Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 23

16 December 2013

Volume 40, Issue 23

Pages 6017–6328

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. Space Sciences

      RCM-E simulation of substorm growth phase arc associated with large-scale adiabatic convection (pages 6017–6022)

      Jian Yang, Richard A. Wolf, Frank R. Toffoletto and Stanislav Sazykin

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058253

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      Key Points

      • A thin arc is associated with upward FACs in both premidnight and postmidnight sectors
      • The thin arc maps to 8 RE in the transition region
      • Convection Front concept is proposed to explain location and thickness of an arc
    2. Dipolarization fronts as a consequence of transient reconnection: In situ evidence (pages 6023–6027)

      H. S. Fu, J. B. Cao, Yu. V. Khotyaintsev, M. I. Sitnov, A. Runov, S. Y. Fu, M. Hamrin, M. André, A. Retinò, Y. D. Ma, H. Y. Lu, X. H. Wei and S. Y. Huang

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058620

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      Key Points

      • DFs are observed inside reconnection diffusion region
      • Three formation mechanisms of DF are compared
      • Causality between flow and DF is discussed
    3. Planets

      Solar cycle effects on the ion escape from Mars (pages 6028–6032)

      R. Lundin, S. Barabash, M. Holmström, H. Nilsson, Y. Futaana, R. Ramstad, M. Yamauchi, E. Dubinin and M. Fraenz

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058154

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      Key Points

      • Heavy ion escape from Mars positively correlated with solar activity Ri and F10.7
      • Heavy ion escape rate increase by a factor of 10 during solar cycle 24 (min-max)
      • An empiric model for heavy ion escape rate versus solar activity is derived
    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Isotopes of nitrogen on Mars: Atmospheric measurements by Curiosity's mass spectrometer (pages 6033–6037)

      Michael H. Wong, Sushil K. Atreya, Paul N. Mahaffy, Heather B. Franz, Charles Malespin, Melissa G. Trainer, Jennifer C. Stern, Pamela G. Conrad, Heidi L. K. Manning, Robert O. Pepin, Richard H. Becker, Christopher P. McKay, Tobias C. Owen, Rafael Navarro-González, John H. Jones, Bruce M. Jakosky and Andrew Steele

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057840

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      Key Points

      • MSL's more precise results on Mars nitrogen isotopes agree with Viking
      • Atmospheric gas in Mars meteorites differs from MSL atmospheric composition
      • Geologically rapid change in atmospheric composition is a possible explanation
    5. Solid Earth

      Magma fracture and hybrid earthquakes in the conduit of Augustine Volcano (pages 6038–6042)

      Helena Buurman and Michael E. West

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057864

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      Key Points

      • Waveform evolution shows hypocenter migration
      • Magma fracture zone migrates downwards in the conduit
      • Seismic evidence for plugging a conduit
    6. Conditions and threshold for magma transfer in the layered upper crust: Insights from experimental models (pages 6043–6047)

      Malte C. Ritter, Valerio Acocella, Joel Ruch and Sonja L. Philipp

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058199

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      Key Points

      • Dike propagation through layered rock is simulated by analog gelatin models
      • Dikes can be arrested by elasticity contrasts in the range of common values
      • Model results are compared to examples from recently active volcanoes
    7. Horizontal motion in elastic response to seasonal loading of rain water in the Amazon Basin and monsoon water in Southeast Asia observed by GPS and inferred from GRACE (pages 6048–6053)

      Yuning Fu, Donald F. Argus, Jeffrey T. Freymueller and Michael B. Heflin

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058093

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      Key Points

      • Long-wavelength hydrological mass variation causes horizontal crustal motion
      • GPS and GRACE can resolve consistent horizontal seasonal loading deformation
      • Discrepancy is caused by local effects and limited GRACE's spatial resolution
    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The effect of large-scale shear-velocity heterogeneity on SS precursor amplitudes (pages 6054–6058)

      L. Bai and J. Ritsema

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058669

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      Key Points

      • The amplitude variation due to wave focusing in a 3D Earth can be significant
      • The observed S660S/SS amplitude ratio is much smaller than PREM predictions
      • The crust has a profound influence on S410S/SS and S660S/SS amplitude ratios
    9. Fault frictional parameters and material properties revealed by slow slip events at Kilauea volcano, Hawai‘i (pages 6059–6063)

