Geophysical Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 41 Issue 8

28 April 2014

Volume 41, Issue 8

Pages i–vi, 2671–3016

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Editor's Preface to a Special Collection
    4. Research Letters
    1. Issue Information (pages i–vi)

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50854

  2. Editor's Preface to a Special Collection

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Editor's Preface to a Special Collection
    4. Research Letters
    1. Atmospheric Science

      Geophysical Research Letters: Celebrating 40 years of excellence (pages 2671–2672)

      Noel Hinners and Eric Calais

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060214

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  3. Research Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Editor's Preface to a Special Collection
    4. Research Letters
    1. Space Sciences

      Anomalous expansion of coronal mass ejections during solar cycle 24 and its space weather implications (pages 2673–2680)

      Nat Gopalswamy, Sachiko Akiyama, Seiji Yashiro, Hong Xie, Pertti Mäkelä and Grzegorz Michalek

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059858

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      Key Points

      • Cycle 24 CMEs expand anomalously due to the reduced ambient pressure
      • The expansion results in weak ICME magnetic field, hence weak magnetic storms
      • Weak ambient magnetic field reduces efficiency of SEP acceleration by shocks
    2. Predictions of electron temperatures in the Mars ionosphere and their effects on electron densities (pages 2681–2686)

      Paul Withers, Kathryn Fallows and Majd Matta

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059683

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      Key Points

      • Electron temperatures at the main ionospheric peak are independent of SZA
      • This explains observed peak density-SZA relationship
      • Dependence of electron temperature on several factors is predicted
    3. Simulations of inner magnetosphere dynamics with an expanded RAM-SCB model and comparisons with Van Allen Probes observations (pages 2687–2694)

      V. K. Jordanova, Y. Yu, J. T. Niehof, R. M. Skoug, G. D. Reeves, C. A. Kletzing, J. F. Fennell and H. E. Spence

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059533

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      Key Points

      • Expanded RAM-SCB model reproduces well high-energy (>50 keV) MagEIS observations
      • The magnetic field is depressed as close as ∼4.5 RE during even a moderate storm
      • EMIC wave growth extends on duskside from ∼6 to ∼9 RE during storm main phase
    4. RCM-E simulation of a thin arc preceded by a north-south-aligned auroral streamer (pages 2695–2701)

      Jian Yang, Frank R. Toffoletto and Richard A. Wolf

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059840

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      Key Points

      • The streamer-induced thin arc is another ionospheric manifestation of a bubble
      • A bubble may trigger a thin arc if it can reach the transition region
      • The westward and eastward leading edges of the arc propagate azimuthally
    5. Reconstruction of gaps in the past history of solar wind parameters (pages 2702–2707)

      D. Kondrashov, R. Denton, Y. Y. Shprits and H. J. Singer

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059741

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      Key Points

      • SSA gap-filling significantly improves accuracy of TS05 model in large gaps
      • SSA provides for most improvement in correlation in large gaps
      • SSA-reconstructed 1972–2013 solar wind data set is included in SI
    6. Solar wind interaction with Mars upper atmosphere: Results from the one-way coupling between the multifluid MHD model and the MTGCM model (pages 2708–2715)

      Chuanfei Dong, Stephen W. Bougher, Yingjuan Ma, Gabor Toth, Andrew F. Nagy and Dalal Najib

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059515

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      Key Points

      • To better predict the ion escape rate from Martian upper atmosphere
      • To understand the long-term evolution of Mars atmosphere over its history
      • To support MAVEN spacecraft mission planning and data analysis (2013–2016)
    7. The importance of monopole antennas for dust observations: Why Wind/WAVES does not detect nanodust (pages 2716–2720)

      N. Meyer-Vernet, M. Moncuquet, K. Issautier and A. Lecacheux

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059988

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      Key Points

      • We explain why Wind/WAVES cannot detect nanodust
      • We propose a new technique for dust detection with dipole antennas
      • We propose a novel interpretation of Wind/WAVES dust data
    8. Wave activities in separatrix regions of magnetic reconnection (pages 2721–2728)

