In this study, a combined repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation/electroencephalography (rTMS/EEG) method was used to explore the acute changes of cortical oscillatory activity induced by intermittent short trains of high-frequency (5-Hz) rTMS delivered over the left primary motor cortex (M1). We evaluated the electrophysiological reaction to magnetic stimulation during and 2–4 s after 20 trains of 20-pulses rTMS, using event-related power (ERPow) that reflects the regional oscillatory activity of neural assemblies, and event-related coherence (ERCoh) that reflects the interregional functional connectivity of oscillatory neural activity. These event-related transformations were for the upper α (10–12 Hz) and β (18–22 Hz) frequency ranges, respectively. For the α band, threshold rTMS and subthreshold rTMS induced an ERPow increase during the trains of stimulation mainly in frontal and central regions ipsilateral to stimulation. For the β band, a similar synchronization of cortical oscillations for both rTMS intensities was seen. Moreover, subthreshold rTMS affected α-band activity more than threshold rTMS, inducing a specific ERCoh decrease over the posterior regions during the trains of stimulation. For β band, the decrease in functional coupling was observed mainly during threshold rTMS. These findings provide a better understanding of the cortical effects of high-frequency rTMS, whereby the induction of oscillations reflects the capacity of electromagnetic pulses to alter regional and interregional synaptic transmissions of neural populations. Hum Brain Mapp, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.