Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 41 Issue 5

16 March 2014

Volume 41, Issue 5

Pages i–vii, 1351–1815

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Letters
    4. Research Letter
    5. Research Letters
    1. Issue Information (pages i–vii)

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50851

  2. Research Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Letters
    4. Research Letter
    5. Research Letters
    1. Space Sciences

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Gradual diffusion and punctuated phase space density enhancements of highly relativistic electrons: Van Allen Probes observations (pages 1351–1358)

      D. N. Baker, A. N. Jaynes, X. Li, M. G. Henderson, S. G. Kanekal, G. D. Reeves, H. E. Spence, S. G. Claudepierre, J. F. Fennell, M. K. Hudson, R. M. Thorne, J. C. Foster, P. J. Erickson, D. M. Malaspina, J. R. Wygant, A. Boyd, C. A. Kletzing, A. Drozdov and Y. Y. Shprits

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058942

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      Key Points

      • Clear observations to higher energy than ever before
      • Precise detection of where and how acceleration takes place
      • Provides “new eyes” on megaelectron Volt
    2. Event-specific chorus wave and electron seed population models in DREAM3D using the Van Allen Probes (pages 1359–1366)

      Weichao Tu, G. S. Cunningham, Y. Chen, S. K. Morley, G. D. Reeves, J. B. Blake, D. N. Baker and H. Spence

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058819

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      Key Points

      • DREAM3D uses event-specific driving conditions measured by Van Allen Probes
      • Electron dropout is due to outward radial diffusion to compressed magnetopause
      • Event-specific chorus and seed electrons are necessary for the enhancement
    3. Applying bicoherence analysis to spacecraft observations of Langmuir waves (pages 1367–1374)

      D. B. Graham, D. M. Malaspina and Iver H. Cairns

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059565

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      Key Points

      • Sheath rectification and nonlinear currents produce phase-coherent fields
      • Bicoherences are consistent with nonlinear currents and sheath rectification
      • Bicoherence cannot identify electrostatic decay and coalescence
    4. Effect of EMIC waves on relativistic and ultrarelativistic electron populations: Ground-based and Van Allen Probes observations (pages 1375–1381)

      M. E. Usanova, A. Drozdov, K. Orlova, I. R. Mann, Y. Shprits, M. T. Robertson, D. L. Turner, D. K. Milling, A. Kale, D. N. Baker, S. A. Thaller, G. D. Reeves, H. E. Spence, C. Kletzing and J. Wygant

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059024

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      Key Points

      • EMIC wave activity is not associated with precipitation of MeV electrons
      • EMIC waves do not deplete the ultra-relativistic belt down to 90°
      • EMIC waves cause loss of low pitch angle electrons with energies ~2–8 MeV
  3. Research Letter

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Letters
    4. Research Letter
    5. Research Letters
    1. Space Sciences

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cusp observation at Saturn's high-latitude magnetosphere by the Cassini spacecraft (pages 1382–1388)

      J. M. Jasinski, C. S. Arridge, L. Lamy, J. S. Leisner, M. F. Thomsen, D. G. Mitchell, A. J. Coates, A. Radioti, G. H. Jones, E. Roussos, N. Krupp, D. Grodent, M. K. Dougherty and J. H. Waite

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059319

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      Key Points

      • We observe evidence for reconnection in the cusp plasma at Saturn
      • We present evidence that the reconnection process can be pulsed at Saturn
      • Saturn's cusp shows similar characteristics to the terrestrial cusp
  4. Research Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Research Letters
    4. Research Letter
    5. Research Letters
    1. Space Sciences

      Ensemble prediction and intercomparison analysis of GRACE time-variable gravity field models (pages 1389–1397)

      C. Sakumura, S. Bettadpur and S. Bruinsma

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058632

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      Key Points

      • Ensemble GRACE gravity model reduces error by 5–10mm RMS in total water storage
      • Variations between models on the order of noise in the data
      • Ensemble improves w/in analysis scatter, constrained by rel. model variability
    2. Cluster observations of fast magnetosonic waves in the heliosphere current sheet (pages 1398–1405)

