• functional connectivity;
  • default mode;
  • task positive;
  • large scale cerebral networks;
  • psychomotor vigilance task;
  • pvt;
  • spontaneous fluctuations;
  • resting state;
  • windowed correlation;
  • performance prediction

A better understanding of how behavioral performance emerges from interacting brain systems may come from analysis of functional networks using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies comparing such networks with human behavior have begun to identify these relationships, but few have used a time scale small enough to relate their findings to variation within a single individual's behavior. In the present experiment we examined the relationship between a psychomotor vigilance task and the interacting default mode and task positive networks. Two time-localized comparative metrics were calculated: difference between the two networks' signals at various time points around each instance of the stimulus (peristimulus times) and correlation within a 12.3-s window centered at each peristimulus time. Correlation between networks was also calculated within entire resting-state functional imaging runs from the same individuals. These metrics were compared with response speed on both an intraindividual and an interindividual basis. In most cases, a greater difference or more anticorrelation between networks was significantly related to faster performance. While interindividual analysis showed this result generally, using intraindividual analysis it was isolated to peristimulus times 4 to 8 s before the detected target. Within that peristimulus time span, the effect was stronger for individuals who tended to have faster response times. These results suggest that the relationship between functional networks and behavior can be better understood by using shorter time windows and also by considering both intraindividual and interindividual variability. Hum Brain Mapp 34:3280–3298, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.