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The APOE ɛ4 allele affects complexity and functional connectivity of resting brain activity in healthy adults

Authors

  • Albert C. Yang,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    2. Division of Psychiatry, School of Medicine National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
    3. Center for Dynamical Biomarkers and Translational Medicine, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan
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  • Chu-Chung Huang,

    1. Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Mu-En Liu,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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  • Yin-Jay Liou,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    2. Division of Psychiatry, School of Medicine National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Chen-Jee Hong,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    2. Division of Psychiatry, School of Medicine National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
    3. Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Men-Tzung Lo,

    1. Center for Dynamical Biomarkers and Translational Medicine, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan
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  • Norden E. Huang,

    1. Center for Dynamical Biomarkers and Translational Medicine, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan
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  • Chung-Kang Peng,

    1. Margret and H. A. Rey Institute for Nonlinear Dynamics in Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Ching-Po Lin,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Correspondence to: Dr. Shih-Jen Tsai, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No 201, Section 2, Shi-Pai Road, Taipei 11217, Taiwan. E-mail: tsai610913@gmail.com or Dr. Ching-Po Lin, PhD, Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan. E-mail: chingpolin@gmail.com

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  • Shih-Jen Tsai

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    2. Division of Psychiatry, School of Medicine National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Correspondence to: Dr. Shih-Jen Tsai, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No 201, Section 2, Shi-Pai Road, Taipei 11217, Taiwan. E-mail: tsai610913@gmail.com or Dr. Ching-Po Lin, PhD, Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan. E-mail: chingpolin@gmail.com

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  • Conflicts of interest: Nothing to report.

Abstract

The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is associated with structural and functional brain changes. We have used multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis to detect changes in the complexity of resting blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals associated with aging and cognitive function. In this study, we further hypothesized that the APOE genotype may affect the complexity of spontaneous BOLD activity in younger and older adults, and such altered complexity may be associated with certain changes in functional connectivity. We conducted a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in a cohort of 100 younger adults (aged 20–39 years; mean 27.2 ± 4.3 years; male/female: 53/47) and 112 older adults (aged 60–79 years; mean 68.4 ± 6.5 years; male/female: 54/58), and applied voxelwise MSE analysis to assess the main effect of APOE genotype on resting-state BOLD complexity and connectivity. Although the main effect of APOE genotype on BOLD complexity was not observed in younger group, we observed that older APOE ɛ4 allele carriers had significant reductions in BOLD complexity in precuneus and posterior cingulate regions, relative to noncarriers. We also observed that reduced BOLD complexity in precuneus and posterior cingulate regions was associated with increased functional connectivity to the superior and inferior frontal gyrus in the older group. These results support the compensatory recruitment hypothesis in older APOE ɛ4 carriers, and confer the impact of the APOE genotype on the temporal dynamics of brain activity in older adults. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3238–3248, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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