joint interpretation of magnetotelluric, tomographic and seismicity data
      • Three-dimensional conceptual model of Montserrat geothermal system
    17. Diapiric ascent of silicic magma beneath the Bolivian Altiplano (pages 2044–2048)

      Rodrigo del Potro, Mikel Díez, Jon Blundy, Antonio G. Camacho and Joachim Gottsmann

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50493

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Gravity survey over shallow-crustal, magmatic structures in a flare-up setting
      • Low-density partially molten structures massively rooted at source
      • Diapiric ascent of granitic magmas in a region of thickened continental crust
    18. Acoustic emissions document stress changes over many seismic cycles in stick-slip experiments (pages 2049–2054)

      T. H. W. Goebel, D. Schorlemmer, T. W. Becker, G. Dresen and C. G. Sammis

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50507

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • series of seismic cycles on structurally-complex, laboratory-created faults
      • b value is connected to applied stress over many seismic cycles
      • increase in b value correlates with stress release during failure
    19. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

      Characterizing groundwater flow and heat transport in fractured rock using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (pages 2055–2059)

      T. Read, O. Bour, V. Bense, T. Le Borgne, P. Goderniaux, M.V. Klepikova, R. Hochreutener, N. Lavenant and V. Boschero

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50397

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • FO-DTS detects fracture flows of ≅4 L min−1
      • Temperature response of fracture zones calculated for thermal tracer test
      • Most significant fracture for solute transport not the most significant for heat
    20. Modeling errors in daily precipitation measurements: Additive or multiplicative? (pages 2060–2065)

      Yudong Tian, George J. Huffman, Robert F. Adler, Ling Tang, Mathew Sapiano, Viviana Maggioni and Huan Wu

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50320

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Uncertainty is defined and quantified by an error model
      • Three criteria can be used to evaluate an error model
      • Multiplicative error model should be used for daily precipitation measurements
    21. A connection to deep groundwater alters ecosystem carbon fluxes and budgets: Example from a Costa Rican rainforest (pages 2066–2070)

      David P. Genereux, Laura A. Nagy, Christopher L. Osburn and Steven F. Oberbauer

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50423

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Input of regional groundwater can alter ecosystem C concentrations and fluxes
      • This must be considered for accurate assessment of C budget & source/sink status
    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evapotranspiration amplifies European summer drought (pages 2071–2075)

      Adriaan J. Teuling, Anne F. Van Loon, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Irene Lehner, Marc Aubinet, Bernard Heinesch, Christian Bernhofer, Thomas Grünwald, Heiko Prasse and Uwe Spank

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50495

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Storage anomaly change drivers attributed to observed fluxes
      • Evapotranspiration amplifies effect of negative precipitation anomalies
      • Negative runoff anomalies reduce storage anomalies
    23. Scaling of fluid flow versus fracture stiffness (pages 2076–2080)

      Christopher L. Petrovitch, David D. Nolte and Laura J. Pyrak-Nolte

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50479

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A universal scaling function between fluid flow and fracture stiffness exists
      • The topology of a fracture holds the key to this universal scaling function
      • This link leads to remote methods of probing flow properties in fractures
    24. Hyperpycnal plume-derived fans in the Santa Barbara Channel, California (pages 2081–2086)

      Jonathan A. Warrick, Alexander R. Simms, Andy Ritchie, Elisabeth Steel, Pete Dartnell, James E. Conrad and David P. Finlayson

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50488

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Marine surveys provide evidence of hyperpycnal-plume derived morphology
      • Depositional morphology is consistent with gravity current processes
      • Hyperpycnal plumes can dictate marine sedimentation patterns
    25. The importance of ebullition as a mechanism of methane (CH4) loss to the atmosphere in a northern peatland (pages 2087–2090)

      Imelda Stamp, Andy J. Baird and Catherine M. Heppell

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50501

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Ebullition important mechanism of CH4 flux to atmosphere from a northern bog
      • Ebullition spatially and temporally very variable
      • No significant difference in ebullition between two common microhabitats
    26. Cryosphere

