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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Geophysical Research Letters

28 July 2013

Volume 40, Issue 14

Pages 3491–3785

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. Space Sciences

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      Are plasma bubbles a prerequisite for the formation of broad plasma depletions in the equatorial F region? (pages 3491–3495)

      Hyosub Kil and Woo Kyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50693

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      Key Points

      • Equatorial broad plasma depletions develop in the absence of bubbles
      • Broad plasma depletions occur when the ionosphere is lifted
      • Broad plasma depletions are the signature of bottomside irregularities
    2. You have free access to this content
      First calculation of phase and coherence of longitudinally separated L-band equatorial ionospheric scintillation (pages 3496–3501)

      E. B. Shume and A. J. Mannucci

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50702

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      Key Points

      • Phase and coherence of longitudinally separated scintillation
      • Scintillation forecast to the west of observation sites
      • Phase and coherence relation of the large scale wave structures
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      Magnetic topologies of an in vivo FTE observed by Double Star/TC-1 at Earth's magnetopause (pages 3502–3506)

      Z. Y. Pu, J. Raeder, J. Zhong, Y. V. Bogdanova, M. Dunlop, C. J. Xiao, X. G. Wang and A. Fazakerley

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50714

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      Key Points

      • In situ evidence that FTEs are in association with multiple sequential X-line MR
      • Observation of four magnetic topologies in the FTE flux ropes
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      Evolution and slow decay of an unusual narrow ring of relativistic electrons near L ~ 3.2 following the September 2012 magnetic storm (pages 3507–3511)

      R. M. Thorne, W. Li, B. Ni, Q. Ma, J. Bortnik, D. N. Baker, H. E. Spence, G. D. Reeves, M. G. Henderson, C. A. Kletzing, W. S. Kurth, G. B. Hospodarsky, D. Turner and V. Angelopoulos

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50627

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      Key Points

      • Relativistic electrons injected into the plasmasphere have long lifetimes
      • The loss rate is controlled by scattering by whistler-mode hiss
      • Isolated rings of relativistic electrons form during magnetic storms
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      Sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field in the nineteenth century (pages 3512–3516)

      M. V. Vokhmyanin and D. I. Ponyavin

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50749

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      Key Points

      • We obtain the IMF polarities in the 19th century
      • No significant differences between sector structures in the 19 and 20 centuries
      • We demonstrate evidence of solar magnetic field reversals in the 19th century
    6. Planets

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      Determining olivine composition of basaltic dunes in Gale Crater, Mars, from orbit: Awaiting ground truth from Curiosity (pages 3517–3521)

      Melissa D. Lane and Philip R. Christensen

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50621

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      Key Points

      • An olivine index is developed using thermal emissivity (vibrational) spectra
      • A spectral index can predict Mg-Fe olivine composition
      • Olivine composition (Fo55) is predicted for the Gale Crater dune field
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      Seismoacoustic coupling induced by the breakup of the 15 February 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor (pages 3522–3526)

      Benoit Tauzin, Eric Debayle, Cathy Quantin and Nicolas Coltice

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50683

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      Key Points

      • The atmospheric breakup of the Chelyabinsk meteor initiated Rayleigh waves
      • The equivalent seismic magnitude is 3.7 implying 5.10-5 seismo-acoustic coupling
      • It opens new perspectives for the survey of meteor by planetary seismic missions
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      Local late Amazonian boulder breakdown and denudation rate on Mars (pages 3527–3531)

      Tjalling de Haas, Ernst Hauber and Maarten G. Kleinhans

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50726

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      Key Points

      • Alluvial fans on Mars were active in the past 1 Myr despite weathered surfaces
      • Late Amazonian weathering and denudation rates greatly exceed prior estimates
      • Small-scale morphology indicative of formative processes can be removed <1 Myr
    9. Solid Earth

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      The 2011–2012 unrest at Santorini rift: Stress interaction between active faulting and volcanism (pages 3532–3537)

      Nathalie Feuillet

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50516

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      Key Points

      • Active faulting at Santorini rift and link with volcanoes
      • The 2011-2012 inflation has increased the stress on rift bounding faults
      • The seismicity pattern in the Caldera is well explained by the stress increase
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      Identification of a widespread Kamchatkan tephra: A middle Pleistocene tie-point between Arctic and Pacific paleoclimatic records (pages 3538–3543)

      Vera Ponomareva, Maxim Portnyagin, Alexander Derkachev, Olaf Juschus, Dieter Garbe-Schönberg and Dirk Nürnberg

