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Keywords:

  • early internationalization;
  • transition economies;
  • international networks;
  • international entrepreneurship;
  • internationalization;
  • born globals

Based on a sample of 104 firms in the Czech manufacturing sector that engaged in internationalization into developed markets, our study examines the relationship between reliance on international networks and early internationalization by Czech manufacturing SMEs. Our findings indicate that while, as expected, reliance on international networks facilitates early internationalization, the relationship is contingent on firms' emphasis on technological innovation and perceived environmental hostility. Implications of our study findings from the standpoint of theory, practice, and future research are discussed.