      Recent warming at Summit, Greenland: Global context and implications (pages 2091–2096)

      Daniel McGrath, William Colgan, Nicolas Bayou, Atsuhiro Muto and Konrad Steffen

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50456

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • NSAT at Summit has increased by 0.09°C/a between 1982-2011
      • Rate of warming is in the 99th percentile of all globally observed trends
      • Observed upward migration of the 0°C isotherm at 35 m/a
    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      When will the summer Arctic be nearly sea ice free? (pages 2097–2101)

      James E. Overland and Muyin Wang

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50316

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • It is likely that summer Arctic will be nearly sea ice free before mid-century
      • There is a possibility of a nearly sea ice free summer within the next decade
      • It is likely that many GCMs are too conservative in their sea ice projections
    28. Atmospheric temperature changes over the 20th century at very high elevations in the European Alps from englacial temperatures (pages 2102–2108)

      A. Gilbert and C. Vincent

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50401

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • First secular temperatures reconstruction at very high elevation in the Alps
      • New method based on simultaneous inversion of multiple englacial profiles
      • Suggest no altitude dependency of air temperature trends over the last century
    29. Rapid loss of firn pore space accelerates 21st century Greenland mass loss (pages 2109–2113)

      J. H. van Angelen, J. T. M. Lenaerts, M. R. van den Broeke, X. Fettweis and E. van Meijgaard

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50490

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Refreezing potential of the Greenland icesheet is rapidly lost
      • A realistic scenario for the Greenland icesheet SMB in the 21st century
    30. Variability in the surface temperature and melt extent of the Greenland ice sheet from MODIS (pages 2114–2120)

      Dorothy K. Hall, Josefino C. Comiso, Nicolo E. DiGirolamo, Christopher A. Shuman, Jason E. Box and Lora S. Koenig

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50240

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The surface temperature of the Greenland ice sheet is increasing
      • The rate of increase is greatest in the northwestern part of the ice sheet
      • Major melt events may be increasing as the climate warms
    31. Initial-value predictability of Antarctic sea ice in the Community Climate System Model 3 (pages 2121–2124)

      Marika M. Holland, Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Jennifer Kay and Steven Vavrus

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50410

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Antarctic ice predictability on seasonal to inter-annual timescales is assessed
      • Results suggest significant predictability with an eastward propagating signal
      • A re-emergence of predictability occurs due to ocean heat content anomalies
    32. Increased mass over the Tibetan Plateau: From lakes or glaciers? (pages 2125–2130)

      Guoqing Zhang, Tandong Yao, Hongjie Xie, Shichang Kang and Yanbin Lei

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50462

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The 118 lakes in the ITP showed a mean mass change rate of +4.28 Gt/year
      • Water balance of lakes in ITP explains 61% increased mass balance from GRACE
      • The increased mass rate was predominately due to lake level/volume increases
    33. The changing roles of temperature and precipitation on snowpack variability in Switzerland as a function of altitude (pages 2131–2136)

      Enrique Morán-Tejeda, Juan Ignacio López-Moreno and Martin Beniston

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50463

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The predictive skill of climate variables on snowpack depends on altitude
      • An altitude threshold delimits temperature and precipitation's relative roles
      • The threshold has increased over time, at a similar rate as temperatures
    34. Sustained retreat of the Pine Island Glacier (pages 2137–2142)

      J. W. Park, N. Gourmelen, A. Shepherd, S. W. Kim, D. G. Vaughan and D. J. Wingham

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50379

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • PIG retreat has continued, despite geometry
      • Ocean melting must have accelerated
      • Sea level projections are underestimates
    35. Oceans

      Tropical Atlantic salinity variability: New insights from SMOS (pages 2143–2147)

      E. Tzortzi, S. A. Josey, M. Srokosz and C. Gommenginger

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50225

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • SMOS provides new insights into Tropical Atlantic SSS seasonal variability
      • Two east/west regions of strong SSS variability that compensate each other
      • SSS variability linked to Precipitation and Runoff (Evaporation minor role)
    36. Improvement of coastal and mesoscale observation from space: Application to the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (pages 2148–2153)