      James H. Foster, Anthony R. Lowry and Benjamin A. Brooks

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058234

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      Key Points

      • Slow slip events at Kilauea can be categorized into two distinct families
      • One family exhibits quasi-periodicity
      • The periodicity constrains fault frictional parameters and material properties
    10. Seismic evidence for thermal runaway during intermediate-depth earthquake rupture (pages 6064–6068)

      Germán A. Prieto, Manuel Florez, Sarah A. Barrett, Gregory C. Beroza, Patricia Pedraza, Jose Faustino Blanco and Esteban Poveda

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058109

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      Key Points

      • Evidence for thermal shear runaway mechanism for intermediate-depth earthquakes
      • Stress drop scaling and low radiation efficiencies observed for Mw 3.5–5.2
      • Fracture energies larger than for shallow earthquakes with similar slip
    11. Major effusive eruptions and recent lava fountains: Balance between expected and erupted magma volumes at Etna volcano (pages 6069–6073)

      A. Bonaccorso and S. Calvari

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058291

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      Key Points

      • Upgraded database of the volumes emitted by the Etna eruptions
      • Relations between erupted volumes and volcano equilibrium state
      • Tool to evaluate the current state of the volcano and short-term prediction
    12. Are scale-invariant stress orientations related to seismicity rates near the San Andreas fault? (pages 6074–6078)

      Jörn Davidsen, Aicko Y. Schumann and Mark Naylor

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057919

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      Key Points

      • Scale-invariance in stress orientations is not due to seismicity rates alone
    13. Detection of short-term slow slip events along the Nankai Trough via groundwater observations (pages 6079–6083)

      Yuichi Kitagawa and Naoji Koizumi

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058322

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      Key Points

      • S-SSEs can be detected by conducting groundwater observations
      • The conditions for detecting S-SSEs via groundwater observations are shown
      • Our results will be useful for forecasting large earthquakes
    14. Estimating the location of a tunnel using correlation and inversion of Rayleigh wave scattering (pages 6084–6088)

      A. Kaslilar, U. Harmankaya, K. Wapenaar and D. Draganov

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058462

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      Key Points

      • Tunnel location estimated accurately by correlation and inversion
      • Ghost arrivals retrieval by seismic interferometry of scattered waves
      • First time application of a numerically verified method on seismic field data
    15. Earthquake magnitude scaling using seismogeodetic data (pages 6089–6094)

      Brendan W. Crowell, Diego Melgar, Yehuda Bock, Jennifer S. Haase and Jianghui Geng

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058391

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      Key Points

      • Magnitude estimation from seismogeodetic Pd scaling does not saturate
      • Earthquake size may be predictable from the initial rupture
      • PGD provides robust constraints on rupture duration and size
    16. The sulfur budget of the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, Iceland (pages 6095–6100)

      Olgeir Sigmarsson, Baptiste Haddadi, Simon Carn, Séverine Moune, Jónas Gudnason, Kai Yang and Lieven Clarisse

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057760

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      Key Points

      • H2S and SO2 degassing is estimated for the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn
      • Satellite-based SO2 mass loading is lower than from mineral melt inclusions
      • Half of S resides as sulfide globules; 25% enter the stratosphere
    17. Is stress accumulating on the creeping section of the San Andreas fault? (pages 6101–6105)

      K. M. Johnson

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058184

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      Key Points

      • Only small areas of the creeping San Andreas fault is accumulating stress
      • At most 40% of the total moment accumulation is on locked areas
      • Locked areas would rupture in at most a M6.7 earthquake every 150 years
    18. Sn propagation in the Western United States from common midpoint stacks of USArray data (pages 6106–6111)

      J. S. Buehler and P. M. Shearer

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057680

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      Key Points

      • Sn is highly attenuated across more localized regions that previously assumed
      • Sn is strongly attenuated around the perimeter of the central Great Basin
      • We find evidence for Sn propagation at short ranges in the central Great Basin
    19. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

      Vulnerability of shallow subarctic lakes to evaporate and desiccate when snowmelt runoff is low (pages 6112–6117)

      F. Bouchard, K. W. Turner, L. A. MacDonald, C. Deakin, H. White, N. Farquharson, A. S. Medeiros, B. B. Wolfe, R. I. Hall, R. Pienitz and T. W. D. Edwards