      Lei Dai, John R. Wygant, Cynthia A. Cattell, Scott Thaller, Kris Kersten, Aaron Breneman and Xiangwei Tang

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059223

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      Key Points

      • Fast-mode waves at the steeped edge of large-amplitude Alfvén waves
      • Direct measurements of current layers in correspondence with discontinuities
      • Implications on the evolution of large-amplitude Alfvén waves in the solar wind
    3. Direct evidence of double-slope power spectra in the high-latitude ionospheric plasma (pages 1406–1412)

      A. Spicher, W. J. Miloch and J. I. Moen

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059214

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      Key Points

      • Double-slope spectra of plasma irregularities observed in the polar ionosphere
      • The spectrum steepening related to the onset of kinetic plasma phenomena
      • Spectral characteristics of irregularities similar to equatorial ionosphere
    4. Coherent structure generated in the boundary layer of a laboratory-created ionospheric depletion (pages 1413–1419)

      Yu Liu, Jinxiang Cao, Liang Xu, Xiao Zhang, Pi Wang, Jian Wang, Yinchang Du and Zhe Zheng

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059211

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      Key Points

      • The ionospheric depletion was simulated in a laboratory
      • A vortex-like coherent structure was observed
      • The structure is driven by electron-ion hybrid instability
    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      MHD analysis of the velocity oscillations in the outer heliosphere (pages 1420–1424)

      Ken'ichi Fujiki, Haruichi Washimi, Keiji Hayashi, Gary P. Zank, Munetoshi Tokumaru, Takashi Tanaka, Vladimir Florinski and Yuki Kubo

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059391

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      Key Points

      • Realistic 3-D MHD simulation of heliosphere
      • Velocity oscillation excited by pickup ions
      • Interplanetary scintillation at STEL and solar magnetogram at WSO
    6. Planets

      The long-term steady motion of Saturn's hexagon and the stability of its enclosed jet stream under seasonal changes (pages 1425–1431)

      A. Sánchez-Lavega, T. del Río-Gaztelurrutia, R. Hueso, S. Pérez-Hoyos, E. García-Melendo, A. Antuñano, I. Mendikoa, J. F. Rojas, J. Lillo, D. Barrado-Navascués, J. M. Gomez-Forrellad, C. Go, D. Peach, T. Barry, D. P. Milika, P. Nicholas and A. Wesley

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059078

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      Key Points

      • Hexagon wave steady motion
      • Jet stream unchanged to seasonal changes
      • Saturn's rotation
    7. The bathymetry of a Titan sea (pages 1432–1437)

      Marco Mastrogiuseppe, Valerio Poggiali, Alexander Hayes, Ralph Lorenz, Jonathan Lunine, Giovanni Picardi, Roberto Seu, Enrico Flamini, Giuseppe Mitri, Claudia Notarnicola, Philippe Paillou and Howard Zebker

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058618

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      Key Points

      • First direct measurement of the depth of a Titan sea
      • First determination of the nearly pure methane-ethane Ligeia Mare composition
      • Determination of the total volume of Ligeia Mare
    8. Vesta surface thermal properties map (pages 1438–1443)

      M. T. Capria, F. Tosi, M. C. De Sanctis, F. Capaccioni, E. Ammannito, A. Frigeri, F. Zambon, S. Fonte, E. Palomba, D. Turrini, T. N. Titus, S. E. Schröder, M. Toplis, J.-Y. Li, J.-P. Combe, C. A. Raymond and C. T. Russell

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059026

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      Key Points

      • A thermophysical map of Vesta has been derived from spatially resolved data
      • The average thermal inertia of the surface of Vesta is 30 ± 10 Jm−2s−0.5K−1
      • Pitted terrains in Marcia crater have the highest thermal inertia value
    9. Variation of the lunar highland surface roughness at baseline 0.15–100 km and the relationship to relative age (pages 1444–1451)