      Romain Escudier, Jérôme Bouffard, Ananda Pascual, Pierre-Marie Poulain and Marie-Isabelle Pujol

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50324

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • New altimetry fields allow to characterize mesoscale and coastal processes
      • Spectral content, statistical distribution and EKE are more realistic
      • Comparison with independent data confirms a better description of ocean eddies
    37. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Why are some marginal seas sources of atmospheric CO2? (pages 2154–2158)

      Minhan Dai, Zhimian Cao, Xianghui Guo, Weidong Zhai, Zhiyu Liu, Zhiqiang Yin, Yanping Xu, Jianping Gan, Jianyu Hu and Chuanjun Du

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50390

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Ocean-dominated margins(OceMar) featured with dynamic exchange with open ocean
      • CO2 fluxes in OceMars largely ruled by external CO2 from the adjacent open ocean
    38. Power spectra of infragravity waves in a deep ocean (pages 2159–2165)

      Oleg A. Godin, Nikolay A. Zabotin, Anne F. Sheehan, Zhaohui Yang and John A. Collins

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50418

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Infragravity waves couple wave processes in oceans, atmosphere, and solid Earth
      • Invariant property of IGW power spectra is observed in a large-scale experiment
      • We derive first model of spectral and spatial energy distribution of IGW energy
    39. Effects of increased isopycnal diffusivity mimicking the unresolved equatorial intermediate current system in an earth system climate model (pages 2166–2170)

      Julia Getzlaff and Heiner Dietze

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50419

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Emulating the effect of the EICS improves global temperature, salinity, oxygen
      • Emulating the effect of the EICS resolves most of the local nutrient trapping
      • Climate projections of suboxic waters change sign and become more plausible
    40. A developmental and energetic basis linking larval oyster shell formation to acidification sensitivity (pages 2171–2176)

      George G. Waldbusser, Elizabeth L. Brunner, Brian A. Haley, Burke Hales, Christopher J. Langdon and Frederick G. Prahl

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50449

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Early larvae are unable to isolate the calcifying space at initial shell stage
      • Limited energy and mineral formation rate result in sensitivity to acidification
      • Mineral thermodynamics alone have limited prediction power of sensitivity
    41. Abyssal connections of Antarctic Bottom Water in a Southern Ocean State Estimate (pages 2177–2182)

      Erik van Sebille, Paul Spence, Matthew R. Mazloff, Matthew H. England, Stephen R. Rintoul and Oleg A. Saenko

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50483

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • AABW forms in three regions and ends up in three basins
      • The pathways of AABW are amalgamated, because of the ACC
      • water from each of the sources ends up in all basins
  6. Regular Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Oceans

      Quasi-stationary North Equatorial Undercurrent jets across the tropical North Pacific Ocean (pages 2183–2187)

      Bo Qiu, Daniel L. Rudnick, Shuiming Chen and Yuji Kashino

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50394

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Three, spatially-coherent, eastward flowing jets beneath westward-flowing NEC.
      • NEUC jet cores tend to migrate northward when the jets progress eastward.
      • Jets tend to shoal to lighter density surfaces, as they progress eastward.
  7. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Oceans

      On the nature of meandering of the springtime western boundary current in the Bay of Bengal (pages 2188–2193)

      Avijit Gangopadhyay, G. N. Bharat Raj, Ayan H. Chaudhuri, M. T. Babu and Debasis Sengupta

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50412

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • WBC in BOB is continuous along the coast and separates at around 18N
      • The mean WBC has two anticyclones on its offshore side
      • Interannual variability includes cyclonic eddies on the inshore side of the WBC
    2. Interannual sea surface salinity variations observed in the tropical North Pacific Ocean (pages 2194–2199)

      Yuanlong Li, Fan Wang and Weiqing Han

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50429

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Pronounced interannual SSS variations are detected in tropical North Pacific.
      • SSS anomalies propagate from central to western Pacific via the NEC.
      • ENSO-related freshwater flux and Ekman advection are the primary mechanism.
    3. Nutrient enrichment of the subarctic Pacific Ocean pycnocline (pages 2200–2205)

