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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 16

28 August 2013

Volume 40, Issue 16

Pages 4127–4474

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Correction
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Space Sciences

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      Excitation of poloidal standing Alfvén waves through drift resonance wave-particle interaction (pages 4127–4132)

      Lei Dai, Kazue Takahashi, John R. Wygant, Liu Chen, John Bonnell, Cynthia A. Cattell, Scott Thaller, Craig Kletzing, Charles W. Smith, Robert J. MacDowall, Daniel N. Baker, J. Bernard Blake, Joseph Fennell, Seth Claudepierre, Herbert O. Funsten, Geoffrey D. Reeves and Harlan E. Spence

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50800

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      Key Points

      • Unambiguous identification of drift-resonance in magnetosphere
      • Broad implications for ring current and ground observations
      • Drift-resonance similar to fishbone instability in Tokamak
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      Ion scales of quasi-perpendicular low-Mach-number interplanetary shocks (pages 4133–4137)

      Z. Němeček, J. Šafránková, O. Goncharov, L. Přech and G. N. Zastenker

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50814

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      Key Points

      • Fast measurements of ion moments
      • First direct detail measurements of the ion heating across IP shocks
      • Ion scales of IP shocks proportional to proton thermal gyroradius
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      Storm-induced energization of radiation belt electrons: Effect of wave obliquity (pages 4138–4143)

      A. V. Artemyev, O. V. Agapitov, D. Mourenas, V. Krasnoselskikh and L. M. Zelenyi

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50837

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      Key Points

      • Chorus wave obliquity and intensity of as functions of geomagnetic activity
      • Early-time electron acceleration occurs in a regime of loss-limited energization
      • Larger energization levels should be reached during the early recovery phase
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      Auroral ion precipitation at Jupiter: Predictions for Juno (pages 4144–4148)

      N. Ozak, T. E. Cravens and D. R. Schultz

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50812

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      Key Points

      • We make predictions relevant to observations by the upcoming NASA Juno mission
      • We predict escaping electrons with energies from a few eV to 10 keV
      • We estimate downward field-aligned currents of about 2 MA as a lower limit
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      Variations in cutoff latitude during the January 2012 solar proton event and implication for the distribution of particle energy deposition (pages 4149–4153)

      H. Nesse Tyssøy, J. Stadsnes, F. Søraas and M. Sørbø

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50815

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      Key Points

      • Distribution of solar protons in latitude and local time during the Jan 2012 SPE
      • Strong day-night asymmetries in the proton energy deposition into the atmosphere
      • One can map SPEs using polar orbiting POES, but not the geostationary GOES data
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      First magnetic seismology of the CME reconnection outflow layer in the low corona with 2.5-D MHD simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (pages 4154–4159)

      Katariina Nykyri and Claire Foullon

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50807

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      Key Points

      • Magnetic field is determined for the first time in the CME ejecta and sheath
      • Magnetic field of the CME ejecta (sheath) can be 8-9 G (10-11 G)
      • The KHI and associated plasma mixing may impact CME geo-effectiveness
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      Long-periodic strong radar echoes in the summer polar D region correlated with oscillations of high-speed solar wind streams (pages 4160–4164)

      Young-Sook Lee, Sheila Kirkwood, Gordon G. Shepherd, Young-Sil Kwak and Kyung-Chan Kim

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50821

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      Key Points

      • Long-periodic PMSE correlated with HSS
      • Precipitating high-energetic particles as a possible primary source for PMSE
      • It provides a new aspect of magnetosphere-mesosphere coupling
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      Experimental determination of the xenon isotopic fractionation during adsorption (pages 4165–4170)

      Yves Marrocchi and Bernard Marty

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50845

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      Key Points

      • Noble gas isotopic fractionation
      • Origin of meteoritic noble gases
      • Evolution of terrestrial and martian atmospheres
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      On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation (pages 4171–4176)

      Jeffrey J. Love

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50846

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      Key Points

      • Historical agricultural data are not significantly correlated with sunspots
      • Historical wheat prices are not useful for inferring past sunspot numbers
      • Sunspot numbers are not demonstrably useful for predicting future wheat prices
    10. Planets