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50645

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      Key Points

      • The Rauchua tephra links Arctic and Pacific paleoclimatic archives
      • The Rauchua tephra marks MIS6.5 warming event in distant sequences
      • Tephra composition and dispersal area suggest a huge eruption from Kamchatka
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      Directions of seismic anisotropy in laboratory models of mantle plumes (pages 3544–3549)

      K. A. Druken, C. Kincaid and R. W. Griffiths

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50671

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      Key Points

      • Radial plume flow produces a flow-normal or azimuthal finite strain pattern
      • Alignment complexity dependent on deformation history and tectonic environment
      • Results provide new starting model for identifying potential plumes
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      Elastic envelopes of porous sandstones (pages 3550–3555)

      Yves Guéguen and Jérôme Fortin

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50676

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      Key Points

      • The model predicts at low pressure elastic limit that is line with a slope >0
      • It predicts at high pressure elastic limit that is a line with a slope <0
      • The elastic envelopes of porous rocks can be determined using 2 parameters
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      Ambient noise cross-correlation observations of fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh wave propagation governed by basement resonance (pages 3556–3561)

      Martha K. Savage, Fan-Chi Lin and John Townend

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50678

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      Key Points

      • Rayleigh wave higher modes predominate in the horizontal component
      • H/V spectral ratios from ambient noise can constrain shallow structure
      • Ambient noise excites surface waves at basins' natural resonant frequency
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      Mantle transition zone thinning beneath eastern Africa: Evidence for a whole-mantle superplume structure (pages 3562–3566)

      Gabriel D. Mulibo and Andrew A. Nyblade

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50694

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      Key Points

      • Mantle transition zone is ~30-40 km thinner than the global average
      • Anomaly of ~190-300 K beneath eastern Africa extends through the transition zone
      • The thinned TZT show that the superplume anomaly is a whole mantle structure
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      Source duration of stress and water-pressure induced seismicity derived from experimental analysis of P wave pulse width in granite (pages 3567–3571)

      Koji Masuda

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50691

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      Key Points

      • Source duration of water-induced seismicity is shorter than that in a dry state
      • Increased rupture velocity and a more equidimensional source are responsible
      • Corrections were made for event size and hypocentral distance
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      Response of seismicity to static and dynamic stress changes induced by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (pages 3572–3578)

      Aitaro Kato, Jun'ichi Fukuda and Kazushige Obara

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50699

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      Key Points

      • Earthquake quiescence apparent in the JMA catalogue is an artificial feature
      • Dynamic stress change is more important than static one in remote triggering
      • Preparedness for failure in earthquake patch is required for dynamic triggering
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      New data from borehole strainmeters to infer lava fountain sources (Etna 2011–2012) (pages 3579–3584)

      A. Bonaccorso, G. Currenti, A. Linde and S. Sacks

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50692

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      Key Points

      • New strainmeters at Etna volcano detect changes during recent lava fountains
      • FEM is used to model the volcano elastic structure with complex inhomogeneities
      • Shape, position and volume change of the source are inferred.
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      Determining the orientations of ocean bottom seismometers using ambient noise correlation (pages 3585–3590)

      Yang Zha, Spahr C. Webb and William Menke

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50698

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      Key Points

      • A new method for determining OBS orientation from ambient noise correlation
      • Polarization of Rayleigh wave is retrieved by 3-component noise correlations
      • Data quantity and azimuth coverage increase with number of sensors in the array
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      Simple and reliable finite fault solutions for large earthquakes using the W-phase: The Maule (Mw = 8.8) and Tohoku (Mw = 9.0) earthquakes (pages 3591–3595)

      Roberto Benavente and Phil R. Cummins

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50648

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      Key Points

      • We use W-phase waveforms to infer the slip distribution of large earthquakes
      • Our results for two megathrusts are a good first-order source characterization
      • Rapid finite slip inversions might be carried out relying in W-phase waveforms
    20. You have free access to this content
      Verification of velocity-resistivity relationships derived from structural joint inversion with borehole data (pages 3596–3601)

      M. Moorkamp, A. W. Roberts, M. Jegen, B. Heincke and R. W. Hobbs

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50696

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      Key Points

      • First test of velocity-conductivity relationship derived from joint inversion
      • First 3D joint inversion of MT, seismic and gravity data
    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Hydraulic fracture height limits and fault interactions in tight oil and gas formations (pages 3602–3606)

      Samuel A. Flewelling, Matthew P. Tymchak and Norm Warpinski

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50707

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      Key Points

      • Hydraulic fracture heights are limited by pumped fluid volume
      • Induced fault-slip areas are small and remain near the zone of fractured rock
      • Groundwater contamination via induced fractures and faults is extremely unlikely
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      The new ESA satellite-only gravity field model via the direct approach (pages 3607–3612)