      Keizo Fujimoto

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059893

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      Key Points

      • Waves near reconnection separatrices are successfully reproduced in simulations
      • Wave generation mechanisms are identified using fully kinetic linear analyses
      • The waves are responsible for the flat-top electrons with nonthermal component
    9. Propagation of lower-band whistler-mode waves in the outer Van Allen belt: Systematic analysis of 11 years of multi-component data from the Cluster spacecraft (pages 2729–2737)

      Ondřej Santolík, Eva Macúšová, Ivana Kolmašová, Nicole Cornilleau-Wehrlin and Yvonne de Conchy

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059815

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      Key Points

      • Lower-band whistler-mode waves influence the outer radiation belt
      • 11 years of wave propagation data from Cluster are analyzed by new methods
      • Wave vector directions of intense waves are mostly field-aligned
    10. Planets

      Geologic structure generated by large-impact basin formation observed at the South Pole-Aitken basin on the Moon (pages 2738–2745)

      Makiko Ohtake, Kisara Uemoto, Yasuhiro Yokota, Tomokatsu Morota, Satoru Yamamoto, Ryosuke Nakamura, Junichi Haruyama, Takahiro Iwata, Tsuneo Matsunaga and Yoshiaki Ishihara

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059478

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      Key Points

      • Stratigraphy of the lunar mantle was revealed within the Moon's largest basin
      • A smaller melt pool was suggested than that derived by the crater-scaling law
      • Absence of clear evidence of lower crustal material is suggested by mineralogy
    11. Solid Earth

      The thermal conductivity of Earth's lower mantle (pages 2746–2752)

      Xiaoli Tang, Moses C. Ntam, Jianjun Dong, Emma S. G. Rainey and Abby Kavner

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059385

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      Key Points

      • Lattice thermal conductivity of MgSiO3 at high P and T was calculated using DFT
      • Lower mantle radiative and conductive heat transport was assessed
      • Thermal conductivity of lower mantle is low and insensitive to P and T
    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Decrypting geophysical signals at Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Integration of seismic and Ground-Based InSAR displacement data (pages 2753–2761)

      F. Di Traglia, L. Cauchie, N. Casagli and G. Saccorotti

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059824

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      Key Points

      • Integration of seismic and Ground-Based InSAR displacement data at Stromboli
      • Correlation between inflation, volcanic tremor, and rate of VLP events
      • Passive gas transfer in the conduit is delayed with respect to slug formation
    13. Shortening of recurrence interval of Boso slow slip events in Japan (pages 2762–2768)

      Shinzaburo Ozawa

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060072

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      Key Points

      • Spatial and temporal slow slip process in Boso slow slip, Japan
      • Shortening of the recurrence interval
      • DCFS is increasing after the Tohoku earthquake
    14. Expected seismic shaking in Los Angeles reduced by San Andreas fault zone plasticity (pages 2769–2777)

      D. Roten, K. B. Olsen, S. M. Day, Y. Cui and D. Fäh

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059411

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      Key Points

      • We simulate the M 7.8 ShakeOut earthquake scenario for an elastoplastic medium
      • Peak ground velocities are reduced by 30–70% compared to a viscoelastic medium
      • These reductions are mostly caused by plastic yielding in the fault zone
    15. The Boso slow slip events in 2007 and 2011 as a driving process for the accompanying earthquake swarm (pages 2778–2785)

      Hitoshi Hirose, Takanori Matsuzawa, Takeshi Kimura and Hisanori Kimura

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059791

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      Key Points

      • GNSS and tiltmeter records are inverted to retrieve slow slip time evolution
      • Slip propagation correlates well with the accompanying earthquake migration
      • Boso slow slip is a major driving process for earthquake swarm activity
    16. Universality of slow earthquakes in the very low frequency band (pages 2786–2793)

      Satoshi Ide and Suguru Yabe

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059712

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      Key Points

      • Detection of hidden signals in the VLF band by stacking broadband tremor signals
      • Spatial distribution of moment tensor for all tremor regions in western Japan
      • Proportionality between tremor energy and VLF seismic moment
    17. Geomagnetic field excursion recorded 17 ka at Tianchi Volcano, China: New 40Ar/39Ar age and significance (pages 2794–2802)