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      First detection of [OI] 630 nm emission in the Enceladus torus (pages 4177–4181)

      Kunihiro Kodama, Masato Kagitani, Shoichi Okano and Nicholas M. Schneider

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50799

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      Key Points

      • Enceladus torus was observable by groundbased observation
      • The observed emission was [OI] 630nm
      • [OI] 630nm emission in the torus was casued by some reactions
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      Orographic precipitation in valley network headwaters: Constraints on the ancient Martian atmosphere (pages 4182–4187)

      Kathleen E. Scanlon, James W. Head, Jean-Baptiste Madeleine, Robin D. Wordsworth and François Forget

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50687

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      Key Points

      • A model is used to predict the local distribution of snowfall on early Mars
      • Melting these snowpacks would have created the observed distribution of valleys
      • A 2-bar model atmosphere cannot reproduce the distribution of Warrego Valles
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      Smart, texture-sensitive instrument classification for in situ rock and layer analysis (pages 4188–4193)

      K. L. Wagstaff, D. R. Thompson, W. Abbey, A. Allwood, D. L. Bekker, N. A. Cabrol, T. Fuchs and K. Ortega

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50817

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      Key Points

      • Smart instruments can analyze their own data for science investigations
      • Random forest classifiers can effectively address texture-based image tasks
      • Future spacecraft can train and deploy their own image classifiers
    13. Solid Earth

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      Microslips as precursors of large slip events in the stick-slip dynamics of sheared granular layers: A discrete element model analysis (pages 4194–4198)

      B. Ferdowsi, M. Griffa, R. A. Guyer, P. A. Johnson, C. Marone and J. Carmeliet

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50813

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      Key Points

      • Microslip event rate is proposed as a measure of activity in granular layer
      • Microslip event rate correlates well with large slip events
      • Microslips emergence is controlled by the value of the slipping contact ratio
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      Infrasonic crackle and supersonic jet noise from the eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea (pages 4199–4203)

      David Fee, Robin S. Matoza, Kent L. Gee, Tracianne B. Neilsen and Darcy E. Ogden

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50827

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      Key Points

      • Nabro Volcano produced sound similar to supersonic jet engines and rockets
      • Volcanic and man-made jets have similar sound source mechanisms
      • Infrasound can remotely detect and characterize volcanic eruptions and jets
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      Interseismic coupling, stress evolution, and earthquake slip on the Sunda megathrust (pages 4204–4208)

      Suleyman Nalbant, John McCloskey, Sandy Steacy, Mairead NicBhloscaidh and Shane Murphy

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50776

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      Key Points

      • The stress history of the Sunda Trench is computed from 1797 to present
      • Stress and earthquake slip is better correlated than coupling and slip
      • Better methods of estimating pre-instrumental slip are required
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      Stable, rapid rate of slip since inception of the San Jacinto fault, California (pages 4209–4213)

      Kimberly Blisniuk, Michael Oskin, Anne-Sophie Mériaux, Thomas Rockwell, Robert C. Finkel and Frederick J. Ryerson

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50819

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      Key Points

      • Time constant San Jacinto fault slip rates
      • Lack of co-dependency between the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults
      • Geometric controls on fault slip rate
      • Time constant San Jacinto fault slip rates
      • Lack of co-dependency between the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults
      • Geometric controls on fault slip rate
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      A deep outer-rise reverse-fault earthquake immediately triggered a shallow normal-fault earthquake: The 7 December 2012 off-Sanriku earthquake (MW 7.3) (pages 4214–4219)

      Tomoya Harada, Satoko Murotani and Kenji Satake

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50808

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      Key Points

      • The 2012 Off-Sanriku event consisted of reverse- and normal-fault sub-events
      • The reverse-fault sub-event immediately triggered normal-fault sub-event
      • The 2011 Tohoku earthquake promoted both sub-events
      • The 2012 Off-Sanriku event consisted of reverse- and normal-fault sub-events
      • The reverse-fault sub-event immediately triggered normal-fault sub-event
      • The 2011 Tohoku earthquake promoted both sub-events
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      Discovery of a gliding salt-detached megaslide, Calabria, Ionian Sea, Italy (pages 4220–4224)