      Sean L. Bruinsma, Christoph Förste, Oleg Abrikosov, Jean-Charles Marty, Marie-Helene Rio, Sandrine Mulet and Sylvain Bonvalot

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50716

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      Key Points

      • Satellite-only gravity field model
      • LAGEOS, GRACE and GOCE data
      • Geostrophic ocean circulation
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      Are the frictional properties of creeping faults persistent? Evidence from rapid afterslip following the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (pages 3613–3617)

      Jun'ichi Fukuda, Aitaro Kato, Naoyuki Kato and Yosuke Aoki

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50713

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      Key Points

      • Tohoku-oki afterslip requires slip-rate-dependent fault frictional properties
      • Afterslip indicates less rate-strengthening with increasing slip rate
      • Such properties may have a significant effect on the magnitude of earthquakes
    24. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

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      Deforestation causes different subregional effects on the Amazon bioclimatic equilibrium (pages 3618–3623)

      Gabrielle Ferreira Pires and Marcos Heil Costa

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50570

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      Key Points

      • The difference in the climate response of distinct Amazon regions
      • Cerrado deforestation is decisive to anticipate a bioclimatic transition
      • At least 90% of Amazonia and 60% of Cerrado should remain preserved
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      De-noising of passive and active microwave satellite soil moisture time series (pages 3624–3630)

      Chun-Hsu Su, Dongryeol Ryu, Andrew W. Western and Wolfgang Wagner

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50695

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      Key Points

      • Systematic periodic and stochastic errors exist in satellite soil moisture
      • Semi-empirical model of active and passive satellite retrievals was proposed
      • Designs of Wiener and bandstop filters were proposed for de-noising
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      Landscape-scale carbon storage associated with beaver dams (pages 3631–3636)

      Ellen Wohl

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50710

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      Key Points

      • Beaver meadows store substantial organic carbon along headwater mountain rivers
      • Abandonment of beaver meadows substantially decreases carbon storage
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      A probabilistic framework for assessing drought recovery (pages 3637–3642)

      Ming Pan, Xing Yuan and Eric F. Wood

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50728

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      Key Points

      • Very significant uncertainty/risk exits in drought recovery and its forecast
      • Probabilistic analysis is necessary to derive important risk info in recovery
      • Copula joint distribution model works well in probabilistic recovery analysis
    28. Cryosphere

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      Observed variations in multidecadal Antarctic sea ice trends during 1979–2012 (pages 3643–3648)

      Graham R. Simpkins, Laura M. Ciasto and Matthew H. England

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50715

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      Key Points

      • Antarctic sea ice trends have commonly weakened by 25-50% over the past decade
      • Sub-decadal variability greatly affects Bellingshausen Sea trend estimates
      • Ross Sea trends are reasonably consistent at decadal time-scales and beyond
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      Airborne-radar and ice-core observations of annual snow accumulation over Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica confirm the spatiotemporal variability of global and regional atmospheric models (pages 3649–3654)

      B. Medley, I. Joughin, S. B. Das, E. J. Steig, H. Conway, S. Gogineni, A. S. Criscitiello, J. R. McConnell, B. E. Smith, M. R. van den Broeke, J. T. M. Lenaerts, D. H. Bromwich and J. P. Nicolas

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50706

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      Key Points

      • Snow accumulation rates can be derived from an ultra-wideband microwave radar
      • Global (regional) models best reproduce the temporal (spatial) variability
      • Observations, ice cores, and models show no significant accumulation trend
    30. Oceans

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      Reliability of the steric and mass components of Mediterranean sea level as estimated from hydrographic gridded products (pages 3655–3660)

      Gabriel Jordà and Damià Gomis

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50718

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      Key Points

      • The halosteric component in the Mediterranean is uncertain
      • The steric trends are inconsistent among products
      • The mass of the freshwater can be recovered and is more robust
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      Quantifying recent acceleration in sea level unrelated to internal climate variability (pages 3661–3666)

      F. M. Calafat and D. P. Chambers

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50731

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      Key Points

      • We detect a sea level acceleration between 1952 and 2011
      • The sea level acceleration appears to be increasing over time
      • The acceleration is due to both anthropogenic and natural external forcing
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      Observations of the ocean response to cold air outbreaks and polar lows over the Nordic Seas (pages 3667–3671)

      P. E. Isachsen, M. Drivdal, S. Eastwood, Y. Gusdal, G. Noer and Ø. Saetra

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50705

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      Key Points

      • The ocean response to polar lows are investigated from observations
      • Ocean responds to synoptic forcing before PLs with lowered SSTs and SLAs
      • Drifter data suggest complex advective ocean response to PLs
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      Inhibited upper ocean restratification in nonequilibrium swell conditions (pages 3672–3676)