      Brad S. Singer, Brian R. Jicha, Huaiyu He and Rixiang Zhu

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059439

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      Key Points

      • Ar dating at Tianchi Volcano, China reveals a geomagnetic excursion at 17 ka
      • The Tianchi excursion is the youngest of 13 in the Brunhes chron
      • We highlight a possible volcanic flare-up upon deglaciation of Tianchi Volcano
    18. The 2007 eruptions and caldera collapse of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island) from tilt analysis at a single very broadband seismic station (pages 2803–2811)

      Fabrice R. Fontaine, Geneviève Roult, Laurent Michon, Guilhem Barruol and Andrea Di Muro

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059691

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      Key Points

      • Tilt change precedes both March and April 2007 Piton de la Fournaise eruptions
      • Tilt variation suggests deep magma injection into the volcano plumbing system
      • The 2007 eruptions and caldera collapse are related to an inflation-deflation cycle
    19. Hydrology and Land Surface Studies

      Field identification of groundwater flow systems and hydraulic traps in drainage basins using a geophysical method (pages 2812–2819)

      Xiao-Wei Jiang, Li Wan, Jun-Zhi Wang, Bin-Xi Yin, Wen-Xiang Fu and Chang-Hong Lin

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059579

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      Key Points

      • The hydraulic trap with higher TDS has been identified for the first time
      • The continuous boundaries of local and regional flow systems have been mapped
      • The magnetotelluric method is useful for large-scale flow system studies
    20. Process-dependent residual trapping of CO2 in sandstone (pages 2820–2826)

      Lin Zuo and Sally M. Benson

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059653

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      Key Points

      • Process-dependent trapping
      • Effective gas barrier through degassing process
      • Management of subsurface flow processes
    21. Direct measurement of subsurface mass change using the variable baseline gravity gradient method (pages 2827–2834)

      Jeffrey Kennedy, Ty P. A. Ferré, Andreas Güntner, Maiko Abe and Benjamin Creutzfeldt

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059673

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      Key Points

      • Variable baseline gravity gradients are measured between two or more gravimeters
      • Gradient measurements eliminate ocean and atmospheric loading noise
      • Infiltration rate and change in water content is estimated using gradient data
    22. Cryosphere

      The five stable noble gases are sensitive unambiguous tracers of glacial meltwater (pages 2835–2841)

      B. Loose and W. J. Jenkins

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058804

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      Key Points

      • He, Ne, Ar Kr and Xe can separate meltwater from air injection
      • We show how real data fits into the proposed framework
      • We use a hypothetical ocean to show how NGs can make the separation
    23. Variability and trends in anticyclonic circulation over the Greenland ice sheet, 1948–2013 (pages 2842–2850)

      Jill Rajewicz and Shawn J. Marshall

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059255

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      Key Points

      • Anticyclonic circulation signal is isolated from background warming in Greenland
      • Anticyclonic circulation strength explains 38–49% of variability in melt
      • A shift to strong anticyclonic circulation in central Greenland began in 2001
    24. Oceans

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Strong responses of Southern Ocean phytoplankton communities to volcanic ash (pages 2851–2857)

      T. J. Browning, H. A. Bouman, G. M. Henderson, T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, C. Schlosser, E. M. S. Woodward and C. M. Moore

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059364

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      Key Points

      • Bottle-scale iron and volcanic ash addition experiments were conducted
      • Phytoplankton responded more to the ash than iron in a number of experiments
      • The ash is suggested to have relieved phytoplankton manganese (co)limitation
    25. Aquarius surface salinity and the Madden-Julian Oscillation: The role of salinity in surface layer density and potential energy (pages 2858–2869)

      Bin Guan, Tong Lee, Daria J. Halkides and Duane E. Waliser

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059704

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      Key Points

      • Clarifies role of E-P on MJO-related salinity and implication for ocean dynamics
      • Corrects misinterpretation in a recent study about the role of E-P on salinity
      • Reveals the important effects of salinity in surface layer density and energy
    26. On the mechanisms of low-frequency wave attenuation by muddy seabeds (pages 2870–2875)