      Frank A. Whitney, Steven J. Bograd and Tsuneo Ono

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50439

      • image

      Key Points

      • •nutrients are accumulating in the pycnocline of the subarctic Pacific
      • •pycnocline nutrients maintain winter supply to the surface layer
      • •shallower remineralization due to hypoxia or reduced sinking rates
    4. Surf zone flushing on embayed beaches (pages 2206–2210)

      Bruno Castelle and Giovanni Coco

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50485

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Rip currents on embayed beaches flush more than on open beaches
      • Surfzone flushing rate increases with wave obliquity and embayment narrowness
      • Headland rips can be persistent conduit for moving drifters out of the surf zone
    5. Semidiurnal perturbations to the surge of Hurricane Sandy (pages 2211–2217)

      Arnoldo Valle-Levinson, Maitane Olabarrieta and Alvaro Valle

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50461

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Hurricane Sandy triggered nontidal semidiurnal oscillations
      • Storms can produce 'semidiurnal surges' not considered before on the east coast
      • Appropriate surge predictions require inclusion of tidal influences
    6. Sensitivity of the oceanic carbon reservoir to tropical surface wind stress variations (pages 2218–2223)

      N. N. Ridder, K. J. Meissner and M. H. England

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50498

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Net oceanic carbon store is inversely related to tropical wind stress strength
      • Weakened wind stress causes a non-linear response in oceanic carbon
      • The biological pump in the Pacific basin opposes the trend of all other basins
    7. Available potential energy gain from mixing due to the nonlinearity of the equation of state in a global ocean model (pages 2224–2228)

      L. S. Urakawa, J. A. Saenz and A. M. Hogg

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50508

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • While the nonlinearity of the EoS leads to a loss of PE, it is a source of APE
      • The net nonlinear effects are a substantial fraction of total APE production
      • The nonlinear effects of EoS on APE is consistent with its effect on the MOC
    8. Climate

      Rock varnish evidence for a Younger Dryas wet period in the Dead Sea basin (pages 2229–2235)

      Tanzhuo Liu, Wallace S. Broecker and Mordechai Stein

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50492

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A Younger Dryas (YD) wet event recorded in rock varnish from the Dead Sea basin
      • At least 100 m water level rise of Lake Lisan during the YD wet period
      • Southward shift of northern westerly wind belt responsible for the YD wet event
    9. Revisiting the Meteor 1925–1927 hydrographic dataset reveals centennial full-depth changes in the Atlantic Ocean (pages 2236–2241)

      Viktor Gouretski, Johann H. Jungclaus and Helmuth Haak

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50503

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Atlantic Ocean warmed /cooled above/below 2000 m since 1900s
      • Atlantic Ocean more/less saline above/below 2000 m since 1900s
      • Upper 2000 m warming started no earlier than the begin of the 20th century
    10. Future European temperature change uncertainties reduced by using land heat flux observations (pages 2242–2245)

      Annemiek I. Stegehuis, Adriaan J. Teuling, Philippe Ciais, Robert Vautard and Martin Jung

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50404

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • European temperature projection uncertainty can be reduced by flux observations
      • ENSEMBLES temperature projections might be underestimated in parts of Europe
  8. Regular Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Climate

      Cloud tuning in a coupled climate model: Impact on 20th century warming (pages 2246–2251)

      Jean-Christophe Golaz, Larry W. Horowitz and Hiram Levy II

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50232

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • We construct alternate model configurations by modifying cloud parameters
      • The present-day climate is nearly indistinguishable between all configurations
      • The warming over the 20th century is substantially impacted
  9. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Climate

      Detection of an observed 135 year ocean temperature change from limited data (pages 2252–2258)

      William R. Hobbs and Joshua K. Willis

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50370

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Observations from the 1870s indicate a global 135-year ocean warming
      • The observed change is outside the normal range of natural variability
      • The results imply a significant century-scale anthropogenic climate forcing
    2. Reducing uncertainty in the climatic interpretations of speleothem δ18O (pages 2259–2264)