      T. Kukulka, A. J. Plueddemann and P. P. Sullivan

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50708

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      Key Points

      • In low-wind swell conditions Langmuir turbulence inhibits restratification
      • In low-wind swell Langmuir turbulence is isolated as a turbulent process
      • Ocean surface boundary layer models need to be sea-state dependent
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      Universal structure of mesoscale eddies in the ocean (pages 3677–3681)

      Zhengguang Zhang, Yu Zhang, Wei Wang and Rui Xin Huang

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50736

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      Key Points

      • Earth's rotation and ocean stratification is crucial for eddy structure
      • Stretching coordinate with N/f reveals a universal eddy structure
      • The structure can help us understand eddy dynamics and eddy transport
    35. Climate

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      Opposite CMIP3/CMIP5 trends in the wintertime Northern Annular Mode explained by combined local sea ice and remote tropical influences (pages 3682–3687)

      J. Cattiaux and C. Cassou

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50643

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      Key Points

      • CMIP3 and CMIP5 disagree about the winter NAM response
      • The Arctic sea ice loss has a local baroclinic influence in early winter
      • The tropical Pacific warming has a remote barotropic influence in late winter
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      The ozone hole indirect effect: Cloud-radiative anomalies accompanying the poleward shift of the eddy-driven jet in the Southern Hemisphere (pages 3688–3692)

      Kevin M. Grise, Lorenzo M. Polvani, George Tselioudis, Yutian Wu and Mark D. Zelinka

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50675

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      Key Points

      • Antarctic ozone hole is linked to systematic cloud changes over Southern Ocean.
      • Cloud changes resemble observed clouds associated with Southern Annular Mode.
      • Cloud changes produce net warming
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      North Atlantic circulation and reservoir age changes over the past 41,000 years (pages 3693–3697)

      Joseph V. Stern and Lorraine E. Lisiecki

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50679

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      Key Points

      • We reconstruct high-latitude North Atlantic reservoir ages for 0-41 kyr BP
      • Increased reservoir ages during early Heinrich Stadial 1 suggests reduced AMOC
      • Rapid reservoir age decrease at 16 kyr BP indicates major AMOC weakening
    38. You have free access to this content
      Dependence of abrupt Atlantic meridional ocean circulation changes on climate background states (pages 3698–3704)

      Xun Gong, Gregor Knorr, Gerrit Lohmann and Xu Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50701

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      Key Points

      • The Recovery characteristics of a suppressed AMOC depend on the climate state
      • Advected tropical water governs overshoot in Labrador Sea deep-water formation
    39. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Anthropogenic contributions to Australia's record summer temperatures of 2013 (pages 3705–3709)

      Sophie C. Lewis and David J. Karoly

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50673

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      Key Points

      • Substantial anthropogenic contribution to record hot 2013 Australian summer
      • Extreme summer Tmean at least 2.5 times more likely due to human influences
      • Natural variability (including ENSO) alone unlikely to explain 2013 summer
    40. You have free access to this content
      Classifying reanalysis surface temperature probability density functions (PDFs) over North America with cluster analysis (pages 3710–3714)

      P. C. Loikith, B. R. Lintner, J. Kim, H. Lee, J. D. Neelin and D. E. Waliser

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50688

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      Key Points

      • The utility of cluster analysis is demonstrated for PDF characterization
      • Cluster analysis identifies regions with similar PDF structure
      • Cluster analysis will be a straightforward model evaluation and analysis tool
    41. You have free access to this content
      Earlier onset of the Indian monsoon in the late twentieth century: The role of anthropogenic aerosols (pages 3715–3720)

      Massimo A. Bollasina, Yi Ming and V. Ramaswamy

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50719

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      Key Points

      • The Indian monsoon onset shifted by 10-20 days earlier in the late 20th century
      • Anthropogenic aerosols are likely responsible for the onset change
      • Atmospheric circulation adjustment and land thermodynamical forcing are pivotal
    42. You have free access to this content
      The dependence of equilibrium climate sensitivity on climate state: Applications to studies of climates colder than present (pages 3721–3726)

      John E. Kutzbach, Feng He, Steve J. Vavrus and William F. Ruddiman

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50724

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      Key Points

      • Climate sensitivity to GHG doubling is greatest for cold climate states
    43. You have free access to this content
      The rarity of absent growth rings in Northern Hemisphere forests outside the American Southwest (pages 3727–3731)