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058635

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      Key Points

      • Desiccation of shallow tundra lakes may occur when snowmelt is low
      • Recent desiccation appears to be unprecedented over the past ~200 years
      • Increasing frequency of lake desiccation will have ecological consequences
    20. Measuring water accumulation rates using GRACE data in areas experiencing glacial isostatic adjustment: The Nelson River basin (pages 6118–6122)

      A. Lambert, J. Huang, G. van der Kamp, J. Henton, S. Mazzotti, T. S. James, N. Courtier and A. G. Barr

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057973

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      Key Points

      • Total water storage change is distinguished from glacial isostatic adjustment
      • The methodology combines GRACE, GPS, and absolute gravity data
      • TWS change is quantitatively confirmed by hydrological measurements
    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Local and global factors controlling water-energy balances within the Budyko framework (pages 6123–6129)

      Xianli Xu, Wen Liu, Bridget R. Scanlon, Lu Zhang and Ming Pan

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058324

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      Key Points

      • A universal model to predict water-energy partitioning was developed
      • Enable Budyko framework to assessing water availability globally
      • Constraints for land surface models in terms of water and energy limitations
    22. The water footprint of land grabbing (pages 6130–6135)

      Maria Cristina Rulli and Paolo D'Odorico

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058281

      Key Points

      • Land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates.
      • Grabbed water would be sufficient to improve food security in grabbed countries.
      • Water grabbing is associated with water withdrawals increase
    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Trade-offs between global warming and day length on the start of the carbon uptake period in seasonally cold ecosystems (pages 6136–6142)

      Georg Wohlfahrt, Edoardo Cremonese, Albin Hammerle, Lukas Hörtnagl, Marta Galvagno, Damiano Gianelle, Barbara Marcolla and Umberto Morra di Cella

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058182

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      Key Points

      • Effects of warming on the start of the carbon uptake period were simulated
      • Warming induced earlier snowmelt reduced the quantity and duration of daylight
      • Earlier snowmelts reduced daytime sink and increased nighttime source of carbon
    24. Vegetation pattern formation in semiarid systems without facilitative mechanisms (pages 6143–6147)

      Ricardo Martínez-García, Justin M. Calabrese, Emilio Hernández-García and Cristóbal López

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058797

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      Key Points

      • Spatial vegetation model only considering long-range competition for water.
      • The model does not consider short-range facilitation.
      • Patterns in the system are determined by the kernel competition function.
    25. Cryosphere

      Satellite-based estimates of Antarctic surface meltwater fluxes (pages 6148–6153)

      Luke D. Trusel, Karen E. Frey, Sarah B. Das, Peter Kuipers Munneke and Michiel R. van den Broeke

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058138

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      Key Points

      • Novel satellite-based estimates of Antarctic surface meltwater production
      • Broad agreement among satellite, ground, and climate model melt results
      • High melt on inner Larsen C Ice Shelf likely results from a föhn effect
    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Greenland subglacial lakes detected by radar (pages 6154–6159)

      Steven J. Palmer, Julian A. Dowdeswell, Poul Christoffersen, Duncan A. Young, Donald D. Blankenship, Jamin S. Greenbaum, Toby Benham, Jonathan Bamber and Martin J. Siegert

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058383

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      Key Points

      • We have discovered subglacial lakes beneath the Greenland ice sheet
      • The setting of the subglacial lakes is unusual compared with Antarctic lakes
      • The subglacial lake water is likely to be derived from supraglacial meltwater
    27. Summer melt regulates winter glacier flow speeds throughout Alaska (pages 6160–6164)

      Evan W. Burgess, Christopher F. Larsen and Richard R. Forster

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058228

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      Key Points

      • Winter flow speeds of glaciers slow 11% for each additional meter of summer melt
      • The response occurs because melt modulates subglacial water storage in winter
      • The dynamic is ubiquitous in Alaska and likely occurs globally in temperate ice
    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The deep permafrost carbon pool of the Yedoma region in Siberia and Alaska (pages 6165–6170)

      Jens Strauss, Lutz Schirrmeister, Guido Grosse, Sebastian Wetterich, Mathias Ulrich, Ulrike Herzschuh and Hans-Wolfgang Hubberten

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058088

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      Key Points

      • The Yedoma region stores 211Gt OC (83Gt in Yedoma; 128 Gt in thermokarst)
      • Thermokarst deposits constitute the dominant current Yedoma region carbon pool
      • Thawing portions of this significant OC pool will amplify climate change
    29. Oceans

