Get access

Investigating brain community structure abnormalities in bipolar disorder using path length associated community estimation

Authors

  • Johnson J. GadElkarim,

    1. Electrical and Computer Engineering department, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
    2. Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Olusola Ajilore,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Dan Schonfeld,

    1. Electrical and Computer Engineering department, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Liang Zhan,

    1. Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, UCLA, Los Angeles, California
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Paul M. Thompson,

    1. Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, UCLA, Los Angeles, California
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jamie D. Feusner,

    1. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, California
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Anand Kumar,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Lori L. Altshuler,

    1. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, California
    Search for more papers by this author
    • Dr. Altshuler has received past funding from Sepracor (advisory board honraria, January 2010) and Eli Lilly (consultant, September 2010); and no past but potential future honoraria from Astra-Zeneca (speakers bureau), Merck and Co. (consulting) and Takeda Pharmaceuticals and Lundeck (advisory board).

  • Alex D. Leow

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
    2. Community Psychiatry, Sacramento, California
    3. Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
    • Correspondence to: Alex Leow, MD, PhD, The Psychiatry Institute (MC 912), Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1601 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612. E-mail: alexfeuillet@gmail.com

    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

In this article, we present path length associated community estimation (PLACE), a comprehensive framework for studying node-level community structure. Instead of the well-known Q modularity metric, PLACE utilizes a novel metric, ΨPL, which measures the difference between intercommunity versus intracommunity path lengths. We compared community structures in human healthy brain networks generated using these two metrics and argued that ΨPL may have theoretical advantages. PLACE consists of the following: (1) extracting community structure using top-down hierarchical binary trees, where a branch at each bifurcation denotes a collection of nodes that form a community at that level, (2) constructing and assessing mean group community structure, and (3) detecting node-level changes in community between groups. We applied PLACE and investigated the structural brain networks obtained from a sample of 25 euthymic bipolar I subjects versus 25 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Results showed community structural differences in posterior default mode network regions, with the bipolar group exhibiting left-right decoupling. Hum Brain Mapp 35:2253–2264, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Get access to the full text of this article

Ancillary