• dyslexia;
  • reading;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • positron-emission tomography;
  • cerebral cortex


This study used foci from 17 original studies on functional abnormalities in the dyslexic brain to identify brain regions with consistent under- or overactivation. Studies were included when reading or reading-related tasks were performed on visually presented stimuli and when results reported coordinates for group differences. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) was used for quantification. Maxima of underactivation were found in inferior parietal, superior temporal, middle and inferior temporal, and fusiform regions of the left hemisphere. With respect to left frontal abnormalities, we found underactivation in the inferior frontal gyrus to be accompanied by overactivation in the primary motor cortex and the anterior insula. Tentative functional interpretations of the activation abnormalities are provided. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.