Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Geophysical Research Letters

28 November 2013

Volume 40, Issue 22

Pages 5827–6015

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Frontier Article
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Space Sciences

      DEMETER observations of high-latitude chorus waves penetrating the plasmasphere during a geomagnetic storm (pages 5827–5832)

      Zeren Zhima, Jinbin Cao, Wenlong Liu, Huishan Fu, Junying Yang, Xuemin Zhang and Xuhui Shen

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058089

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      Key Points

      • Chorus wave at in high latitude at low-earth orbit during storm are reported
      • Chorus seems to penetrate into plasmasphere during main and early recover phase
      • Our observations support the theory that hiss waves are evolved from chorus
    2. New conjunctive CubeSat and balloon measurements to quantify rapid energetic electron precipitation (pages 5833–5837)

      L. W. Blum, Q. Schiller, X. Li, R. Millan, A. Halford and L. Woodger

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058546

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      Key Points

      • MeV e-precipitation is measured simultaneously by CubeSat and balloons
      • Conjunctive measurements enable detailed quantification of rapid MeV e-loss
      • Precipitation bands contribute significant losses to the outer radiation belt
    3. Solid Earth

      Blast waves from violent explosive activity at Yasur Volcano, Vanuatu (pages 5838–5843)

      E. Marchetti, M. Ripepe, D. Delle Donne, R. Genco, A. Finizola and E. Garaebiti

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057900

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      Key Points

      • Explosions at Yasur generate self-similar infrasonic waveforms
      • Waveform asymmetry indicates that infrasound derives from blast waves
      • We show how the supersonic pressure front can be tracked thermally
    4. Rapid earthquake rupture duration estimates from teleseismic energy rates, with application to real-time warning (pages 5844–5848)

      Jaime Andres Convers and Andrew V. Newman

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057664

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      Key Points

      • Robust rapid estimates of earthquake rupture durations and energy
      • Reveals earthquake dynamic rupture extent in real-time
      • Useful for rapid assessment of tsunami potential and strong-shaking
    5. Iron isotopic evidence for convective resurfacing of recycled arc-front mantle beneath back-arc basins (pages 5849–5853)

      O. Nebel, R. J. Arculus, P. A. Sossi, F. E. Jenner and T. H. E. Whan

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057976

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      Key Points

      • Fe isotopes can be used as tracers for subduction-modified mantle
      • Mantle from the sub-arc wedge is resurfacing by convection in back-arc regions
      • Maturing arc systems will be progressively depleted in incompatible elements
    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Subseasonal GNSS positioning errors (pages 5854–5860)

      J. Ray, J. Griffiths, X. Collilieux and P. Rebischung

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058160

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      Key Points

      • Subseasonal GNSS positioning errors can only recently be well studied
      • Fortnightly spectral peaks are common and signify tide model errors
      • Some analysis groups have spurious features related to their processing options
    7. Layered structure of the lithospheric mantle changes dynamics of craton extension (pages 5861–5866)

      J. Liao, T. Gerya and Q. Wang

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058081

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      Key Points

      • Numerically studied mantle layered structure on craton extension
      • The weak mantle layer affects deformation of the overlying and underlying rock
      • Characterized three dominant cratonic extension patterns
    8. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Observed changes in hurricane-driven waves explain the dynamics of modern cuspate shorelines (pages 5867–5871)

      Laura J. Moore, Dylan E. McNamara, A. Brad Murray and Owen Brenner

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057311

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      Key Points

      • One of the first detections of large-scale landscape response to climate change
      • Model + existing data predict coastline response to wave (storm) climate trend
      • Observed and predicted shift in coastline change pattern are consistent
    9. Cryosphere

      Breakup of the Larsen B Ice Shelf triggered by chain reaction drainage of supraglacial lakes (pages 5872–5876)

      Alison F. Banwell, Douglas R. MacAyeal and Olga V. Sergienko

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057694

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      Key Points

      • Larsen B Ice Shelf rapidly broke-up by chain-reaction drainage of surface lakes
      • Lake-induced stress set fracture spacing small enough for capsize-driven breakup
      • Lake interaction by flexural stress defines an ice-shelf stability tipping point
    10. Elastic dynamics and tidal migration of grounding lines modify subglacial lubrication and melting (pages 5877–5881)

      R. Sayag and M. Grae Worster

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057942

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      Key Points

      • Unlike previous elastic models we show consistent interpretation of observations
      • At high tide subglacial lubrication is enhanced and acceleratesmass flux
      • Tidal migration of grounding lines expose larger area of ice to thewarmer ocean
    11. Ice shelf density reconstructed from optical televiewer borehole logging (pages 5882–5887)

      Bryn Hubbard, Jean-Louis Tison, Morgane Philippe, Billie Heene, Frank Pattyn, Terry Malone and Johannes Freitag

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058023

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      Key Points

      • Borehole OPTV luminosity can be used to reconstruct snow, firn, and ice density
      • OPTV luminosity and density scale exponentially (R^2 = 0.96)
      • Density can be reconstructed from ice mass boreholes, with no need for core
    12. Arctic sea ice conditions in spring 2009–2013 prior to melt (pages 5888–5893)