      Y. Yokota, K. Gwinner, J. Oberst, J. Haruyama, T. Matsunaga, T. Morota, H. Noda, H. Araki, M. Ohtake, S. Yamamoto, P. Gläser, Y. Ishihara, C. Honda, N. Hirata and H. Demura

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059091

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      Key Points

      • The Median Differential Slope (MDS) is measured on lunar highland surfaces
      • The Pre-Nectarian surface shows a relatively large MDS at 20-30 km baseline
      • A large part of the Nectarian surface shows a peak MDS at 6-9 km baseline
    10. High-resolution lunar gravity fields from the GRAIL Primary and Extended Missions (pages 1452–1458)

      Alex S. Konopliv, Ryan S. Park, Dah-Ning Yuan, Sami W. Asmar, Michael M. Watkins, James G. Williams, Eugene Fahnestock, Gerhard Kruizinga, Meegyeong Paik, Dmitry Strekalov, Nate Harvey, David E. Smith and Maria T. Zuber

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059066

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      Key Points

      • A degree 900 gravity field from the GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission
      • The GRAIL Extended Mission doubles the resolution of the gravity field
      • The Bouguer spectrum is well determined to near harmonic degree 550
    11. Solid Earth

      Sound velocity of iron up to 152 GPa by picosecond acoustics in diamond anvil cell (pages 1459–1464)

      F. Decremps, D. Antonangeli, M. Gauthier, S. Ayrinhac, M. Morand, G. Le Marchand, F. Bergame and J. Philippe

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058859

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      Key Points

      • Ultrasonic sound velocity determination of iron at megabar pressure
      • Novel technique combining pump-probe laser techniques and diamond anvil cell
      • Critical assessments of indirect literature sound velocity data (XRD, IXS, and RIXS)
    12. Was the Midcontinent Rift part of a successful seafloor-spreading episode? (pages 1465–1470)

      Carol A. Stein, Seth Stein, Miguel Merino, G. Randy Keller, Lucy M. Flesch and Donna M. Jurdy

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059176

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      Key Points

      • ~1.1Ga Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) formed during rifting of Amazonia from Laurentia
      • MCR continues to northwest Alabama along East Continent Gravity High
      • Apparent polar wander path's cusp reflects rifting event
    13. Vertical ground displacement at Campi Flegrei (Italy) in the fifth century: Rapid subsidence driven by pore pressure drop (pages 1471–1478)

      Micol Todesco, Antonio Costa, Alberto Comastri, Florence Colleoni, Giorgio Spada and Francesca Quareni

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059083

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      Key Points

      • An integrated approach constrains fast subsidence at Campi Flegrei in the fifth century
      • Fast subsidence can be caused by compaction due to decompression of hydrothermal system
      • A sequence of unrest events preceded last eruption with no secular subsidence
    14. Crustal structure beneath SE Tibet from joint analysis of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion (pages 1479–1484)

      Xiaoxiao Sun, Xuewei Bao, Mingjie Xu, David W. Eaton, Xiaodong Song, Liangshu Wang, Zhifeng Ding, Ning Mi, Dayong Yu and Hua Li

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059269

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      Key Points

      • Joint inversion shows two major low-velocity zones (LVZs) at different depths
      • Two major LVZs suggest isolated channels of crustal flow beneath SE Tibet
      • Results indicate previously unknown patterns of flow and deformation
    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt (pages 1485–1491)

      Lindsay Yuling Chuang, Kate Huihsuan Chen, Aaron Wech, Timothy Byrne and Wei Peng

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059476

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      Key Points

      • We explore the general features of tremors in a collisional mountain belt
      • Earthquake swarms correlate with the deep-seated tremors in time and space
      • Metamorphic dehydration and fluid-pressure processes are the critical drivers
    16. Evolution of slip surface roughness through shear (pages 1492–1498)