      C. N. Jex, S. J. Phipps, A. Baker and C. Bradley

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50467

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Speleothem oxygen isotopes are forward modelled using GCM input data
      • Modelled proxy data captures inter and intra-annual variability of observations
      • Local climate and atmospheric circulations are assessed using CSIRO Mk3L model
    3. Changes to environmental parameters that control tropical cyclone genesis under global warming (pages 2265–2270)

      Hiroyuki Murakami, Tim Li and Melinda Peng

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50393

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Environmental variables controlling TC genesis will change under global warming
      • Predicting TC genesis events will become easier under the warmed environment
      • TC genesis in the NA resembles more like that in the current WNP climate state
    4. Asymmetry in the response of eastern Australia extreme rainfall to low-frequency Pacific variability (pages 2271–2277)

      Andrew D. King, Lisa V. Alexander and Markus G. Donat

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50427

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • An asymmetric relationship exists between ENSO and East Australia extreme rain
      • The asymmetric ENSO-extreme rainfall relationship is modulated by the IPO
      • Large-scale atmospheric circulation changes may explain the asymmetry
    5. Potential of equatorial Atlantic variability to enhance El Niño prediction (pages 2278–2283)

      N. S. Keenlyside, Hui Ding and M. Latif

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50362

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Observed equatorial Atlantic SST variability improves El Nino prediction
      • Major El Nino events better predicted, partly overcoming the spring barrier
      • Motivates strongly the need to improve climate models in the tropical Atlantic
    6. Kawasaki disease and ENSO-driven wind circulation (pages 2284–2289)

      Joan Ballester, Jane C. Burns, Dan Cayan, Yosikazu Nakamura, Ritei Uehara and Xavier Rodó

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50388

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Kawasaki Disease is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children
      • Kawasaki Disease may be triggered by a windborne agent
      • El Niño-Southern Oscillation is associated with enhanced Kawasaki Disease
    7. Aerosol effect on climate extremes in Europe under different future scenarios (pages 2290–2295)

      J. Sillmann, L. Pozzoli, E. Vignati, S. Kloster and J. Feichter

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50459

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Reduction of aerosols enforces global warming effect
      • Strongest effect projected for a global maximum feasible aerosol reduction
      • Increase in hottest days in Northern Europe for regional aerosol reduction
    8. Natural climate variability and teleconnections to precipitation over the Pacific-North American region in CMIP3 and CMIP5 models (pages 2296–2301)

      Suraj D. Polade, Alexander Gershunov, Daniel R. Cayan, Michael D. Dettinger and David W. Pierce

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50491

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • CMIP5 models improved from CMIP3 in representation of natural variability
      • Improvement in CMIP5 models mostly due to improvement in resolution and physics
      • Skillful models are also more appropriate to study climate over Southwest USA
    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Attribution of observed sea level pressure trends to greenhouse gas, aerosol, and ozone changes (pages 2302–2306)

      Nathan P. Gillett, John C. Fyfe and David E. Parker

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50500

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Greenhouse gas, aerosol and ozone influences are detected in observed SLP.
      • Each forcing has significantly affected both low-latitude and high-latitude SLP.
      • Ozone changes have driven an increase in SLP in the tropical Pacific.
  10. Corrections

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Climate

      You have free access to this content
      Correction to “Temperature dependent climate projection deficiencies in CMIP5 models” (pages 2307–2308)

      Jens H. Christensen and Fredrik Boberg

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50359

      • image
      This article corrects:

      Temperature dependent climate projection deficiencies in CMIP5 models

      Vol. 39, Issue 24, Article first published online: 28 DEC 2012

    2. You have free access to this content
  11. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Atmospheric Science

      On the impact angle of Hurricane Sandy's New Jersey landfall (pages 2312–2315)

      Timothy M. Hall and Adam H. Sobel

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50395

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Hurricane Sandy's direct landfall was a 700-year event under long-term climate
      • The extreme rarity of a Sandy-like track suggests a climate-change influence
      • Using basin-wide data is useful to inform local landfall risk
    2. Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere (pages 2316–2321)

