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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 24

28 December 2013

Volume 40, Issue 24

Pages 6329–6416

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. Solid Earth

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      A global approach to provide magnitude estimates for earthquake early warning alerts (pages 6329–6333)

      Huseyin Serdar Kuyuk and Richard M. Allen

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058580

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      Key Points

      • Earthquake early warning systems need rapid robust magnitude estimation
      • We present a global scaling relation for magnitude using P wave amplitude
      • Using P wave displacement amplitude is more robust than predominant period
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      Experimental detection of upward going cosmic particles and consequences for correction of density radiography of volcanoes (pages 6334–6339)

      K. Jourde, D. Gibert, J. Marteau, J. de Bremond d'Ars, S. Gardien, C. Girerd, J.-C. Ianigro and D. Carbone

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058357

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      Key Points

      • Experimental evidence for upward-going cosmic particle in the lower atmosphere
      • Upward-going particles produce strong bias in density radiographies of volcanoes
      • We show how to remove bias in muon density radiographies of volcanoes
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      Ground-motion prediction from tremor (pages 6340–6345)

      Annemarie S. Baltay and Gregory C. Beroza

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058506

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      Key Points

      • Tectonic tremor can be used to determine ground motion attenuation to 150 km
      • Tremor PGA and PGV show distance decay similar to subduction-zone-specific GMPEs
      • The method can be used to refine hazard maps and to pursue regional variations
    4. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

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      Multiecho scheme advances surface NMR for aquifer characterization (pages 6346–6350)

      Elliot Grunewald and David Walsh

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057607

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      Key Points

      • Sophisticated borehole NMR measurement is adapted to noninvasive surface NMR
      • Efficient measurement enables accelerated determination of water content and T2
      • Capability to characterize aquifers is validated by comparison with logging NMR
    5. Cryosphere

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      Aligned glaciotectonic rafts on the central Barents Sea seafloor revealing extensive glacitectonic erosion during the last deglaciation (pages 6351–6355)

      Denise Christina Rüther, Karin Andreassen and Matteo Spagnolo

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058413

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      Key Points

      • Aligned megablocks and rafts observed on the seafloor in northern Bjornoyrenna
      • Preferred orientations of rafts deviate from overall chain orientation
      • Reorientation of rafts reflects compressional strain in ice stream shear zone
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      Isotropic thaw subsidence in undisturbed permafrost landscapes (pages 6356–6361)

      Nikolay I. Shiklomanov, Dmitry A. Streletskiy, Jonathon D. Little and Frederick E. Nelson

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058295

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      Key Points

      • Natural permafrost landscapes subside slowly in response to climate warming
      • Decimeter-scale subsidence was observed over 11 year period in Arctic Alaska
      • Surface subsidence can explain the apparent stability of the active layer
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      Gypsum crystals observed in experimental and natural sea ice (pages 6362–6367)

      N.-X. Geilfus, R. J. Galley, M. Cooper, N. Halden, A. Hare, F. Wang, D. H. Søgaard and S. Rysgaard

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058479

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      Key Points

      • Gypsum precipitation within natural and experimental sea ice
      • Prediction of gypsum precipitation by the FREZCHEM model
      • New model for precipitate formation and marine deposition in polar seas
    8. Oceans

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      Instrumented elephant seals reveal the seasonality in chlorophyll and light-mixing regime in the iron-fertilized Southern Ocean (pages 6368–6372)

      Stéphane Blain, Sophie Renaut, Xiaogang Xing, Hervé Claustre and Christophe Guinet

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058065

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      Key Points

      • Simultaneous determination of chlorophyll and mixed layer depth
      • Importance of the light-mixing regime when iron limitation is relieved
      • Role of self-shading in the control of chlorophyll in iron-fertilized regions
    9. Climate

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      The role of the oceans in shaping the tropospheric response to the 11 year solar cycle (pages 6373–6377)

      Stergios Misios and Hauke Schmidt

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058439

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      Key Points

      • Oceans could mediate the 11-yr solar cycle forcing into the troposphere
      • Warmer TLS in solar max is not required to explain observed poleward jet shifts
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      Last Glacial Maximum ice sheet impacts on North Atlantic climate variability: The importance of the sea ice lid (pages 6378–6383)

      Guido Vettoretti and W. Richard Peltier

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058486

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      Key Points

      • Impact of different ice sheets on modeling the LGM
      • Simulation of a climate threshold transition
      • Validation of the model against observed proxy data
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      Modulation of the seasonal footprinting mechanism by the boreal spring Arctic Oscillation (pages 6384–6389)

      Shangfeng Chen, Wen Chen, Bin Yu and Hans-F. Graf

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058628

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      Key Points

      • The modulation of spring AO on the connection between NPO and El Niño
      • The mechanism is through changing the SST footprinting related to NPO
      • The phase of AO should be considered when using NPO as a predictor for El Niño
    12. Atmospheric Science

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      Diurnal variations of midlatitude NLC parameters observed by daylight-capable lidar and their relation to ambient parameters (pages 6390–6394)

      M. Gerding, M. Kopp, P. Hoffmann, J. Höffner and F.-J. Lübken

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057955

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      Key Points

      • NLC occurrence highest in early morning, lowest in early evening
      • NLC occurrence independent from temperature tide
      • NLC occurrence depends on meridional wind tide (advection)
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      Bistable effect of organic enrichment on sea spray radiative properties (pages 6395–6398)

      Aditya Vaishya, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Jakub Bialek, S. Gerard Jennings, Darius Ceburnis and Colin D. O'Dowd

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058452

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      Key Points

      • The aerosol direct effect is suppressed
      • Marine spray production is coupled to marine biogenic processes
      • Sea spray organics significantly influence the marine radiative budget
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      First common volume ground-based and space measurements of the mesospheric front in noctilucent clouds (pages 6399–6404)

      P. Dalin, M. Connors, I. Schofield, A. Dubietis, N. Pertsev, V. Perminov, M. Zalcik, A. Zadorozhny, T. McEwan, I. McEachran, J. Grønne, O. Hansen, H. Andersen, S. Frandsen, D. Melnikov, V. Romejko and I. Grigoryeva

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058553

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      Key Points

      • The first measurements of the mesospheric front in NLCs are performed
      • SABER temperature profile was directly in the same volume with the NLC field
      • Temperature difference of 20-25 K between two air masses controls a front jump
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      Were global numerical weather prediction systems capable of forecasting the extreme Colorado rainfall of 9–16 September 2013? (pages 6405–6410)

      David A. Lavers and Gabriele Villarini

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058282

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      Key Points

      • Forecasts captured the rainfall patterns for 9–16 September 2013 Colorado flood
      • Accumulated rainfall return periods were on the order of a few hundred years
      • Rainfall forecasts improved with increasing spatial averaging
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      Illumination of mesospheric irregularity by lightning discharge (pages 6411–6416)

      Martin Füllekrug, Andrew Mezentsev, Serge Soula, Oscar van der Velde and Adrian Evans

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058502

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      Key Points

      • Experimental evidence for small scale mesospheric irregularity initiating sprite
      • Experimental confirmation of theoretical prediction
      • Very small quasi-static electric field sustains sprite

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