      Liliana Minelli, Andrea Billi, Claudio Faccenna, Anna Gervasi, Ignazio Guerra, Barbara Orecchio and Giulio Speranza

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50818

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      Key Points

      • A gliding salt-detached megaslide is discovered in the Ionian Sea, Italy
      • For the first time, the velocity of a salt-detached slide is measured with GPS
      • The viscosity of the salt decollement is derived from the measured GPS velocity
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      Flexure of the India plate underneath the Bhutan Himalaya (pages 4225–4230)

      Paul Hammer, Théo Berthet, György Hetényi, Rodolphe Cattin, Dowchu Drukpa, Jamyang Chophel, Sarah Lechmann, Nicolas Le Moigne, Cédric Champollion and Erik Doerflinger

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50793

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      Key Points

      • Flexure and rheology of the India Plate in the Eastern Himalayas is investigated
      • New gravity dataset constrains comprehensive 2D thermo-mechanical modeling
      • Flexural rigidity decreases both across and along (W to E) the range
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      Low friction along the high slip patch of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake required from the wedge structure and extensional splay faults (pages 4231–4237)

      N. Cubas, J. P. Avouac, Y. M. Leroy and A. Pons

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50682

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      Key Points

      • Long-term high pore pressure and low effective friction along the Megathrust
      • Very efficient dynamic weakening observed along high slip patch
      • Splay faults can be used to typify Megathrust with high tsunamigenic potential
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      Scattered waves from low-frequency earthquakes and plate boundary structure in northern Cascadia (pages 4238–4243)

      Robert L. Nowack and Michael G. Bostock

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50826

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      Key Points

      • LFE templates are used to constrain plate boundary structure
      • LFE waveforms controlled by focal mechanisms and S-P and S-S scattering
      • Modeling of LFE waveforms broadly consistent with teleseismic estimates
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      Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity (pages 4244–4248)

      Hallie E. Meighan, Uri ten Brink and Jay Pulliam

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50830

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      Key Points

      • The point of slab tear propagation is marked by intermediate swarms/clusters
      • Seismic swarms/clusters start at the top of the subducting slab
      • Vertically distributed tear events in Caribbean are similar to other locations
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      Flexural versus dynamic processes of subsidence in the North American Cordillera foreland basin (pages 4249–4253)

      Clayton S. Painter and Barbara Carrapa

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50831

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      Key Points

      • Isopachs constrain transition from flexural to non-flexural subsidence
      • Flexural model tests rigidity of the Wyoming Province
      • Dynamic processes responsible for non-flexural subsidence
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      Evidence for tidal triggering of high-amplitude rapid tremor reversals and tremor streaks in northern Cascadia (pages 4254–4259)

      Trevor W. Thomas, John E. Vidale, Heidi Houston, Kenneth C. Creager, Justin R. Sweet and Abhijit Ghosh

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50832

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      Key Points

      • RTR's and streaks are high in amplitude relative to tremor at the slip front
      • RTR's and streaks occur during slip-encouraging tidal shear stress
      • RTR's and streaks may be triggered by tidal loading and tidal stresses
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      Bias in estimates of lithosphere viscosity from interseismic deformation (pages 4260–4265)

      T. T. Hines and E. A. Hetland

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50839

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      Key Points

      • Inference of lithosphere viscosities from interseismic deformation is biased
      • Bias results from neglecting the depth-dependence of lithosphere viscosities
      • Inferred viscosities are biased to a strong crust and weak mantle
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      Crustal structure of the east Gondwana margin in southeast Australia revealed by transdimensional ambient seismic noise tomography (pages 4266–4271)

      M. K. Young, R. A. Cayley, M. A. McLean, N. Rawlinson, P. Arroucau and M. Salmon

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50878

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      Key Points

      • Large ambient noise dataset reveals new insight into east Gondwana margin
      • Bayesian transdimensional tomography achieves superior results
      • Candidate for the Tasman Line separating east and west Australia revealed
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      Phyllosilicates formation in faults rocks: Implications for dormant fault-sealing potential and fault strength in the upper crust (pages 4272–4278)