      Guy Davidesko, Amir Sagy and Yossef H. Hatzor

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058913

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      Key Points

      • Shearing reduces the initial surface roughness at all measurement scales
      • Initial to final roughness ratio increases as a function of the slip distance
      • The roughness ratio for a test is wavelength independent from above a few millimeters of displacement
    17. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California (pages 1499–1505)

      Chunquan Wu, Joan Gomberg, Eli Ben-Naim and Paul Johnson

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059051

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      Key Points

      • We found weak correlation of perturbations and shortened recurrences
      • The weak correlation exists for perturbations > ~20 KPa
      • The weak correlation exists for both nearby and remote perturbations
    18. Unusually large shear wave anisotropy for chlorite in subduction zone settings (pages 1506–1513)

      Mainak Mookherjee and David Mainprice

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059334

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      Key Points

      • First report of high pressure elasticity of chlorite
      • Unusual shear wave anisotropy for chlorite
      • Shear elastic anisotropy explains seismological observations in subduction zones
    19. Seismic anisotropy of the Archean crust in the Minnesota River Valley, Superior Province (pages 1514–1522)

      Eric C. Ferré, Aude Gébelin, James A. Conder, Nik Christensen, Justin D. Wood and Christian Teyssier

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059116

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      Key Points

      • The Archean crust of the Minnesota River Valley is strongly anisotropic
      • The horizontally layered crust of the MRV cannot split vertical shear waves
      • The cause of low SWS in the MRV must be in the uppermost mantle
    20. Seismic structure of the north-central Chilean convergent margin: Subduction erosion of a paleomagmatic arc (pages 1523–1529)

      Eduardo Contreras-Reyes, Juan Becerra, Heidrun Kopp, Christian Reichert and Juan Díaz-Naveas

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058729

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      Key Points

      • Our results have implications for subduction erosion
      • A major velocity discontinuity is detected beneath the middle continental slope
      • Possible gravitational collapse of the outermost fore-arc block off north Chile
    21. Effect of fracture roughness on seismic source and fluid transport responses (pages 1530–1536)

      S. Raziperchikolaee, V. Alvarado and S. Yin

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058683

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      Key Points

      • Hydro-mechanical-seismic model is applied to study fracture deformation
      • Volumetric deformation of fracture is affected by its geological properties
      • Fracture roughness affect its transport and seismic source responses
    22. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

      A GRACE-based water storage deficit approach for hydrological drought characterization (pages 1537–1545)

      Alys C. Thomas, John T. Reager, James S. Famiglietti and Matthew Rodell

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059323

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      Key Point

      • GRACE-based drought severity using water storage rather than just precipitation explicitly quantifies the volume of water needed to return to normal conditions and identifies hydrological drought onset, peak magnitude, duration, and severity
    23. Summertime maximum and minimum temperature coupling asymmetry over Australia determined using WRF (pages 1546–1552)

      A. L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, S. I. Seneviratne, J. P. Evans and V. Haverd

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059055

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      Key Points

      • First austral summer evaluation of land-atmosphere coupling strength
      • Australia is a summer soil moisture-atmosphere coupling hot spot region
      • TMAX coupling most sensitive to soil moisture and then atmospheric model physics
    24. Power law scaling of topographic depressions and their hydrologic connectivity (pages 1553–1559)

      Phong V. V. Le and Praveen Kumar

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059114

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      Key Points

      • Geometric attributes of topographic depressions follow power law distributions
      • Scaling laws have implications for the transport of water and material fluxes
      • Short distance among depressions can affect hydrologic connectivity
    25. Local spring warming drives earlier river-ice breakup in a large Arctic delta (pages 1560–1567)