      Michael J. Schwartz, William G. Read, Michelle L. Santee, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Lucien Froidevaux, Alyn Lambert and Gloria L. Manney

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50421

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Aircraft encounter convectively injected water in the N American stratosphere.
      • Satellite observations show regions/seasons of stratospheric H2O enhancement.
      • Associated chlorine activation/ozone loss, if present, is at very low levels.
    3. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE

      Quantifying the climatological relationship between extratropical cyclone intensity and atmospheric precursors (pages 2322–2327)

      H. F. Dacre and S. L. Gray

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50105

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Latent heat is more important for east Atlantic cyclone development than west
      • New method to evaluate the sensitivity of cyclone intensity to precursor fields
    4. Variability in the width of the tropics and the annular modes (pages 2328–2332)

      J. Kidston, C. W. Cairns and P. Paga

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054165

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Tropical-extratropical teleconnection determined by climatology
      • The nature/sign of the interaction can change when the regions are well separate
      • Simple QG balance determines correlation
    5. Atmospheric Science

      Empirical relationship between entrainment rate and microphysics in cumulus clouds (pages 2333–2338)

      Chunsong Lu, Shengjie Niu, Yangang Liu and Andrew M. Vogelmann

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50445

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Effects of entrainment rate on cumulus microphyiscs are examined
      • Dominance of homogeneous mixing is studied qualitatively and quantitatively
      • One possible reason for non-drizzling cumuli is dominance of homogeneous mixing
    6. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The solar proton events in 2012 as observed by MIPAS (pages 2339–2343)

      T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, S. Kellmann, A. Linden, G. P. Stiller, C. H. Jackman and V. L. Harvey

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50119

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The SPEs generated large amounts of NOx in both polar caps
      • Instantaneous HNO4 increase indicates accelerated HOx chemistry during the SPE
      • SPE-induced polar composition changes were superimposed by subsidence
    7. Atmospheric Science

      Evaluating WWLLN performance relative to TRMM/LIS (pages 2344–2348)

      Scott D. Rudlosky and Dustin T. Shea

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50428

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • WWLLN detection efficiency improves from 6% during 2009 to 9.2% during 2012
      • WWLLN DE is 3 times greater over the oceans (17.3%) than over land (6.4%)
      • Matched WWLLN and LIS flashes occur in close proximity (11 km and +62 ms)
    8. How can anomalous western North Pacific Subtropical High intensify in late summer? (pages 2349–2354)

      Baoqiang Xiang, Bin Wang, Weidong Yu and Shibin Xu

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50431

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Seasonal march of mean state is key in intensifying the WNPSH in late summer
      • Local air-sea feedback is strong enough in maintaining the WNPSH in late summer
      • The air-sea interaction in the Indian Ocean is important for WNPSH
    9. Ash aggregation in explosive volcanic eruptions (pages 2355–2360)

      J. Telling, J. Dufek and A. Shaikh

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50376

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Ash aggregation is important for eruption dynamics and ash dispersal hazards
      • Two flow regimes, wet and dry, are quantified in ash interactions
      • Experimentally derived expressions describe the physics of ash aggregation
    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Baroclinic anomalies associated with the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode: Roles of synoptic and low-frequency eddies (pages 2361–2366)

      Yu Nie, Yang Zhang, Xiu-Qun Yang and Gang Chen

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50396

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Low-frequency eddy heat flux and eddy-driven MMC are crucial in driving anomaly
      • The MMC induced by synoptic eddy momentum and heat flux play different roles
      • Possible reason for the different roles of high/low frequency eddy is checked
    11. Impact of the high topography of Madagascar on the structure of the Findlater Jet (pages 2367–2372)

      G. W. K. Moore

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50399

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Madagascar represents an important barrier to the Findlater Jet
      • The resulting flow distortion results in the formation of tip jets
      • The tip jets impact the mass transport associated with the Findlater Jet
    12. On the electric breakdown field of the mesosphere and the influence of electron detachment (pages 2373–2377)