      Alec Torres-Freyermuth and Tian-Jian Hsu

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060008

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      Key Points

      • Revealed three different regimes of lf- wave attenuation
      • Direct mud dissipation and wave shoaling incorporated in nonlinear wave model
      • Clarifies apparent inconsistencies in literature about lf-wave attenuation
    27. Numerical investigation of internal wave-induced sediment motion: Resuspension versus entrainment (pages 2876–2882)

      Jason Olsthoorn and Marek Stastna

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059826

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      Key Points

      • Internal waves can induce resuspension in a coupled hydrodynamic-sediment model
      • True resuspension is provided for sufficiently vigorous shear only
      • This paper quantifies when true resuspension will occur
    28. Hydrodynamic provinces and oceanic connectivity from a transport network help designing marine reserves (pages 2883–2891)

      Vincent Rossi, Enrico Ser-Giacomi, Cristóbal López and Emilio Hernández-García

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059540

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      Key Points

      • Method coupling Lagrangian transport and network theory to study connectivity
      • Provinces delimited by oceanic features organize basin-scale larval dispersal
      • New connectivity metrics to assess existing MPAs and design future ones
    29. Response of the Bering Sea to 11-year solar irradiance cycles during the Bølling-Allerød (pages 2892–2898)

      Kota Katsuki, Takuya Itaki, Boo-Keun Khim, Masao Uchida and Ryuji Tada

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059509

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      Key Points

      • Laminated sediment in the Bolling-Allerod was analyzed on an interannual scale
      • Production of siliceous planktons was affected by 11-year solar periodicity
      • Feedback system of solar irradiance change was operated for ocean environment
    30. Scaling coastal dune elevation changes across storm-impact regimes (pages 2899–2906)

      Joseph W. Long, Anouk T. M. de Bakker and Nathaniel G. Plant

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059616

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      Key Points

      • Dune erosion by storm overwash can increase vulnerability more than inundation
      • Variable dune erosion response is related to maximum dune freeboard during storm
      • Increasing storm surge does not always relate to an increase in dune erosion
    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Large-scale impact of the island mass effect through nitrogen fixation in the western South Pacific Ocean (pages 2907–2913)

      Takuhei Shiozaki, Taketoshi Kodama and Ken Furuya

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059835

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      Key Points

      • A new mechanism for island mass effect fueled by nitrogen fixation is proposed
      • The area of active primary production is >40 times larger than that of islands
      • The occurrence of this oceanic ecosystem is triggered by land runoff
    32. Reconstruction of Pacific Ocean bottom water salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (pages 2914–2920)

      Tania Lado Insua, Arthur J. Spivack, Dennis Graham, Steven D'Hondt and Kathryn Moran

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059575

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      Key Points

      • LGM salinity of Pacific bottom water was 4.09 ± 0.4% greater than today
      • The salinity of bottom waters was homogeneous across latitudes studied
      • Based on sea level, salinity reconstructions were higher than expected values
    33. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Carbon export by small particles in the Norwegian Sea (pages 2921–2927)

      Giorgio Dall'Olmo and Kjell Arne Mork

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059244

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      Key Points

      • Bio-Argo floats can track small particles in the mesopelagic region
      • Export fluxes from small particles were significant
      • Small particles contributed to long-term carbon sequestration
    34. Climate

      Large wildfire trends in the western United States, 1984–2011 (pages 2928–2933)

      Philip E. Dennison, Simon C. Brewer, James D. Arnold and Max A. Moritz

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059576

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      Key Points

      • Number of large fires and large fire area have increased across the western U.S.
      • Fire activity trends were most significant in southern and mountain ecoregions
      • Increased fire in these ecoregions coincided with increased drought severity
    35. Paradox in South Asian summer monsoon circulation change: Lower tropospheric strengthening and upper tropospheric weakening (pages 2934–2940)

      Jian Ma and Jin-Yi Yu

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059891

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      Key Points

      • We summarized paradoxes in research of SASM rainfall and circulation changes
      • We raised and clarified one new paradox: Lower increases and upper reduces
      • We analyzed contributions of moisture and lower/upper winds to rainfall change
    36. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Impact of increased water vapor on precipitation efficiency over northern Eurasia (pages 2941–2947)