      Lance F. W. Lesack, Philip Marsh, Faye E. Hicks and Donald L. Forbes

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058761

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      Key Points

      • Earlier ice breakup in a large Arctic river is driven by spring warming trend
      • Earlier breakup is not affected by winter warming or changes in river discharge
      • Spring warming effect on river breakup is amplified by declining winter snowfall
    26. An efficient tracer test for time-variable transit time distributions in periodic hydrodynamic systems (pages 1567–1575)

      Ciaran J. Harman and Minseok Kim

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058980

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      Key Points

      • Observations of time-variable “lumped” transport need multiple tracer injections
      • Method decomposes overprinted breakthrough curves into individual contributions
      • Allows efficient use of single tracer in experimental studies with periodic flow
    27. Cryosphere

      Sustained increase in ice discharge from the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica, from 1973 to 2013 (pages 1576–1584)

      J. Mouginot, E. Rignot and B. Scheuchl

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059069

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      Key Points

      • Sustained ASE mass flux increase: 77% since 1973
      • Thwaites accelerated by 33% during the last 6 years
      • Speed changes are pervasive and rapid: major implications for ice flow modeling
    28. New permafrost is forming around shrinking Arctic lakes, but will it last? (pages 1585–1592)

      Martin A. Briggs, Michelle A. Walvoord, Jeffrey M. McKenzie, Clifford I. Voss, Frederick D. Day-Lewis and John W. Lane

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059251

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      Key Points

      • New permafrost is forming around shrinking arctic lakes
      • Shading by willow shrubs primarily drives new permafrost formation
      • Further climate warming thaws new permafrost within 7 decades
    29. Isochronous information in a Greenland ice sheet radio echo sounding data set (pages 1593–1599)

      Louise C. Sime, Nanna B. Karlsson, John D. Paden and S. Prasad Gogineni

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057928

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      Key Points

      • New algorithms are used to identify regions containing isochronous reflectors
      • The data set contains 36% isochronous reflector across ~200,000 km of flight line
      • Isochronous data are more common inland and where less cold glacial ice occurs
    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Greenland ice sheet melt from MODIS and associated atmospheric variability (pages 1600–1607)

      Sirpa Häkkinen, Dorothy K. Hall, Christopher A. Shuman, Denise L. Worthen and Nicolo E. DiGirolamo

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059185

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      Key Points

      • Short-term atmospheric blocking over Greenland contributes to melt episodes
      • Associated temperature anomalies are equally important for the melt
      • Duration and strength of blocking events contribute to surface melt intensity
    31. Oceans

      Flow and mixing in Juan de Fuca Canyon, Washington (pages 1608–1615)

      Matthew H. Alford and Parker MacCready

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058967

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      Key Points

      • We observe a hydraulically controlled, wind-driven up-canyon flow
      • The flow is strongly turbulent because of breaking internal hydraulic jumps
      • The mixing is strong enough to modify water mass properties transiting the sill
    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Global distribution and seasonal dependence of satellite-based whitecap fraction (pages 1616–1623)

      Dominic J. Salisbury, Magdalena D. Anguelova and Ian M. Brooks

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059246

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      Key Points

      • Seasonal dependence of global satellite-based whitecap fraction is presented
      • Results are compared to parameterized estimates and differences quantified
      • Implications of results for modeling air-sea processes are discussed
    33. The effects of changing winds and temperatures on the oceanography of the Ross Sea in the 21st century (pages 1624–1631)

      Walker O. Smith Jr., Michael S. Dinniman, Eileen E. Hofmann and John M. Klinck

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059311

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      Key Points

      • Ross Sea will be modified in ice-free duration and summer ice concentrations
      • Modeled summer mixed layers decreased by 26 and 46% in 50 and 100 years
      • The food web will undergo severe disruptions in the coming century
    34. Inhibition of oil plume dilution in Langmuir ocean circulation (pages 1632–1638)