      Jacqueline A. Richter-Menge and Sinead L. Farrell

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058011

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      Key Points

      • We assess the conditions of sea ice in the western Arctic in March 2009-2013
      • We use new sea ice thickness estimates from NASA IceBridge airborne surveys
      • Mean ice thicknesses in Central Arctic and Beaufort-Chukchi Seas are compared
    13. Temporal and spatial evolution of the Antarctic sea ice prior to the September 2012 record maximum extent (pages 5894–5898)

      John Turner, J. Scott Hosking, Tony Phillips and Gareth J. Marshall

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058371

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      Key Points

      • Antarctic sea ice reached a record extent in September 2012
      • The large anomaly was created in the month prior to the record
      • The long-term trend contributed 40% to the record and the storm activity 60%
    14. Oceans

      Wave reworking of abandoned deltas (pages 5899–5903)

      Jaap H. Nienhuis, Andrew D. Ashton, Pieter C. Roos, Suzanne J. M. H. Hulscher and Liviu Giosan

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058231

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      Key Points

      • There are four styles of delta reworking by littoral sediment transport
      • Predicting the style of reworking by looking at wave climate and delta shape
      • Analysis of current and paleo-deltas fits within this framework
    15. First direct measurements of hydraulic jumps in an active submarine density current (pages 5904–5908)

      E. J. Sumner, J. Peakall, D. R. Parsons, R. B. Wynn, S. E. Darby, R. M. Dorrell, S. D. McPhail, J. Perrett, A. Webb and D. White

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057862

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      Key Points

      • We demonstrate the existence of hydraulic jumps in submarine density currents
      • Hydraulic jumps enhance sediment suspension, rather than causing deposition
      • We show that methods currently used to calculate key flow parameters are flawed
    16. Assessing the potential of calcium-based artificial ocean alkalinization to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification (pages 5909–5914)

      Tatiana Ilyina, Dieter Wolf-Gladrow, Guy Munhoven and Christoph Heinze

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057981

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      Key Points

      • Alkalinity added over large areas could counteract ocean acidification
      • Local alkalinization would not elevate biogeochemical parameters
      • The global decrease of atmospheric CO2 is a welcome but small side effect
    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interannual sea level variability in the western North Atlantic: Regional forcing and remote response (pages 5915–5919)

      M. Andres, G. G. Gawarkiewicz and J. M. Toole

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058013

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      Key Points

      • Sea level varies coherently from the coast to the shelf edge
      • Coastal composite sea level variability is driven by regional winds
      • Shelf variability may drive variability in Gulf Stream position near Hatteras
    18. Surface exchange between the Weddell and Scotia Seas (pages 5920–5925)

      Andrew F. Thompson and Madeleine K. Youngs

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058114

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      Key Points

      • Lagrangian observations of Weddell Sea surface water export
      • The Southern ACC Front controls the distribution of exported Weddell waters
      • Surface chlorophyll in northwestern Weddell Sea and Scotia Sea co-vary
    19. Bidecadal sea level modes in the North and South Atlantic Oceans (pages 5926–5931)

      Marcio L. Vianna and Viviane V. Menezes

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058162

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      Key Points

      • North-south Atlantic complex EOF sea level modes, regime shifts and AMOC indices
      • Bottom topography may influence westward propagation of thermal Rossby waves
      • Variability consistent with known AMOC fingerprints and regime-shifts
    20. Wind-driven mixing causes a reduction in the strength of the continental shelf carbon pump in the Chukchi Sea (pages 5932–5936)

      Claudine Hauri, Peter Winsor, Laurie W. Juranek, Andrew M. P. McDonnell, Taro Takahashi and Jeremy T. Mathis

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058267

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      Key Points

      • Autumn winds break stratification and mix remineralized carbon to surface
      • Carbon outgasses to atmosphere and weakens continental shelf carbon pump
      • Carbon cycling dynamics in the Chukchi Sea need to be reassessed
    21. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami generated major environmental changes in a distal Canadian fjord (pages 5937–5943)

      Richard E. Thomson, David J. Spear, Alexander B. Rabinovich and Tamás A. Juhász

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058137

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      Key Points

      • Tsunamis can effect major changes in marine systems far from the source region
      • Tsunami-induced currents can affect the hydrodynamics and sediments in fjords
      • Tsunami-induced currents can alter zooplankton behavior in anoxic basins
    22. Climate

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Robust increase in equilibrium climate sensitivity under global warming (pages 5944–5948)

      Katharina Meraner, Thorsten Mauritsen and Aiko Voigt

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058118

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      Key Points

      • Climate sensitivity to CO2 forcing is explored in warm climates
      • Equilibrium climate sensitivity systematically rises
      • The main cause is enhanced water vapor feedback
    23. Relationship between the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation and the spring rainfall in the western North Pacific (pages 5949–5953)

      Jihoon Seo, Wookap Choi, Daeok Youn, Doo-Sun R. Park and Jin Young Kim

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058266

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      Key Points

      • Lower stratospheric QBO affects spring rainfall variability in the WNP region
      • Changes in WNP subtropical high and jet result in spring rainfall variability
      • QBO-related change in Hadley circulation influences subtropical high and jet
    24. Mechanisms of southern Caribbean SST variability over the last two millennia (pages 5954–5958)