      Hengchun Ye, Eric J. Fetzer, Sun Wong, Ali Behrangi, Edward T. Olsen, Judah Cohen, Bjorn H. Lambrigtsen and Luke Chen

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059830

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      Key Points

      • Increasing water vapor directly contributes to winter precipitation
      • Reduced summer precipitation is related to accelerated decreasing RH
    37. Multidecadal modulations of the low-frequency climate variability in the wintertime North Pacific since 1950 (pages 2948–2955)

      Takafumi Miyasaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi and Masami Nonaka

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059696

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      Key Points

      • Notable long-term modulations observed in Pacific decadal variability (PDV)
      • First study to show coherent modulations in SST and atmospheric variability
      • First study to show climate model reproduction of PDV modulations as observed
    38. Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model (pages 2956–2961)

      V. C. Khon, I. I. Mokhov, F. A. Pogarskiy, A. Babanin, K. Dethloff, A. Rinke and H. Matthes

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059847

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      Key Points

      • Significant wave height will increase over the Arctic Ocean in the 21st century
      • Reduction in wave height is expected for the Atlantic sector and the Barents Sea
    39. On the possible interaction between internal climate variability and forced climate change (pages 2962–2970)

      Jianhua Lu, Aixue Hu and Zhen Zeng

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059908

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      Key Points

      • Global warming hiatus may be caused by internal variability
      • Interactive regional forced climate change and internal variability
      • On global average, the variability and forced SAT change are independent
    40. Atmospheric Science

      The robust dynamical contribution to precipitation extremes in idealized warming simulations across model resolutions (pages 2971–2978)

      Jian Lu, L. Ruby Leung, Qing Yang, Gang Chen, William D. Collins, Fuyu Li, Z. Jason Hou and Xuelei Feng

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059532

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      Key Points

      • Provide confidence and rationale in the robust changes of precip extremes
      • Show sign of convergence for certain categories of precipitation extremes
    41. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Systematic model forecast error in Rossby wave structure (pages 2979–2987)

      S. L. Gray, C. M. Dunning, J. Methven, G. Masato and J. M. Chagnon

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059282

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      Key Points

      • Tropopause sharpness adjacent to ridges decreases with forecast lead time
      • Rossby wave amplitude also decreases with forecast lead time
      • Systematic errors are consistent with misrepresentation of diabatic processes
    42. Coupling dry deposition to vegetation phenology in the Community Earth System Model: Implications for the simulation of surface O3 (pages 2988–2996)

      M. Val Martin, C. L. Heald and S. R. Arnold

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059651

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      Key Points

      • The dry deposition scheme (Wesely, 1989) is corrected and optimized in CESM
      • Dry deposition velocity and surface O3 simulations are significantly improved
      • Linking deposition to LAI is key to simulate O3 responses to vegetation changes
    43. Evidence of spray-mediated air-sea enthalpy flux within tropical cyclones (pages 2997–3003)

      David H. Richter and Daniel P. Stern

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059746

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      Key Points

      • Spray dominates enthalpy flux at the hurricane air-sea interface
      • Enthalpy fluxes can be estimated from dropsonde thermodynamic data
      • Trends of enthalpy flux coefficient can be misleading due to uncertainty
    44. Excursions in the 14C record at A.D. 774–775 in tree rings from Russia and America (pages 3004–3010)

      A. J. Timothy Jull, Irina P. Panyushkina, Todd E. Lange, Vladimir V. Kukarskih, Vladimir S. Myglan, Kelley J. Clark, Matthew W. Salzer, George S. Burr and Steven W. Leavitt

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059874

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      Key Points

      • Excursion in 774-776 A.D. due to a rapid change in 14C production
      • Event must be global and uniform in scale
      • Phenomenon is reproduced in two new locations, making a total of five
    45. Resonance scattering of sunlight by modulation of temporal coherence in microscale water aerosol (pages 3011–3016)

      Stoyan Penchev

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059650

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      Key Points

      • Phenomenon of solar glory interpreted as resonance scattering of sunlight
      • Optical interference inside delaylines of colliding microscale water droplets
      • Resonance-established wavelengths at selected temperature and spherical size

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