Pediatric neuroimaging is increasingly providing insights into the neural basis of cognitive development. Indeed, we have now arrived at a stage where we can begin to identify optimal methodological and statistical approaches to the acquisition and analysis of developmental imaging data. In this article, we describe a number of these approaches and how their selection impacts the ability to examine and interpret developmental effects. We describe preferred approaches to task selection, definition of age groups, selection of fMRI designs, definition of regions of interest (ROI), optimal baseline measures, and treatment of timecourse data. Consideration of these aspects of developmental neuroimaging reveals that unlike single-group neuroimaging studies, developmental studies pose unique challenges that impact study planning, task design, data analysis, and the interpretation of findings. Hum Brain Mapp , 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.