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Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 40 Issue 4

28 February 2013

Volume 40, Issue 4

Pages 661–801

  1. Regular Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Regular Articles
    1. SPACE SCIENCES

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      On the seeding of equatorial spread F by gravity waves (pages 661–664)

      J. Krall, J. D. Huba and D. C. Fritts

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50144

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      Key Points

      • GW/ESF coupling increases with the vertical wavelength of the gravity wave
      • The results are only partially consistent with the hypothesis of Tsunoda [2010]
      • We demonstrate that an upward vertical background wind can suppress ESF
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      Day-to-day ionospheric variability due to lower atmosphere perturbations (pages 665–670)

      H.-L. Liu, V. A. Yudin and R. G. Roble

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50125

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      Key Points

      • Novel model capable of producing large day-to-day ionosphere variability
      • Short-term wave variability leads to day-to-day ionosphere variability
      • Predictability of ionosphere/thermosphere affected by lower atmosphere waves
    3. PLANETS

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      Io's volcanism controls Jupiter's radio emissions (pages 671–675)

      M. Yoneda, F. Tsuchiya, H. Misawa, B. Bonfond, C. Tao, M. Kagitani and S. Okano

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50095

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      Key points

      • Brightness of Jupiter's sodium nebula showed an enhancement.
      • HOM activity from Jupiter was weekend after the sodium nebula enhancement.
      • This means abundant plasma from Io weakens Jupiter's magnetospheric activity.
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      Inferring the depth of the zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn from odd gravity harmonics (pages 676–680)

      Yohai Kaspi

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053873

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      Key Points

      • Measurable odd harmonics due to atmospheric circulation exist on giant planets
      • Odd harmonics provide a pure dynamical gravity signal (no solid-body component)
      • Juno/Cassini will have better sensitivity to odd harmonics than high even ones
    5. Solid Earth

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      Mantle temperature under drifting deformable continents during the supercontinent cycle (pages 681–686)

      Masaki Yoshida

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50151

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      Key Points

      • Numerical simulations of 3D mantle convection with continents are performed
      • Temperature difference between continental and oceanic mantles is quite small
      • Supercontinent causes the subcontinental temperature to increase by <50 degrees
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      Shock compression of Fe-FeS mixture up to 204 GPa (pages 687–691)

      Haijun Huang, Shijie Wu, Xiaojun Hu, Qingsong Wang, Xiang Wang and Yingwei Fei

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50180

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      Key Points

      • New equation of state for Fe-11.8wt%S at high pressure
      • The experimental data show the ideal mixing relative to Fe and FeS
      • Fe-10S provides the best fit to the density profile of the Earth's outer core.
    7. SOLID EARTH

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      Do seismic waves sense fracture connectivity? (pages 692–696)

      J. Germán Rubino, Luis Guarracino, Tobias M. Müller and Klaus Holliger

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50127

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      Key Points

      • Wave-induced fluid flow effects in fractured rocks are comprehensively simulated
      • A new manifestation of wave-induced flow due to fracture connectivity is found
      • Additional seismic energy loss is produced by flow within connected fractures
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      Magnetite deformation mechanism maps for better prediction of strain partitioning (pages 697–702)

      J. L. Till and Bruce Moskowitz

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50170

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      Key Points

      • New magnetite flow laws can help predict strain partitioning relationships
      • Magnetite is predicted to be capable of significant low-temperature ductility
      • FeTi-oxides may contribute to strain localization at slow-spreading ridges
    9. Solid Earth

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      Geological and frictional aspects of very-low-frequency earthquakes in an accretionary prism (pages 703–708)

      Tsubasa Saito, Kohtaro Ujiie, Akito Tsutsumi, Jun Kameda and Bunichiro Shibazaki

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50175

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      Key Points

      • Quartz-rich fault rock exhibits velocity-weakening behavior
      • Quartz-rich fault rock is not unusual in accretionary prisms
      • Frictional properties of thrust materials may explain the occurrence of VLFE
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      Generic dependence of the frequency-size distribution of earthquakes on depth and its relation to the strength profile of the crust (pages 709–714)

      M. Spada, T. Tormann, S. Wiemer and B. Enescu

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054198

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      Key Points

      • Generic decrease of b-values with depth
      • Negative correlation between b-values and differential stress
      • The b-value is acting as a stress meter
    11. SOLID EARTH

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      Hysteretic nonlinear elasticity of Berea sandstone at low-vibrational strain revealed by dynamic acousto-elastic testing (pages 715–719)

      G. Renaud, J. Rivière, P.-Y. Le Bas and P.A. Johnson

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50150

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      Key Points

      • Each wave amplitude brings the material to a different metastable state
      • First direct evidence of dynamic hysteretic nonlinear elasticity at low strain
      • Nonlinear elastic parameters and hysteresis are wave amplitude dependent
    12. Cryosphere

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      The impact of an intense summer cyclone on 2012 Arctic sea ice retreat (pages 720–726)

      Jinlun Zhang, Ron Lindsay, Axel Schweiger and Michael Steele

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50190

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      Key Points

      • Arctic sea ice is thin in 2012 for rapid summer retreat
      • Cyclone enhanced bottom melt
      • Without the cyclone there would still be a new record low ice extent
    13. CRYOSPHERE

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      High-resolution radar measurements of snow avalanches (pages 727–731)