      Drifter motion in the Gulf of Mexico constrained by altimetric Lagrangian coherent structures (pages 6171–6175)

      M. J. Olascoaga, F. J. Beron-Vera, G. Haller, J. Triñanes, M. Iskandarani, E. F. Coelho, B. K. Haus, H. S. Huntley, G. Jacobs, A. D. Kirwan Jr., B. L. Lipphardt Jr., T. M. Özgökmen, A. J. H. M. Reniers and A. Valle-Levinson

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058624

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      Key Points

      • Altimetric LCS constrain drifter motion
      • Altimetric LCS form centerpieces of drifter distributions
      • Altimetric LCS cores predate shape changes in drifter distributions
    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Estimates of the Southern Ocean general circulation improved by animal-borne instruments (pages 6176–6180)

      Fabien Roquet, Carl Wunsch, Gael Forget, Patrick Heimbach, Christophe Guinet, Gilles Reverdin, Jean-Benoit Charrassin, Frederic Bailleul, Daniel P. Costa, Luis A. Huckstadt, Kimberly T. Goetz, Kit M. Kovacs, Christian Lydersen, Martin Biuw, Ole A. Nøst, Horst Bornemann, Joachim Ploetz, Marthan N. Bester, Trevor McIntyre, Monica C. Muelbert, Mark A. Hindell, Clive R. McMahon, Guy Williams, Robert Harcourt, Iain C. Field, Leon Chafik, Keith W. Nicholls, Lars Boehme and Mike A. Fedak

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058304

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      Key Points

      • A quality-controlled collection of seal-derived hydrographic data is presented
      • The global value of seal data is assessed using a state estimation technique
      • Seal data improve ocean circulation estimates in sea ice-covered regions
    31. Marginal instability and deep cycle turbulence in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (pages 6181–6185)

      W. D. Smyth and J. N. Moum

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058403

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      Key Points

      • Deep cycle turbulence in the equatorial Pacific ocean is marginally unstable
      • Marginal instability indicates the presence of sheared, stratified turbulence
      • Marginal instability can be assessed using historical data
    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Modified shelf water on the continental slope north of Mac Robertson Land, East Antarctica (pages 6186–6190)

      Annie P. S. Wong and Stephen C. Riser

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058125

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      Key Points

      • Modified shelf water was observed by profiling floats along East Antarctica
      • Year-round bottom characteristics on the continental slope 60–72E are described
      • Mac Robertson Land including Cape Darnley is a significant source of dense water
    33. Multicycle ensemble forecasting of sea surface temperature (pages 6191–6195)

      Gary B. Brassington

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057752

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      Key Points

      • Multicycle is a novel extension to time-lagged ensemble forecasting
      • Efficient sampling of random forecast model errors
      • Weighted ensemble averages have improved skill and reliability
    34. Wind-driven Arctic freshwater anomalies (pages 6196–6201)

      K. D. Stewart and T. W. N. Haine

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058247

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      Key Points

      • Wind conditions can generate significant Arctic freshwater anomalies
      • Response to a change of wind regime depends on the Arctic freshwater inventory
      • Cyclonic shift of present winds will release Arctic freshwater west of Greenland
    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation slowdown cooled the subtropical ocean (pages 6202–6207)

      Stuart A. Cunningham, Christopher D. Roberts, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, William E. Johns, Will Hobbs, Matthew D. Palmer, Darren Rayner, David A. Smeed and Gerard McCarthy

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058464

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      Key Points

      • The upper 2 km of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean cooled throughout 2010
      • Cooling driven by a 30% reduction in meridional heat transport
      • AMOC contributes to heat content anomalies in the seasonal mixed layer
    36. Climate

      Extreme Arctic cyclones in CMIP5 historical simulations (pages 6208–6212)

      Stephen J. Vavrus

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058161

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      Key Points

      • GCMs are able to simulate extremely strong Arctic cyclones
      • GCMs reproduce the major seasonal and spatial variations of these storms
      • Equivocal trends in simulated mean SLP and extreme Arctic cyclones since 1850
    37. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Modeling soil moisture-precipitation feedback in the Sahel: Importance of spatial scale versus convective parameterization (pages 6213–6218)

      Christopher M. Taylor, Cathryn E. Birch, Douglas J. Parker, Nick Dixon, Françoise Guichard, Grigory Nikulin and Grenville M. S. Lister