      Di Yang, Marcelo Chamecki and Charles Meneveau

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059284

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      Key Points

      • Applied high-fidelity LES to model oil dilution in ocean mixed layer
      • Reproduced various observed oil dilution patterns, from fingered to diffused
      • Introduced a non-dimensional parameter to characterize modes of oil dilution
    35. Evidence for a differential sea level rise between hemispheres over the twentieth century (pages 1639–1643)

      Guy Wöppelmann, Marta Marcos, Alvaro Santamaría-Gómez, Belén Martín-Míguez, Marie-Noëlle Bouin and Médéric Gravelle

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059039

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      Key Points

      • Detection of a spatial pattern between hemispheres in secular sea level rates
      • Use of most advanced methods and data for studying secular trends in sea level
      • Vertical land motion: An obstacle to detecting fingerprints in sea level change
    36. Evanescent wave coupling in a geophysical system: Airborne acoustic signals from the Mw 8.1 Macquarie Ridge earthquake (pages 1644–1650)

      L. G. Evers, D. Brown, K. D. Heaney, J. D. Assink, P. S. M. Smets and M. Snellen

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058801

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      Key Points

      • Evanescent wave coupling links the solid Earth, oceans, and atmosphere
      • Acoustic waves use anomalous transparency of the water-air interface
      • Underwater geophysical processes and events can be heard in the atmosphere
    37. Global interior eddy available potential energy diagnosed from Argo floats (pages 1651–1656)

      Guillaume Roullet, Xavier Capet and Guillaume Maze

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059004

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      Key Points

      • Eddy APE can be thought as the covariance of density and isopycnal displacement
      • Argo profiles are combined to estimate pointwise statistics
      • EAPE reveals the structure and the magnitude of the oceanic interior turbulence
    38. Freshening drives contraction of Antarctic Bottom Water in the Australian Antarctic Basin (pages 1657–1664)

      Esmee M. van Wijk and Stephen R. Rintoul

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058921

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      Key Points

      • Freshening drives contraction of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW)
      • AABW has contracted by about 50% and thinned more than 100 m per decade since 1970
      • Small increase in oxygen on isopycnals suggests continued ventilation of AABW
    39. Climate

      The implication of radiative forcing and feedback for meridional energy transport (pages 1665–1672)

      Yi Huang and Minghong Zhang

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059079

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      Key Points

      • CO2 forcing increases meridional gradient in net radiation
      • Forcing, rather than feedback, accounts for enhanced poleward energy transport
      • Aerosol forcing accounts for an inter-hemispheric transport anomaly
    40. Springtime ENSO phase evolution and its relation to rainfall in the continental U.S. (pages 1673–1680)

      Sang-Ki Lee, Brian E. Mapes, Chunzai Wang, David B. Enfield and Scott J. Weaver

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059137

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      Key Points

      • Springtime ENSO phase evolution and its relation to U.S. rainfall is explored
      • Coherent springtime ENSO SST anomalies exist in the central tropical Pacific
      • Significant patterns of U.S. rainfall anomalies covary with ENSO phase in spring
    41. Observed linkages between the northern annular mode/North Atlantic Oscillation, cloud incidence, and cloud radiative forcing (pages 1681–1688)

      Ying Li, David W. J. Thompson, Yi Huang and Minghong Zhang

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059113

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      Key Points

      • NAM/NAO is marked by a meridional dipole in upper tropospheric clouds
      • NAM/NAO-related cloud anomalies lead to marked cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies
      • The CRF anomalies act to shorten the timescale of the NAM/NAO-related temperature anomalies
    42. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation as a dominant factor of oceanic influence on climate (pages 1689–1697)

      Petr Chylek, James D. Klett, Glen Lesins, Manvendra K. Dubey and Nicolas Hengartner

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059274

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      Key Points

      • The AMO is a more effective predictor than ENSO for global mean temperature
      • AMO-related processes contribute about one third to the post-1975 global warming
      • Radiative forcing due to volcanic aerosol is alredy encoded in the AMO
    43. Where do coastlines stabilize following rapid retreat? (pages 1698–1703)