      N. M. Vriend, J. N. McElwaine, B. Sovilla, C. J. Keylock, M. Ash and P. V. Brennan

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50134

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      Key Points

      • Validation between our radar results and existing point measurement systems
      • High-resolution radar allows tracking of fronts and surges from start to finish
      • Velocity linked with topography may be used to measure rheology of snow
    14. Cryosphere

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      CryoSat-2 estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume (pages 732–737)

      Seymour W. Laxon, Katharine A. Giles, Andy L. Ridout, Duncan J. Wingham, Rosemary Willatt, Robert Cullen, Ron Kwok, Axel Schweiger, Jinlun Zhang, Christian Haas, Stefan Hendricks, Richard Krishfield, Nathan Kurtz, Sinead Farrell and Malcolm Davidson

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50193

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      Key Points

      • CryoSat-2 can provide accurate pan-Arctic measurements of sea ice thickness
      • The data show a decrease in sea ice volume over the last decade
      • This is the first observational evidence to confirm the decline from models
    15. OCEANS

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      Puzzling over the dynamics of the Lofoten Basin - a sub-Arctic hot spot of ocean variability (pages 738–743)

      Denis L. Volkov, Tatyana V. Belonenko and Victor R. Foux

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50126

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      Key Points

      • discovered cyclonic propagation of SSH anomalies around the center of LB
      • propagation is related to topographic Rossby waves
      • waves are responsible for the amplification of SSH variability in the LB
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      Carbonate dissolution rates at the deep ocean floor (pages 744–748)

      Bernard P. Boudreau

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054231

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      Key Points

      • Seafloor CaCO3 dissolution is linear
      • Seafloor CaCO3 dissolution is mass-transfer controlled
      • Diagenetic model unneeded for CaCO3 dissolution
    17. CLIMATE

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      Meridional movement of wind anomalies during ENSO events and their role in event termination (pages 749–754)

      Shayne McGregor, Nandini Ramesh, Paul Spence, Matthew H. England, Michael J. McPhaden and Agus Santoso

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50136

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      Key Points

      • The meridional shift plays a prominent role in strong El Nino event termination
      • The magnitude of this meridional shift is related to El Nino event intensity
      • ENSO phase asymmetries in the wind shift play a role in the duration asymmetry
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      Using synthetic tracers as a proxy for summertime PM2.5 air quality over the Northeastern United States in physical climate models (pages 755–760)

      Yuanyuan Fang, Arlene M. Fiore, Jean-François Lamarque, Larry W. Horowitz and Meiyun Lin

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50162

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      Key Points

      • Aerosol tracers strongly correlate with PM2.5 over Northern polluted regions
      • A simple linear regression model can be used to reconstruct PM2.5
      • Tracers can be developed to mimic PM2.5 in physical climate models
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      High predictive skill of global surface temperature a year ahead (pages 761–767)

      Chris K. Folland, Andrew W. Colman, Doug M. Smith, Olivier Boucher, David E. Parker and Jean-Paul Vernier

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50169

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      Key Points

      • High skill of predictions, 2000-2011
      • Even higher skill is potentially possible
      • Coupled model hindcasts have at least this skill over same period
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      Interdecadal variability in tropical cyclone frequency over the South China Sea and its association with the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (pages 768–771)

      Lei Wang, Ronghui Huang and Renguang Wu

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50171

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      Key Points

      • A new possible process of the impact of the IO on TC over the SCS is presented
      • The circulation anomaly leads to the interdecadel variability of the TC
      • TCs genesis over the SCS is different during the different phase of the IO SST
    21. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE

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      Properties of linear contrails in the Northern Hemisphere derived from 2006 Aqua MODIS observations (pages 772–777)

      Sarah T. Bedka, Patrick Minnis, David P. Duda, Thad L. Chee and Rabindra Palikonda

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1029/2012GL054363

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      Key Points

      • Quantify contrail properties on a broad scale using 1 year of satellite data
      • Contrail properties are dependent on background
      • Contrail properties vary seasonally but not diurnally
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      On the radiative forcing of contrail cirrus contaminated by black carbon (pages 778–784)

      K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, Q. Yue and P. Yang

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50110

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      Key Points

      • Black carbon can substantially impact the radiative forcing of contrail cirrus
      • Internal mixing of BC in ice can alter its absorption of solar radiation
      • Radiative forcing analysis for contrail must account for BC contamination
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      The importance of the diurnal cycle of Aerosol Optical Depth in West Africa (pages 785–790)

      C. Kocha, P. Tulet, J.-P. Lafore and C. Flamant

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50143

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      Key Points

      • Low-level jet and cold pool lead to opposite process-related AOT diurnal cycles
      • Cloud masking and temporal undersampling induce bias in satellite retrievals
      • Combination of observations and CRM could constrain AOT bias
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      First investigations of IO, BrO, and NO2 summer atmospheric levels at a coastal East Antarctic site using mode-locked cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (pages 791–796)

      Roberto Grilli, Michel Legrand, Alexandre Kukui, Guillaume Méjean, Suzanne Preunkert and Daniele Romanini

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50154

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      Key Points

      • First measurements of IO, BrO and NO2 at East Antarctica
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      Detection of tropical cyclone track changes from the ECMWF ensemble prediction system (pages 797–801)

      Hsiao-Chung Tsai and Russell L. Elsberry

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50172

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      Key Points

      • TC track change detected in cluster analysis of ECMWF ensemble
      • Reliability demonstration for track forecast uncertainty
      • Forecaster guidance for selection of most accurate track option

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