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058511

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      Key Points

      • Soil moisture-precipitation feedback analyzed in models of different resolution
      • Realistic depiction of storm initiation in convection-permitting simulations
      • Convective parameterization changes feedback sign
    38. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Geological storage of CO2 within the oceanic crust by gravitational trapping (pages 6219–6224)

      Chiara Marieni, Timothy J. Henstock and Damon A. H. Teagle

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058220

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      Key Points

      • Density of CO2 within the upper oceanic basalts is calculated across the globe
      • CO2 can be stably stored by combined gravitational and physical trapping
      • Five regions viable for CO2 sequestration can each store >500 years of emissions
    39. Estimating tropical cyclone precipitation risk in Texas (pages 6225–6230)

      Laiyin Zhu, Steven M. Quiring and Kerry A. Emanuel

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058284

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      Key Points

      • A new rainfall algorithm is developed based on synthetic tropical cyclones
      • TCP risk by the synthetic approach and observations show good agreement
      • Locations near Houston and Corpus Christi have elevated TCP risk
    40. Improved seasonal forecast using ozone hole variability? (pages 6231–6235)

      Seok-Woo Son, Ariaan Purich, Harry H. Hendon, Baek-Min Kim and Lorenzo M. Polvani

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057731

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      Key Points

      • Ozone hole has affected inter-annual variability of SH surface climate
      • Ozone hole-related climate variability is comparable to ENSO
      • Seasonal forecasts could be improved by considering ozone-hole variability
    41. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Monitoring the width of the tropical belt with GPS radio occultation measurements (pages 6236–6241)

      Chi O. Ao and Amanda J. Hajj

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058203

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      Key Points

      • A decade of tropopause height data was used to study changes in tropical width
      • Widening rates are sensitive to the definition of the tropical boundaries
      • Significant widening trend was observed in NH but not SH for the past decade
    42. Energy balance in a warm world without the ocean conveyor belt and sea ice (pages 6242–6246)

      Aixue Hu, Gerald A. Meehl, Weiqing Han, Jianhua Lu and Warren G. Strand

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058123

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      Key Points

      • Collapsed AMOC under RCP8.5 will reduce oceanic heat transport
      • Reduced oceanic heat transport is partly compensated by atmosphere
      • Reduced sea ice lowers the albedo and increases absorption of solar radiation
    43. Observed trends in the Great Plains low-level jet and associated precipitation changes in relation to recent droughts (pages 6247–6251)

      Daniel Barandiaran, Shih-Yu Wang and Kyle Hilburn

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058296

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      Key Points

      • Trends in precipitation and low-level winds over central U.S. are analyzed
      • Low-level jet over Great Plains is strengthening and expanding
      • Concurrent shift in precipitation has the potential to affect drought patterns
    44. Atmospheric Science

      Realistic initiation and dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a coarse resolution aquaplanet GCM (pages 6252–6257)

      R. S. Ajayamohan, Boualem Khouider and Andrew J. Majda

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058187

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      Key Points

      • Realistic MJO initiation and dynamics in a GCM
      • Used a simple three layer multicloud convection scheme in the simulation
      • A different initiation mechanism for the MJO as opposed to the existing theory
    45. Spontaneous formation of nonspherical water ice grains in a plasma environment (pages 6258–6263)

      Kil-Byoung Chai and Paul M. Bellan

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058268

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      Key Points

      • Measurement of size/growth/shape of ice grains in water ice lab plasma
      • Nonspherical (ellipsoidal) water ice grains observed in low pressure plasma
      • Related to water ice dusty plasmas in polar mesospheric clouds, Saturn's rings
    46. The influence of tropical cyclones on heat waves in Southeastern Australia (pages 6264–6270)

      Teresa J. Parker, Gareth J. Berry and Michael J. Reeder

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058257

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      Key Points

      • Heatwaves in Southeastern Australia are associated with Rossby wave breaking
      • Advection from tropical cylone outflow plays a role in severe heatwaves
    47. Changes in the atmospheric helium isotope ratio over the past 40 years (pages 6271–6275)

      J. Lupton and L. Evans

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057681

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      Key Points

      • Air helium isotope ratio has not changed significantly
      • Study covers air helium variations over last 40 years
      • Air helium is a viable standard for helium isotope measurements
    48. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Contributions to twentieth century total column ozone change from halocarbons, tropospheric ozone precursors, and climate change (pages 6276–6281)