      Alexander R. Simms and Antonio B. Rodriguez

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058984

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      Key Points

      • Bayhead deltas stabilize at tributary junctions during transgression
      • Inherited topography impacts the nature of subsequent transgressions
      • Smaller deltas retreat at slower rates within flooded valley networks
    44. Thermodynamic and dynamic effects on regional monsoon rainfall changes in a warmer climate (pages 1704–1711)

      Hirokazu Endo and Akio Kitoh

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059158

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      Key Points

      • Rate of increase of Asian monsoon rainfall is much larger than that of other monsoons
      • Dynamic weakening of the Asian monsoon is less than that of other monsoons
      • These features are common in both CMIP3 and CMIP5 model projections
    45. CMIP5 multi-model hindcasts for the mid-1970s shift and early 2000s hiatus and predictions for 2016–2035 (pages 1711–1716)

      Gerald A. Meehl and Haiyan Teng

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059256

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      Key Points

      • Multi-model initialized hindcasts simulate past climate shifts
      • A 30 year initialized prediction shows less warming than uninitialized
      • Initialized predictions simulate less warming than uninitialized projections
    46. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Comparison of surface albedo feedback in climate models and observations (pages 1717–1723)

      J. A. Crook and P. M. Forster

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059280

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      Key Points

      • Models underestimate climate change feedback in the NH extratropics
      • Observed Antarctic feedback is strongly positive in the seasonal cycle
      • The observed seasonal cycle is unlikley to constrain modeled feedback much
    47. The pace of East African monsoon evolution during the Holocene (pages 1724–1732)

      Syee Weldeab, Valerie Menke and Gerhard Schmiedl

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059361

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      Key Points

      • Twelve thousand year record of Nile River discharge and East African monsoon evolution
      • Three thousand five hundred year period of gradual middle to late Holocene transition of East African monsoon
      • Synchronous pacing of middle to late Holocene hydroclimate and vegetation changes
    48. Swiss tree rings reveal warm and wet summers during medieval times (pages 1732–1737)

      Anne Kress, Sarah Hangartner, Harald Bugmann, Ulf Büntgen, David C. Frank, Markus Leuenberger, Rolf T.W. Siegwolf and Matthias Saurer

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059081

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      Key Points

      • A 1200-year drought reconstruction for the Swiss Alps was established
      • The tree-ring carbon isotope ratios at the site are highly moisture-sensitive
      • The data fill a gap in our knowledge about medieval hydroclimate
    49. Modifications of the quasi-biennial oscillation by a geoengineering perturbation of the stratospheric aerosol layer (pages 1738–1744)

      V. Aquila, C. I. Garfinkel, P.A. Newman, L.D. Oman and D.W. Waugh

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058818

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      Key Points

      • Geoengineering aerosol would prolong the westerly phase of the QBO
      • Large geoengineering stratospheric aerosol injections might interrupt the QBO
      • QBO changes are due to aerosol warming and increased residual vertical velocity
    50. Robust spring drying in the southwestern U.S. and seasonal migration of wet/dry patterns in a warmer climate (pages 1745–1751)

      Yang Gao, L. Ruby Leung, Jian Lu, Ying Liu, Maoyi Huang and Yun Qian

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059562

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      Key Points

      • Multimodels show a robust spring drying in southwestern U.S.
      • Water availability changes follow north-south and east-west dipole patterns
      • Seasonal migration of wet/dry patterns in the U.S.
    51. Atmospheric Science

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Predictability of the quasi-biennial oscillation and its northern winter teleconnection on seasonal to decadal timescales (pages 1752–1758)

      Adam A. Scaife, Maria Athanassiadou, Martin Andrews, Alberto Arribas, Mark Baldwin, Nick Dunstone, Jeff Knight, Craig MacLachlan, Elisa Manzini, Wolfgang A. Müller, Holger Pohlmann, Doug Smith, Tim Stockdale and Andrew Williams