      Jennifer B. Wurtzel, David E. Black, Robert C. Thunell, Larry C. Peterson, Eric J. Tappa and Shaily Rahman

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058458

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      Key Points

      • Seasonal reconstruction of tropical Atlantic SSTs using foraminiferal Mg/Ca
      • Spectral analysis reveals significant power in decadal and multidecadal bands
      • Nonlinear relationship between winter/spring temperatures and solar variability
    25. Intensification of the Southern Hemisphere summertime subtropical anticyclones in a warming climate (pages 5959–5964)

      Wenhong Li, Laifang Li, Mingfang Ting, Yi Deng, Yochanan Kushnir, Yimin Liu, Yi Lu, Chunzai Wang and Pengfei Zhang

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058124

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      Key Points

      • All the summer Southern Hemisphere subtropical anticyclones will intensify in the future
      • The strengthening is caused by an increase in the land-sea thermal contrast
      • SAs will play more important roles in regional climate & hydrological extremes.
    26. Uncertainty in annual rankings from NOAA's global temperature time series (pages 5965–5969)

      Anthony Arguez, Thomas R. Karl, Michael F. Squires and Russell S. Vose

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057999

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      Key Points

      • Annual rankings of global temperature time series have a degree of uncertainty
      • Currently we cannot irrefutably pinpoint the warmest year from 1880 to 2012
      • The last 16 years were warmer than virtually all other years since 1880
  2. Frontier Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Frontier Article
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Atmospheric Science

      Beyond deadlock (pages 5970–5976)

      David A. Randall

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057998

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      Key Points

      • Parameterizations are improving rapidly
      • Process models and global models are now overlapping sets
      • Midtropospheric water vapor is key to the MJO
  3. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    3. Frontier Article
    4. Regular Articles
    1. Atmospheric Science

      Insights into anthropogenic nitrogen deposition to the North Atlantic investigated using the isotopic composition of aerosol and rainwater nitrate (pages 5977–5982)

      Amy R. Gobel, Katye E. Altieri, Andrew J. Peters, Meredith G. Hastings and Daniel M. Sigman

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058167

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      Key Points

      • Isotope ratios of aerosol and rainwater nitrate N and O measured in Bermuda
      • Transition from polluted to marine atmosphere influenced isotopic composition
      • Difference in N isotopes between U.S. and Bermuda do not suggest a source change
    2. Typhoon-induced concentric airglow structures in the mesopause region (pages 5983–5987)

      S. Suzuki, S. L. Vadas, K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, S. Kawamura and Y. Murayama

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058087

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      Key Points

      • An airglow imaging network provides large concentric wave patterns
      • The concentric structure was estimated from airglow observations
      • A concentric wave originated from Typhoon Pongsona in the troposphere
    3. Up-gradient eddy fluxes of potential vorticity near the subtropical jet (pages 5988–5993)

      T. Birner, D. W. J. Thompson and T. G. Shepherd

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057728

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      Key Points

      • pronounced region of up-gradient PV fluxes on poleward flank of subtropical jet
      • up-gradient PV flux contradicts macroturbulence approach to general circulation
      • plausible mechanism presented with implication for jet shifts
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      On the impact of aerosols on soil erosion (pages 5994–5998)

      Hannah Nissan and Ralf Toumi

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058289

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      Key Points

      • Effect of aerosols on rainfall erosivity is simulated in two idealised cases
      • Change in erosivity with aerosols is amplified beyond change in rainfall
      • Aerosol effects on raindrop size can enhance or mitigate the amplification
    5. A case study of subdaily simulated and observed continental convective precipitation: CMIP5 and multiscale global climate models comparison (pages 5999–6003)

      D. Rosa and W. D. Collins

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057987

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      Key Points

      • Climate model underestimate continental sub-daily extreme precipitation
      • Inhibition factors make simulated cumulus convection more realistic
      • A multiscale model improves diurnal cycle and heavy rainfall persistence
    6. Comparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane (pages 6004–6009)

      Seth C. Olsen, Guy P. Brasseur, Donald J. Wuebbles, Steven R. H. Barrett, Hongyan Dang, Sebastian D. Eastham, Mark Z. Jacobson, Arezoo Khodayari, Henry Selkirk, Andrei Sokolov and Nadine Unger

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057660

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      Key Points

      • Effect of aviation on ozone is more uncertain than previously thought
      • Large differences between state-of-the-art model estimates of aviation effects
      • Aviation NOx ozone effects are nonlinear at high NOx emissions
    7. Perfluorotributylamine: A novel long-lived greenhouse gas (pages 6010–6015)

      Angela C. Hong, Cora J. Young, Michael D. Hurley, Timothy J. Wallington and Scott A. Mabury

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058010

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      Key Points

      • Perfluorotributylamine has radiative efficiency of 0.86 W m−2 and a lifetime of 500 years
      • Perfluorotributylamine is a detectable long-lived greenhouse gas
      • Perfluorinated amines are produced in high volumes and should be further studied

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