      Torsten Neubert and Olivier Chanrion

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50433

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Low field discharges affect sprite filaments and gigantic jets
      • The threshold in the mesosphere is much lower than the conventional threshold
      • Models of sprites, jets and giants must be revisited
    13. Reduced carbon uptake during the 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer from GOSAT (pages 2378–2383)

      S. Guerlet, S. Basu, A. Butz, M. Krol, P. Hahne, S. Houweling, O. P. Hasekamp and I. Aben

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50402

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A shallower XCO2 drawdown is observed by GOSAT in summer 2010 compared to 2009
      • Joint inversion of GOSAT and flask data relate it to emission IAV over Eurasia
      • Flask-only inversions fail to capture emission IAV over Eurasia
  12. Regular Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Atmospheric Science

      The climatology of Australian tropical aerosol: Evidence for regional correlation (pages 2384–2389)

      R. M. Mitchell, B. W. Forgan, S. K. Campbell and Y. Qin

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50403

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • First climatology of Australian tropical aerosol
      • Based on sun photometer observations from three stations spanning 12-14 years
      • High regional correlation of aerosol optical depth
  13. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Atmospheric Science

      Radiated VLF energy differences of land and oceanic lightning (pages 2390–2394)

      M. L. Hutchins, R. H. Holzworth, K. S. Virts, J. M. Wallace and S. Heckman

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50406

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A regression method is used to analyze spatial variations in lightning energy.
      • The land-ocean contrast of lightning is found to occur along most coastlines.
      • The observed contrast in energy occurs over spatial scales less than 100 km.
  14. Regular Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Atmospheric Science

      Sprites in low-frequency radio noise (pages 2395–2399)

      Martin Füllekrug, Andrew Mezentsev, Serge Soula, Oscar van der Velde and Thomas Farges

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50408

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Novel measurements of low frequency radio noise
      • Low frequency background radiation coincides with sprite occurrences
      • Confirmation of theory on low frequency radiation from sprite streamers
  15. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Regular Article
    4. Regular Articles
    5. Corrections
    6. Regular Articles
    7. Regular Article
    8. Regular Articles
    9. Regular Article
    10. Regular Articles
    11. Corrections
    12. Regular Articles
    13. Regular Article
    14. Regular Articles
    15. Regular Article
    16. Regular Articles
    1. Atmospheric Science

      Analysis of tropical-like cyclones over the Mediterranean Sea through a combined modeling and satellite approach (pages 2400–2405)

      M. M. Miglietta, S. Laviola, A. Malvaldi, D. Conte, V. Levizzani and C. Price

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50432

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • The category of tropical-like cyclones includes a wide range of vortices
      • A specific case shows a long persistence of tropical features
      • Intense convective activity anticipates the cyclone mature phase
    2. A discussion on the methods of extracting gravity wave perturbations from space-based measurements (pages 2406–2410)

      Sherine Rachel John and Karanam Kishore Kumar

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50451

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Global gravity wave activity is estimated using SABER and COSMIC observations
      • The sensitivity of gravity waves to the methods used to extract them is examined
      • Discrepancies in current space based gravity wave patterns are discussed
    3. Flow-dependent predictability of the North Atlantic jet (pages 2411–2416)

      T. H. A. Frame, J. Methven, S. L. Gray and M. H. P. Ambaum

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50454

      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Predictability of the North Atlantic jet varies systematically with its state
      • Weak jets are associated with rapid growth of forecast uncertainty
    4. Why isolated streamer discharges hardly exist above the breakdown field in atmospheric air (pages 2417–2422)

      A. B. Sun, J. Teunissen and U. Ebert

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50457

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • We investigate discharge formation in air at electric fields above breakdown
      • Our 3D particle model includes background ionization and electron detachment
      • Isolated streamers hardly exist in air above breakdown
    5. Simultaneous observations of optical lightning and terrestrial gamma ray flash from space (pages 2423–2426)

      N. Østgaard, T. Gjesteland, B. E. Carlson, A. B. Collier, S. A. Cummer, G. Lu and H. J. Christian

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50466

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • First time the sequence of VLF, TGF and optical lightning has been identified
      • TGF is produced during the initial stage of an IC lightning
      • TGF produced the radio pulse
    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mechanism of tropical low-cloud response to surface warming using weather and climate simulations (pages 2427–2432)