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059160

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      Key Points

      • The QBO is skilfully predicted in seasonal-decadal forecast systems
      • Further improvements in predictions of the QBO are possible
      • The QBO winter surface teleconnection is reproduced with mixed success
    52. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      First results from an airborne GPS radio occultation system for atmospheric profiling (pages 1759–1765)

      J. S. Haase, B. J. Murphy, P. Muradyan, F. G. Nievinski, K. M. Larson, J. L. Garrison and K.-N. Wang

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058681

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      Key Points

      • First time airborne radio occultation shown to agree with independent data
      • First time airborne RO measurements have been collected in a tropical storm
      • It demonstrates the potential for an operational system on commercial aircraft
    53. New view of Arctic cyclone activity from the Arctic system reanalysis (pages 1766–1772)

      Natalia Tilinina, Sergey K. Gulev and David H. Bromwich

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058924

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      Key Points

      • ASR reproduce 35% cyclones more over the Arctic
      • The most intense cyclones are deeper and have stronger winds in ASR
      • Maximum of cyclone counts in central Arctic exists both in summer and in winter
    54. Advanced infrared sounder subpixel cloud detection with imagers and its impact on radiance assimilation in NWP (pages 1773–1780)

      Pei Wang, Jun Li, Jinlong Li, Zhenglong Li, Timothy J. Schmit and Wenguang Bai

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059067

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      Key Points

      • The application of AIRS subpixel cloud detection with 1 km MODIS cloud
      • The analysis fields with assimilation of accurate clear radiances are improved
      • The forecasts are substantially improved with the AIRS subpixel cloud detection
    55. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The UV and visible spectra of chlorine peroxide: Constraining the atmospheric photolysis rate (pages 1781–1788)

      I. A. K. Young, R. L. Jones and F. D. Pope

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058626

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      Key Points

      • Powerful new laboratory technique for resolving weak and overlapping spectra
      • First measurement of the combined UV and visible spectra of ClOOCl
      • Determination of the ClOOCl photolysis rate
    56. Infrasonic acoustic waves generated by fast air heating in sprite cores (pages 1789–1795)

      Caitano L. da Silva and Victor P. Pasko

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059164

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      Key Points

      • Coupling of plasma and neutral gas dynamics in sprites
      • Mechanism of infrasound radiation from sprites
      • Dependence of infrasound amplitudes on sprite currents
    57. Shallow cumulus rooted in photosynthesis (pages 1796–1802)

      Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Huug G. Ouwersloot, Dennis Baldocchi and Cor M. J. Jacobs

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059279

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      Key Points

      • Coupling clouds and vegetation leads to less extreme values cloud properties
      • Time adjustment of the stoma leads to changes in the surface flux variability
      • Systematic large eddy simulations coupled to photosynthesis and stoma aperture
    58. Statistical significance of climate sensitivity predictors obtained by data mining (pages 1803–1808)

      Peter M. Caldwell, Christopher S. Bretherton, Mark D. Zelinka, Stephen A. Klein, Benjamin D. Santer and Benjamin M. Sanderson

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059205

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      Key Points

      • Correlation magnitude is not sufficient proof of predictive skill
      • Significance testing is complicated by model nonindependence in ensembles
      • The best predictors of climate change are related to the Southern Ocean
    59. The seasonal variation of the CO2 flux over Tropical Asia estimated from GOSAT, CONTRAIL, and IASI (pages 1809–1815)

      S. Basu, M. Krol, A. Butz, C. Clerbaux, Y. Sawa, T. Machida, H. Matsueda, C. Frankenberg, O. P. Hasekamp and I. Aben

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059105

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      Key Points

      • GOSAT estimates a dynamic seasonal cycle over Tropical Asia
      • The GOSAT-estimated seasonal cycle is confirmed by CONTRAIL data
      • IASI CO shows that the dynamism is not caused by biomass burning

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