      Thibault Cavailhes, Roger Soliva, Pierre Labaume, Christopher Wibberley, Jean-Pierre Sizun, Claude Gout, Delphine Charpentier, Alain Chauvet, Bruno Scalabrino and Martine Buatier

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50829

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      Key Points

      • first quntification of phyllosilicates formation
      • Shale Gouge ratio has to be modified in deeply buried reservoir
      • Feldspar content of host rock as a predictive proxy
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      New ultrahigh-resolution picture of Earth's gravity field (pages 4279–4283)

      Christian Hirt, Sten Claessens, Thomas Fecher, Michael Kuhn, Roland Pail and Moritz Rexer

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50838

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      Key Points

      • Satellite, terrestrial and topographic gravity combined at ~200 m resolution
      • Model covers all continents within SRTM data, and developing countries
      • Gravity accelerations on Earth estimated to vary within ~7000 mGal, or 0.7 %.
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      Intrinsic versus extrinsic seismic anisotropy: The radial anisotropy in reference Earth models (pages 4284–4288)

      Nian Wang, Jean-Paul Montagner, Andreas Fichtner and Yann Capdeville

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50873

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      Key Points

      • To interpret anisotropy in terms of intrinsic versus extrinsic properties
      • Fine layering can contribute to the lithospheric anisotropy in PREM
      • Radial anisotropy in model ACY400 is mainly intrinsic
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      Greenland mass variation from time-variable gravity in the absence of GRACE (pages 4289–4293)

      O. Baur

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50881

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      Key Points

      • Greenland basin-wide mass trends from CHAMP and GRACE differ by only 10%
      • The spatial mass-variation patterns are partly in good agreement
      • We confirm that orbit analysis is able to bridge from GRACE to GRACE follow-on
    31. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

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      Nanopore structures, statistically representative elementary volumes, and transport properties of chalk (pages 4294–4298)

      Hongkyu Yoon and Thomas A. Dewers

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50803

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      Key Points

      • Quantitative analysis of FIB-SEM data of carbonate rock sample
      • Statistically representative elementary volume for Chalk sample
      • Lattice Boltzmann simulations and topological analysis of nano-pore structures
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      Landslide velocity, thickness, and rheology from remote sensing: La Clapière landslide, France (pages 4299–4304)

      Adam M. Booth, Michael P. Lamb, Jean-Philippe Avouac and Christophe Delacourt

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50828

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      Key Points

      • We invert landslide velocity and elevation change data for the 3D slip surface
      • La Clapiere landslide has a maximum thickness of 163m and volume of 38million m3
      • Distributed deformation, rather than block sliding, best fits observations
    33. Cryosphere

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      Initiation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and estimates of total Antarctic ice volume in the earliest Oligocene (pages 4305–4309)

      Douglas S. Wilson, David Pollard, Robert M. DeConto, Stewart S.R. Jamieson and Bruce P. Luyendyk

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50797

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      Key Points

      • Reconstructed topography allows early formation of West Antarctic Ice Sheet
      • Modeled earliest Oligocene Antarctic ice has volume 1.3-1.4 times present ice
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      Gas hydrate formation rates from dissolved-phase methane in porous laboratory specimens (pages 4310–4315)

      W. F. Waite and E. Spangenberg

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50809

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      Key Points

      • Hydrate formation from methane dissolved in water is efficient and rapid
      • Dissolving methane into water is the rate-limiting step in hydrate formation
      • In the lab or field, focus on water take-up of methane to assess formation rate
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      Why marine ice sheet model predictions may diverge in estimating future sea level rise (pages 4316–4320)

      Frank Pattyn and Gaël Durand

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50824

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      Key Points

      • All stresses in the ice sheet force budget are important at the grounding line
      • Most models used (shallow-shelf or heuristic) wrongly estimate ice loss
      • Full Stokes can be approximated using higher-order models
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      Three-dimensional mapping by CryoSat-2 of subglacial lake volume changes (pages 4321–4327)

      Malcolm McMillan, Hugh Corr, Andrew Shepherd, Andrew Ridout, Seymour Laxon and Robert Cullen

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50689

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      Key Points

      • Assessment of novel CryoSat-2 interferometric altimetry over land ice
      • Demonstration of interferometric capability to track off-nadir topography
      • Mapping of largest Antarctic subglacial lake drainage event observed to date
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      The influence of recent Antarctic ice sheet retreat on simulated sea ice area trends (pages 4328–4332)

      N. C. Swart and J. C. Fyfe

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50820

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      Key Points

      • Antarctic Ice Sheet derived fresh water has a small influence on sea-ice trends
      • The CMIP5 models do not represent this fresh water forcing
      • The mean CMIP5 sea-ice area trend is statistically consistent with observations
    38. Oceans

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      Rossby rip currents (pages 4333–4337)

      David P. Marshall, Bendix Vogel and Xiaoming Zhai

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50842

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      Key Points

      • Oceanic Rossby waves and eddies carry a westward Stokes drift
      • The westward Stokes drift may be compensated by eastward Rossby rip currents
      • Both the Stokes drift and rip currents can assume the form of banded zonal jets
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      Observations of barrier island length explained using an exploratory morphodynamic model (pages 4338–4343)

      Pieter C. Roos, Henk M. Schuttelaars and Ronald L. Brouwer

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50843

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      Key Points

      • First model of mesotidal barrier coast dynamics with any number of inlets
      • Observations of barrier island length vs tidal range and lagoon area reproduced
      • Process-based explanation from spatially varying tide levels in sea and basin
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      Direct temperature and salinity acoustic full waveform inversion (pages 4344–4348)

      G. Bornstein, B. Biescas, V. Sallarès and J. F. Mojica

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50844

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      Key Points

      • T and S can be inverted simultaneously from ocean acoustic data using FWI
      • Local T-S empirical relationships are not required for the inversion
      • Our T and S results have a potential density error of 0.01 kg/m3
    41. You have free access to this content
      Understanding the annual cycle in global steric height (pages 4349–4354)

      Donata Giglio, Dean Roemmich and Bruce Cornuelle

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50774

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      Key Points

      • Annual dynamical subsurface ocean variability is described globally
      • The oceanic annual response is in balance with the wind-forcing
      • The vertical structure of annual variability is slowly-varying
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      Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks (pages 4355–4360)

      Michael J. Behrenfeld, Yongxiang Hu, Chris A. Hostetler, Giorgio Dall'Olmo, Sharon D. Rodier, John W. Hair and Charles R. Trepte

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50816

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      Key Points

      • Global ocean carbon stocks can be measured with a space-based lidar
      • The average global mixed layer particulate organic carbon stock is 1.9 Pg C
      • The average global mixed layer phytoplankton carbon stock is 0.44 Pg C
    43. You have free access to this content
      Increasing amount of Arctic Ocean deep waters in the Greenland Sea (pages 4361–4366)

      R. Somavilla, U. Schauer and G. Budéus

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50775

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      Key Points

      • T-S changes in the deep Greenland Sea are among the highest in the global ocean
      • The contributions of these changes to global energy budgets are significant
      • The changes are mainly due to the advection of Arctic ocean deep waters
  2. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Correction
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Oceans

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      Correction to “Surges along the Honolulu coast from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami” (page 4367)

      Yoshiki Yamazaki, Kwok Fai Cheung, Geno Pawlak and Thorne Lay

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50690

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      This article corrects:

      Surges along the Honolulu coast from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami

      Vol. 39, Issue 9, Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2012

  3. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Correction
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Climate

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      Australia's unique influence on global sea level in 2010–2011 (pages 4368–4373)

      John T. Fasullo, Carmen Boening, Felix W. Landerer and R. Steven Nerem

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50834

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      Key Points

      • Australian terrestrial storage in 2011 was unique
      • Australia's persistent storage is consistent with its hydrology
      • Attribution of Australian rainfall provides insight into sea level variability
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      Consequences of poor representation of Arctic sea-ice albedo and cloud-radiation interactions in the CMIP5 model ensemble (pages 4374–4379)

      J. Karlsson and G. Svensson

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50768

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      Key Points

      • Sea-ice albedo is poorly constrained in the CMIP5 model ensemble
      • Models with low sea-ice albedo have a more pronounced annual cycle of sea-ice
      • Model's sea-ice albedo sets sign of its surface cloud radiative effect
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      A possible mechanism for the North Pacific regime shift in winter of 1998/1999 (pages 4380–4385)

      Hyun-Su Jo, Sang-Wook Yeh and Cheol-Ho Kim

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50798

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      Key Points

      • A possible mechanism to lead the North Pacific regime shift
      • Slow dynamic adjustments play a role to lead a shift
      • Oceanic teleconnection also contributes to shift
    4. You have free access to this content
      Complex networks identify spatial patterns of extreme rainfall events of the South American Monsoon System (pages 4386–4392)

      Niklas Boers, Bodo Bookhagen, Norbert Marwan, Jürgen Kurths and José Marengo

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50681

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      Key Points

      • Complex Networks of rainfall data reveal features of the South Americanmonsoon
      • Combining several network measures enhances identification of climaticpatterns
      • Distinct large scale synchronization of extreme and most extreme rainfall events
    5. Atmospheric Science

      You have free access to this content
      Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field (pages 4393–4397)

      Anna Karion, Colm Sweeney, Gabrielle Pétron, Gregory Frost, R. Michael Hardesty, Jonathan Kofler, Ben R. Miller, Tim Newberger, Sonja Wolter, Robert Banta, Alan Brewer, Ed Dlugokencky, Patricia Lang, Stephen A. Montzka, Russell Schnell, Pieter Tans, Michael Trainer, Robert Zamora and Stephen Conley

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50811

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      Key Points

      • A mass balance is used to estimate a methane leak rate from a natural gas field.
      • Single day methane emissions are excessive relative to average production.
    6. You have free access to this content
      Influence of entrainment on the thermal stratification in simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium (pages 4398–4403)

      Martin S. Singh and Paul A. O'Gorman

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50796

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      Key Points

      • CAPE increases with warming in simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium
      • Cloud buoyancy remains small because of entrainment
      • Observations suggest entrainment also influences tropical stratification
    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Toward a quantitative characterization of heterogeneous ice formation with lidar/radar: Comparison of CALIPSO/CloudSat with ground-based observations (pages 4404–4408)

      J. Bühl, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Baars and R. Engelmann

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50792

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      Key Points

      • Our observations show good agreement with studies of CloudsatCalipso satellites.
      • Introduction of detection threshold explains discrepancies to previous studies.
      • Ice formation can be quantified by combining remote sensing and in-situ.
    8. You have free access to this content
      Radiative forcing due to major aerosol emitting sectors in China and India (pages 4409–4414)

      David G. Streets, Drew T. Shindell, Zifeng Lu and Greg Faluvegi

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50805

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      Key Points

      • Direct and indirect effects of aerosol sources are quantified
      • Residential biofuel combustion in India has the largest local forcing
      • Local aerosol emissions in China cause forcing far away, including the Arctic
    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A wave roughness Reynolds number parameterization of the sea spray source flux (pages 4415–4419)

      Sarah J. Norris, Ian M. Brooks and Dominic J. Salisbury

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50795

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      Key Points

      • Sea spray aerosol source function is derived in terms of a wave Reynolds number
      • The Reynolds number explains more flux variability than wind speed alone
      • Wave state modifies the wind-driven flux by a factor between 0.1 and 3
    10. You have free access to this content
      Impact of a potential 21st century “grand solar minimum” on surface temperatures and stratospheric ozone (pages 4420–4425)

      J. G. Anet, E. V. Rozanov, S. Muthers, T. Peter, S. Brönnimann, F. Arfeuille, J. Beer, A. I. Shapiro, C. C. Raible, F. Steinhilber and W. K. Schmutz

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50806

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      Key Points

      • A future grand solar minimum will modify the global ozone distribution
      • A future grand solar minimum will have an impact on the rate of global warming
      • Strength and duration of a future grand solar minimum are highly uncertain
    11. You have free access to this content
      Interannual variability in tropospheric nitrous oxide (pages 4426–4431)

      R. L. Thompson, E. Dlugokencky, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, G. Dutton, J. W. Elkins, R. L. Langenfelds, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, Y. Tohjima, S. O'Doherty, P. B. Krummel, P. Fraser and L. P. Steele

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50721

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      Key Points

      • Analysis of tropospheric N2O inter-annual variability
      • Tropospheric N2O inter-annual variability correlated with ENSO
      • Climate driven variations in N2O soil emissions influence tropospheric N2O
    12. You have free access to this content
      Untangling dynamical and microphysical controls for the structure of stratocumulus (pages 4432–4436)

      Mikhail Ovchinnikov, Richard C. Easter and William I. Gustafson Jr.

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50810

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      Key Points

      • Stratocumulus clouds organize themselves into open and closed cell structures
      • A rain initiation timescale and an updraft timescale control cell's structure
      • Transition to open cells depends on cloud dynamics, micro- and macrophysics
    13. You have free access to this content
      Are recent Arctic ozone losses caused by increasing greenhouse gases? (pages 4437–4441)

      Harald E. Rieder and Lorenzo M. Polvani

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50835

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      Key Points

      • Reanalyses show no significant trends in Arctic polar stratospheric cloud volume
      • Models forced solely with increasing greenhouse gases show no trends from 1960 to 2100
      • Recent Arctic ozone losses have not been caused by increasing greenhouse gases
    14. You have free access to this content
      Is the North American monsoon self-limiting? (pages 4442–4447)

      Roop Saini, Mathew Barlow and Andrew Hoell

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50801

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      Key Points

      • A dynamical mechanism that controls the northward development of the monsoon
      • NAM limits its development through thermodynamic interaction with circulation
    15. You have free access to this content
      A new approach to retrieve cloud base height of marine boundary layer clouds (pages 4448–4453)

      J. M. Li, Y. H. Yi, K. Stamnes, X. D. Ding, T. H. Wang, H. C. Jin and S. S. Wang

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50836

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      Key Points

      • A new method for estimating water cloud base height from satellite is proposed
      • Results from new method consist with observations from active satellite sensors
      • New possibilities for cloud base estimation at night from passive satellite
    16. You have free access to this content
      Plutonium-238 observations as a test of modeled transport and surface deposition of meteoric smoke particles (pages 4454–4458)

      S. S. Dhomse, R. W. Saunders, W. Tian, M. P. Chipperfield and J. M. C. Plane

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50840

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      Key Points

      • Pu-238 particles provide a useful tracer from the stratosphere to the surface
      • Meteoric smoke is mostly deposited at middle latitudes
      • Significant levels of cosmic Fe may be deposited in the Southern Ocean
    17. You have free access to this content
      Impact of future Arctic shipping on high-latitude black carbon deposition (pages 4459–4463)

      J. Browse, K. S. Carslaw, A. Schmidt and J. J. Corbett

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50876

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      Key Points

      • Contribution of Arctic shipping to high-latitude BC deposition less than 1%
      • Extra-Arctic sources contribute much greater Arctic BC mass than local shipping
      • Regulation of Arctic shipping unlikely to control high-latitude BC deposition
    18. You have free access to this content
      Evaluating cloud tuning in a climate model with satellite observations (pages 4464–4468)

      Kentaroh Suzuki, Jean‒Christophe Golaz and Graeme L. Stephens

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50874

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      Key Points

      • Evaluating a tunable cloud parameter in a climate model
      • Exposing inconsistency between process-based and temperature-based constraints
      • Implying compensating errors in the climate model
    19. You have free access to this content
      Application of data assimilation in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model to the study of day-to-day variability in the middle and upper atmosphere (pages 4469–4474)

      N. M. Pedatella, K. Raeder, J. L. Anderson and H.-L. Liu

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50884

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      Key Points

      • Ensemble data assimilation is implemented in WACCM using the DART EAKF
      • Demonstrate ability of WACCM+DART to reproduce day-to-day variability in the MLT
      • Variability can be largely reproduced by constraining only the lower atmosphere

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