      Scott St. George, Toby R. Ault and Max C. A. Torbenson

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50743

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      Key Points

      • Absent rings can cause errors in tree-ring dates and climate reconstructions
      • Absent rings are rare in trees at high latitudes and high elevations
      • Mismatches between simulations and proxies are not likely due to dating errors
    44. Atmospheric Science

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      The 2013 Russian fireball largest ever detected by CTBTO infrasound sensors (pages 3732–3737)

      Alexis Le Pichon, Lars Ceranna, Christoph Pilger, Pierrick Mialle, David Brown, Pascal Herry and Nicolas Brachet

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50619

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      Key Points

      • One of the most energetic fireball ever instrumentally recorded
      • Unprecedented realistic picture of global infrasound propagation
      • Valuable source information of near Earth objects
    45. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Marine nanogels as a source of atmospheric nanoparticles in the high Arctic (pages 3738–3743)

      Matthias Karl, Caroline Leck, Esther Coz and Jost Heintzenberg

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50661

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      Key Points

      • Marine nanogels (2-10 nm size) were identified in large numbers in cloud water
      • Nanogel-type episodes cover 17% of the total observed time in the high Arctic
      • Size distributions of colloids in air, cloud, and surface water are presented
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      A model for the viscous dissipation rate in stably stratified, sheared turbulence (pages 3744–3749)

      H. E. Fossum, E. M. M. Wingstedt and B. A. P. Reif

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50663

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      Key Points

      • A dissipation rate model is developed and validated using DNS data
      • The functional form of the model is derived from first principles
      • The proposed model performs very well in strongly stratified turbulence
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      Real-time correction of ERA-Interim monthly rainfall (pages 3750–3755)

      Francesca Di Giuseppe, Franco Molteni and Emanuel Dutra

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50670

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      Key Points

      • Gridded model rainfall can be a valid proxy forobservations
      • A temporaland spatial correction of ERA-I rainfall isproposed
      • Post-processing ERA-I is crucial for drought monitoring and forecasting.
    48. You have free access to this content
      Minimalist model of ice microphysics in mixed-phase stratiform clouds (pages 3756–3760)

      Fan Yang, Mikhail Ovchinnikov and Raymond A. Shaw

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50700

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      Key Points

      • Quasi-steady ice crystal growth occurs in cloud updrafts
      • Ice water content and ice number concentration have 2.5 power law relationship
      • The 2.5 power law is observed in LES cloud model and ISDAC data
    49. You have free access to this content
      Analysis of satellite remote sensing observations of low ozone events in the tropical upper troposphere and links with convection (pages 3761–3765)

      Matthew J. Cooper, Randall V. Martin, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Doug A. Degenstein and Kaley A. Walker

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50717

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      Key Points

      • Satellite observations detect low ozone events in the tropical upper troposphere
      • Modeling indicates that convection drives low ozone events
      • Atmospheric oscillations affect distribution and frequency of low ozone events
    50. You have free access to this content
      Relative changes in CO emissions over megacities based on observations from space (pages 3766–3771)

      Matthieu Pommier, Chris A. McLinden and Merritt Deeter

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50704

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      Key Points

      • Satellite measurements used to determine relative change in CO over megacities
      • Wind direction influences the CO distribution observed from space
      • upwind-downwind differences are used to infer changes in CO emissions
    51. You have free access to this content
      Spontaneous QBO-like oscillations in an atmospheric model dynamical core (pages 3772–3776)

      Weiye Yao and Christiane Jablonowski

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50723

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      Key Points

      • A QBO-like oscillation has been simulated in the dry CAM SLD dynamical core
      • Divergence of the E-P flux and vertical advection are important in driving QBO
      • Implicit numerical diffusion from the SLD scheme contributes to the QBO
    52. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Radiative constraints on the minimum atomic oxygen concentration in the mesopause region (pages 3777–3780)

      Martin G. Mlynczak, Linda A. Hunt, B. Thomas Marshall, Christopher J. Mertens, James M. Russell III, David Siskind, R. Earl Thompson and Larry L. Gordley

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50725

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      Key Points

      • Minimum value of atomic oxygen is derived, based on radiative constraints
      • Max and Min [O] now known from radiation/energetics,independent of chemistry
      • Minimum O allows energy budget to be improved, including dynamical terms
    53. You have free access to this content
      Spatial trends in synoptic rainfall in southern Australia (pages 3781–3785)

      James S. Risbey, Michael J. Pook and Peter C. McIntosh

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50739

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      Key Points

      • Rainfall variations can be assessed by synoptic typing
      • The key types for southern Australia are cold fronts and cutoff lows
      • Longitudinal variations are important for assessing trends

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