      M. C. Reader, D. A. Plummer, J. F. Scinocca and T. G. Shepherd

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057776

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      Key Points

      • Globally, ozone increase from precursors nearly equals decrease from ODSs
      • Ozone increases dominate in the NH, while decreases dominate in the SH
      • Globally, the N2O effect on ozone almost cancels the climate change effect
    49. Formation of sprite streamers at subbreakdown conditions from ionospheric inhomogeneities resembling observed sprite halo structures (pages 6282–6287)

      Burcu C. Kosar, Ningyu Liu and Hamid K. Rassoul

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058294

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      Key Points

      • Inhomogeneities with sprite halo density can initiate sprite streamers
      • The associated luminosity distribution agrees with observations
      • The inhomogeneities initiating streamers may come from an unstable halo front
    50. Decadal warming of coastal China Seas and coupling with winter monsoon and currents (pages 6288–6292)

      L.-Y. Oey, M.-C. Chang, Y.-L. Chang, Y.-C. Lin and F.-H. Xu

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058202

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      Key Points

      • Recent warming off coastal China is accompanied by stronger northeasterly wind
      • Stronger winter monsoon spreads heat from Kuroshio producing air-sea response
      • The increased wind is detached from the recent rebound of the Siberian High
    51. Rapid modification of cloud-nucleating ability of aerosols by biogenic emissions (pages 6293–6297)

      Yan Ma, Sarah D. Brooks, German Vidaurre, Alexei F. Khalizov, Lin Wang and Renyi Zhang

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057895

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      Key Points

      • Aging of aerosols by biogenic emissions is faster than previously recognized
      • Biogenic aging of primary aerosols modifies CCN properties
      • CCN activities of aged aerosol do not depend on primary aerosol properties
    52. Quantification of fuel moisture effects on biomass consumed derived from fire radiative energy retrievals (pages 6298–6302)

      Alistair M. S. Smith, Wade T. Tinkham, David P. Roy, Luigi Boschetti, Robert L. Kremens, Sanath S. Kumar, Aaron M. Sparks and Michael J. Falkowski

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058232

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      Key Points

      • FRE biomass consumed exhibits bias if fuel moisture is not considered
      • A method accounting for fuel moisture is presented
      • Dual-band thermometry FRP provides comparable measures to other FRP methods
    53. High-accuracy measurements of the vapor pressure of ice referenced to the triple point (pages 6303–6307)

      Katarzyna Bielska, Daniel K. Havey, Gregory E. Scace, Daniel Lisak, Allan H. Harvey and Joseph T. Hodges

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058474

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      Key Points

      • Widely used ice vapor pressure correlations are empirical and inexact
      • Accurate thermodynamics-based expressions have been validated down to −100 degrees C
      • These expressions can be reliably extrapolated to temperatures as low as 50 K
    54. Recent variability of the tropical tropopause inversion layer (pages 6308–6313)

      Wuke Wang, Katja Matthes, Torsten Schmidt and Lisa Neef

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058350

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      Key Points

      • Tropical tropopause temp. increase, strength of TIL decrease over last decade
      • Radiative cooling and dynamical warming contribute to TIL variability
      • WACCM with finer vertical resolution captures TIL variability better
    55. A fast and sensitive new satellite SO2 retrieval algorithm based on principal component analysis: Application to the ozone monitoring instrument (pages 6314–6318)

      Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay A. Krotkov and Pawan K. Bhartia

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058134

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      Key Points

      • Fundamentally different and fast approach for spectral fitting of SO2 signals
      • Biases in operational product largely eliminated, noise reduced by half
      • Easily adapted to other sensors to produce consistent long-term data sets
    56. Correlated measurements of ozone and particulates in the Ross Island region, Antarctica (pages 6319–6323)

      Lars E. Kalnajs, Linnea M. Avallone and Darin W. Toohey

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058422

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      Key Points

      • There is a correlation between aerosols and ozone depletion
      • This correlation is primarily in the submicron aerosol
      • These aerosols appear to be of oceanic origin
    57. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of water vapor over the Bay of Bengal during monsoon (pages 6324–6328)

      M. Midhun, P. R. Lekshmy and R. Ramesh

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058181

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      Key Points

      • Demonstration of deviation from Model values on rainy spells over ocean
      • Relations between the ocean surface condition and isotopic composition of vapor
      • Influence of rain along the parcel trajectory on isotopic composition of vapor

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