      Satoru Demoto, Masahiro Watanabe and Youichi Kamae

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50474

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Short weather hindcasts capture low-cloud responses found in climate simulations
      • Turbulent moistening and convective drying compete in controlling the responses
      • Weakened large-scale circulation suppresses evaporation from the sea surface
    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Impact of atmospheric transport on the evolution of microphysical and optical properties of Saharan dust (pages 2433–2438)

      C. L. Ryder, E. J. Highwood, T. M. Lai, H. Sodemann and J. H. Marsham

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50482

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Airborne vertically resolved measurements of dust size (fresh, aged, Atlantic)
      • Decrease in size with dust age, 60 - 90% of sizes > 30 microns absent after 12 h
      • Change in optical properties and vertical distribution with age and transport
    8. Thermospheric zonal mean winds and tides revealed by CHAMP (pages 2439–2443)

      R. S. Lieberman, R. A. Akmaev, T. J. Fuller‒Rowell and E. Doornbos

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50481

      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Diurnal variation dominates the global zonal wind near 400 km
      • Weak superrotation at winter latitudes, and equinoctial low latitudes
      • Good agreement with with WAM
    9. Direct radiative effects of an unseasonal dust storm at a western Indo Gangetic Plain station Delhi in ultraviolet, shortwave, and longwave regions (pages 2444–2449)

      Sachchidanand Singh and S. Naseema Beegum

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50496

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Dust intrusion changes AOD from .58 to .74 and alfa from .43 to -.02
      • Downwelling UV and SW flux decrease from 9 to 7 Wm-2 and 221 to 199 Wm-2
      • DRE due to UV, SW decreased by 28% and 26%, and LW increased by 40%
    10. On the size distribution of cloud holes in stratocumulus and their relationship to cloud-top entrainment (pages 2450–2454)

      Takanobu Yamaguchi and Graham Feingold

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50442

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Cloud hole size distribution follows a negative power law
      • Cloud-top entrainment preferentially occurs in the small cloud holes
      • Small cloud holes dominate cloud-top entrainment in stratocumulus clouds
    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Detection of methane depletion associated with stratospheric intrusion by atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) (pages 2455–2459)

      Xiaozhen Xiong, Chris Barnet, Eric Maddy, S.C. Wofsy, Liangfu Chen, Anna Karion and Colm Sweeney

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50476

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Severe CH4 depletion was mapped by AIRS
      • The amount of CH4 depletion due to stratospheric intrusion is estimated
      • CH4 depletion from stratosphere is one key unknown in CH4 budget
    12. The role of climate change and ozone recovery for the future timing of major stratospheric warmings (pages 2460–2465)

      Blanca Ayarzagüena, Ulrike Langematz, Stefanie Meul, Sophie Oberländer, Janna Abalichin and Anne Kubin

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50477

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A shift in the timing of MSWs towards midwinter is predicted for the future
      • Future declining ODS emissions induce a stronger polar vortex in early winter
      • Future changes in tropical SSTs lead to more MSWs in midwinter (dynamic control)
    13. Oceans

      Heat transport through diffusive interfaces (pages 2466–2470)

      Jason D. Flanagan, Angela S. Lefler and Timour Radko

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50440

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • A new flux law describing vertical heat transport is formulated
      • High resolution 3D DNS relevant to Arctic staircases are performed
      • The validity of the four-thirds flux law exponent is tested
      • The effects of different boundary conditions are examined
    14. Climate

      Relative importance of tropical SST anomalies in forcing East Asian summer monsoon circulation (pages 2471–2477)

      Lei Fan, Sang-Ik Shin, Qinyu Liu and Zhengyu Liu

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50494

      • image
      • image
      • image
      • image

      Key Points

      • Sensitivity of the summer WPAC to tropical SSTAs is estimated using ECHAM5
      • Relative importance of SSTAs to the WPAC is investigated seasonally using LIM
      • The Central-Pacific cooling is most important to the boreal summer WPAC

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION