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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 18

28 September 2013

Volume 40, Issue 18

Pages 4793–4976

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Correction
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Space Sciences

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      Scattering rates of inner belt protons by EMIC waves: A comparison between test particle and diffusion simulations (pages 4793–4797)

      M. de Soria-Santacruz, K. G. Orlova, M. Martinez-Sanchez and Y. Y. Shprits

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50925

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      Key Points

      • Energetic inner belt protons respond linearly to monochromatic EMIC waves
      • Quasi-linear diffusion with narrow bandwidth reproduces test particle results
      • Efficient diffusion codes can be applied to interactions with inner belt protons
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      Phase Space Density matching of relativistic electrons using the Van Allen Probes: REPT results (pages 4798–4802)

      S. K. Morley, M. G. Henderson, G. D. Reeves, R. H. W. Friedel and D. N. Baker

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50909

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      Key Points

      • PSD matching shows TS04 model best represents inner magnetosphere configuration
      • PSD error from a model 1st adiabatic invariant is small (factor of 1.16)
      • The REPT instruments are confirmed to be well cross-calibrated
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      Detection of acoustic-gravity waves in lower ionosphere by VLF radio waves (pages 4803–4807)

      A. Nina and V. M. Čadež

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50931

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      Key Points

      • We present a new procedure of AGWs study in low ionosphere using VLF waves
      • Studies of AGWs during ST in higher altitudes are extended to low ionosphere
      • We confirm global nature of AGWs during ST
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      The K-derived MLT sector geomagnetic indices (pages 4808–4812)

      A. Chambodut, A. Marchaudon, M. Menvielle, F. El-Lemdani Mazouz and C. Lathuillére

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50947

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      Key Points

      • Development of new MLT-sector geomagnetic indices
      • Statistical study of these indices with respect of UT and DoY
      • Description of their behaviours during geomagnetic storms
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      Numerical and statistical evidence for long-range ducted gravity wave propagation over Halley, Antarctica (pages 4813–4817)

      J. B. Snively, K. Nielsen, M. P. Hickey, C. J. Heale, M. J. Taylor and T. Moffat-Griffin

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50926

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      Key Points

      • Waves at Halley occur on average with characteristics favorable for reflection
      • ~45% have characteristics favorable for ducting, ~18% for strong ducting
      • Weak winds and thermal reflection may allow propagation over large distances
    6. Solid Earth

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      Periodic volcanic degassing behavior: The Mount Etna example (pages 4818–4822)

      G. Tamburello, A. Aiuppa, A. J. S. McGonigle, P. Allard, A. Cannata, G. Giudice, E. P. Kantzas and T. D. Pering

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50924

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      Key Points

      • Distinct periodic structure in volcanic degassing
      • Correlation between gas flux fluctuations and contemporaneous seismic RMS values
      • Periodic bursting of rising gas bubble trains at the magma-air interface
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      Density-driven transport in the umbrella region of volcanic clouds: Implications for tephra dispersion models (pages 4823–4827)

      Antonio Costa, Arnau Folch and Giovanni Macedonio

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50942

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      Key Points

      • Validity conditions of passive transport for tephra dispersal are analyzed
      • A coupled cloud gravity current/advection-diffusion transport model is described
      • Volcanic cloud evolution during 1991 Pinatubo eruption is simulated
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      Permanently enhanced dynamic triggering probabilities as evidenced by two M ≥ 7.5 earthquakes (pages 4828–4833)

      Joan Gomberg

      Version of Record online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50933

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      Key Points

      • Seismic waveguide focusing permanently enhances triggering probability
      • Dynamically triggered earthquakes may be as large as M7.5
      • M7.7 Haida Gwaii earthquake's waves likely triggered the M7.5 Craig earthquake
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      A short note on the pressure-depth conversion for geophysical interpretation (pages 4834–4838)

      F. Cammarano

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50887

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      Key Points

      • Material properties are essential for interpreting geophysical observations
      • Assuming PREM pressure profile to convert physical properties introduces biases
      • Effects on phase transitions depths and tradeoff with temperature are presented
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      Along-strike structural changes controlled by dehydration-related fluids within the Philippine Sea plate around the segment boundary of a megathrust earthquake beneath the Kii peninsula, southwest Japan (pages 4839–4844)

      Eiji Kurashimo, Takaya Iwasaki, Takashi Iidaka, Aitaro Kato, Fumihito Yamazaki, Kaoru Miyashita, Takuo Shibutani, Kiyoshi Ito, Tetsuya Takeda, Kazushige Obara and Naoshi Hirata

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50939

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      Key Points

      • Along-strike structural changes controlled by dehydration-related fluids
      • Structural controls on the spatial extent of megathrust earthquake ruptures
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      Decomposition of Fe3S above 250 GPa (pages 4845–4849)

      Haruka Ozawa, Kei Hirose, Toshihiro Suzuki, Yasuo Ohishi and Naohisa Hirao

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50946

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      Key Points

      • Tetragonal Fe3S decomposes into hcp and B2 structure phases above 250 GPa
      • Compositional range of solid solution is still limited at least up to 271 GPa
      • The hcp phase is formed in S-bearing system at least to 2700 K at 269 GPa
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      A slower fault may produce a smaller preseismic moment rate: Non-1/tf acceleration of moment rate during nucleation and dependency on the background slip rate (pages 4850–4854)

      Hiroyuki Noda, Masao Nakatani and Takane Hori

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50962

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      Key Points

      • A slower fault may have smaller preseismic moment release
      • The 1/tf acceleration would indicate that preseismic moment is independent of Vqs
      • Slip law nucleation shows milder acceleration than 1/tf, and thus, Vqs matters
  2. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Correction
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Solid Earth

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  3. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Correction
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

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      Multiple fluvial processes detected by riverside seismic and infrasound monitoring of a controlled flood in the Grand Canyon (pages 4858–4863)

      Brandon Schmandt, Richard C. Aster, Dirk Scherler, Victor C. Tsai and Karl Karlstrom

      Version of Record online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50953

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      Key Points

      • Seismic detection of pulsed bed-load transport
      • Isolation of the local bed-load seismic power spectrum
      • Detection of seismic power generated by two distinct fluid transport sources
    2. Cryosphere

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      Arctic marginal ice zone trending wider in summer and narrower in winter (pages 4864–4868)

      Courtenay Strong and Ignatius G. Rigor

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50928

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      Key Points

      • The warm-season Arctic MIZ widened by 39% while trending poleward.
      • The MIZ widening is linked to decline of thick, multiyear sea ice.
      • The MIZ widening contrasts with a modest cold-season narrowing (15%).
    3. Oceans

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      Mid-depth mixing linked to North Atlantic Current variability (pages 4869–4875)

      Maren Walter and Christian Mertens

      Version of Record online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50936

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      Key Points

      • Observations show enhanced open ocean mixing below North Atlantic Current core
      • Location of mixing changes with position of NAC/Mid Atlantic Ridge interaction
      • Integrated energy dissipation corresponds to surface eddy kinetic energy
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      Permeable coral reef sediment dissolution driven by elevated pCO2 and pore water advection (pages 4876–4881)

      T. Cyronak, I. R. Santos and B. D. Eyre

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50948

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      Key Points

      • Advection and elevated CO2 act synergistically to increase CaCO3 dissolution
      • CaCO3 sediment dissolution under OA is important on an ecosystem scale
      • Other drivers of CaCO3 sediment dissolution need to be elucidated
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      The influence of high-resolution wind stress field on the power input to near-inertial motions in the ocean (pages 4882–4886)

      Antonija Rimac, Jin-Song von Storch, Carsten Eden and Helmuth Haak

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50929

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      Key Points

      • Near-inertial motions in the ocean are generated by hourly wind forcing
      • Temporal resolution of the winds has a stronger effect than spatial resolution
      • The total wind-induced power input to near-inertial motions is 1.1 TW
    6. Climate

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      Projections of global changes in precipitation extremes from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models (pages 4887–4892)

      Andrea Toreti, Philippe Naveau, Matteo Zampieri, Anne Schindler, Enrico Scoccimarro, Elena Xoplaki, Henk A. Dijkstra, Silvio Gualdi and Jürg Luterbacher

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50940

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      Key Points

      • Significant intensification of daily extreme precipitation
      • No reliable estimations for the subtropics and tropics
      • Remarkable seasonal and regional differences.
    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Improved annular mode variability in a global atmospheric general circulation model with 16 km horizontal resolution (pages 4893–4899)

      Erool Palipane, Jian Lu, Gang Chen and James L. Kinter III

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50649

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      Key Points

      • high resolution with best fidelity in annular modes.
      • Improved key characteristics of the AM with hi-resolution.
      • Stronger projection of the SH jet changes with hi-res version.
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      Multimodel seasonal forecasting of global drought onset (pages 4900–4905)

      Xing Yuan and Eric F. Wood

      Version of Record online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50949

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      Key Points

      • Less than 30% of the global drought onsets can be detected by climate models
      • Missed drought events are associated with weak ENSO signal
      • Reliability is very important for a skillful probabilistic drought forecast
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      Plausible reasons for the inconsistencies between the modeled and observed temperatures in the tropical troposphere (pages 4906–4910)

      Costas A. Varotsos, Maria N. Efstathiou and Arthur P. Cracknell

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50646

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      Key Points

      • The available sets of tropical temperature present significant discrepancies
      • The measured tropical tropospheric temperatures obey a white noise behavior
      • The modeled tropical tropospheric temperatures exhibit a power low signal
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      Understanding nonlinear tropical precipitation responses to CO2 forcing (pages 4911–4915)

      Robin Chadwick and Peter Good

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50932

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      Key Points

      • There are large non-linearities in tropical rainfall pattern change
      • This has implications for the use of pattern-scaling
      • The non-linearities are due to the interaction of different processes
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      Extratropical forcing of El Niño–Southern Oscillation asymmetry (pages 4916–4921)

      Bruce T. Anderson, Jason C. Furtado, Kim M. Cobb and Emanuele Di Lorenzo

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50951

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      Key Points

      • Extratropical SLP changes impact the longitudinal structure of ENSO events
      • These impacts are found in observations and coupled-climate model simulations
      • SLP-induced ENSO asymmetries result in appreciable teleconnection differences
    12. Atmospheric Science

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      Deep moist atmospheric convection in a subkilometer global simulation (pages 4922–4926)

      Yoshiaki Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki Kajikawa, Ryuji Yoshida, Tsuyoshi Yamaura, Hisashi Yashiro and Hirofumi Tomita

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50944

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      Key Points

      • Subkilometer global simulation is first successfully conducted
      • The global features of deep moist convection are presented
      • The necessary resolution for simulating convection in global models is 2 km
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      Stationarity of the tropical pacific teleconnection to North America in CMIP5/PMIP3 model simulations (pages 4927–4932)

      Sloan Coats, Jason E. Smerdon, Benjamin I. Cook and Richard Seager

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50938

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      Key Points

      • The ENSO-North American hydroclimate teleconnection is non-stationary in models
      • Teleconnection non-stationarity is linked to the strength of and changes in ENSO
      • The assumption of teleconnection stationarity is potentially unwarranted
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      The role of synoptic eddies in the tropospheric response to stratospheric variability (pages 4933–4937)

      Daniela I. V. Domeisen, Lantao Sun and Gang Chen

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50943

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      Key Points

      • Planetary-scale waves are crucial for stratosphere - troposphere coupling.
      • A synoptic - eddy feedback is needed to get the observed response.
      • The annular mode response is different for planetary- and synoptic-scale waves.
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      El Niño, the 2006 Indonesian peat fires, and the distribution of atmospheric methane (pages 4938–4943)

      John Worden, Zhe Jiang, Dylan B. A. Jones, Matthew Alvarado, Kevin Bowman, Christian Frankenberg, Eric A. Kort, Susan S. Kulawik, Meemong Lee, Junjie Liu, Vivienne Payne, Kevin Wecht and Helen Worden

      Version of Record online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50937

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      Key Points

      • El Niño can increase methane emissions from tropical fires
      • Indonesian fire emissions of methane estimated using satellite data
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      Genesis of Hurricane Sandy (2012) simulated with a global mesoscale model (pages 4944–4950)

      B.-W. Shen, M. DeMaria, J.-L. F. Li and S. Cheung

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50934

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      Key Points

      • A GMM produced a remarkable 7-day track and intensity forecast of TC Sandy
      • Sandy's genesis was realistically simulated with a lead time of up to six days
      • The lead time is attributed to the improved simulations of multiscale systems
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      Geographically versus dynamically defined boundary layer cloud regimes and their use to evaluate general circulation model cloud parameterizations (pages 4951–4956)

      Christine C.W. Nam and Johannes Quaas

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50945

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      Key Points

      • Identification of low clouds by large-scale dynamics insufficient for radar
      • Stratocumulus and shallow cumulus regimes have nearly identical reflectivities
      • Geographical regions are better for evaluating low-level clouds with a radar
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      First observations of SO2 from the satellite Suomi NPP OMPS: Widespread air pollution events over China (pages 4957–4962)

      Kai Yang, Russell R. Dickerson, Simon A. Carn, Cui Ge and Jun Wang

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50952

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      Key Points

      • Reveal for the first time the full extent of synoptic scale pollution episodes
      • Demonstrate monitoring global atmospheric environments with SNPP/OMPS
      • Highlight that coal combustion contributes to air pollution today in China
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      Quantifying the sensitivity of wind farm performance to array layout options using large-eddy simulation (pages 4963–4970)

      Cristina L. Archer, Sina Mirzaeisefat and Sang Lee

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50911

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      Key Points

      • Staggering turbine rows greatly improves capacity factor and array losses
      • Increasing the spacing along the prevailing wind is more effective than across
      • Smart layout choices can improve array performance by 13-33%
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      Toward anthropogenic combustion emission constraints from space-based analysis of urban CO2/CO sensitivity (pages 4971–4976)

      Sam J. Silva, Avelino F. Arellano and Helen M. Worden

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50954

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      Key Points

      • Space-based CO2/CO ratios offer constraints on anthropogenic combustion
      • Combustion-related retrievals can augment carbon monitoring systems
      • Satellite-derived combustion patterns are consistent to literature and other data

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