This article was published online on 12 February 2014. An error was subsequently identified. This notice is included in the online and print versions to indicate that both have been corrected 20 March 2014.
Behavioral and neural correlates of imagined walking and walking-while-talking in the elderly
Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2014
Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Human Brain Mapping
Volume 35, Issue 8, pages 4090–4104, August 2014
How to Cite
Blumen, H. M., Holtzer, R., Brown, L. L., Gazes, Y. and Verghese, J. (2014), Behavioral and neural correlates of imagined walking and walking-while-talking in the elderly. Hum. Brain Mapp., 35: 4090–4104. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22461
- Issue online: 8 JUL 2014
- Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 29 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 27 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Received: 7 AUG 2013
- NIH/NIA. Grant Number: 1RO1AG036920-01A1 (to R.H.)
- NIH/NIA. Grant Number: PO1 AGO3949 (to Richard B. Lipton)
- Einstein Class of 1961
- fMRI and aging
Cognition is important for locomotion and gait decline increases the risk for morbidity, mortality, cognitive decline, and dementia. Yet, the neural correlates of gait are not well established, because most neuroimaging methods cannot image the brain during locomotion. Imagined gait protocols overcome this limitation. This study examined the behavioral and neural correlates of a new imagined gait protocol that involved imagined walking (iW), imagined talking (iT), and imagined walking-while-talking (iWWT). In Experiment 1, 82 cognitively-healthy older adults (M = 80.45) walked (W), iW, walked while talking (WWT) and iWWT. Real and imagined walking task times were strongly correlated, particularly real and imagined dual-task times (WWT and iWWT). In Experiment 2, 33 cognitively-healthy older adults (M = 73.03) iW, iT, and iWWT during functional magnetic resonance imaging. A multivariate Ordinal Trend (OrT) Covariance analysis identified a pattern of brain regions that: (1) varied as a function of imagery task difficulty (iW, iT and iWWT), (2) involved cerebellar, precuneus, supplementary motor and other prefrontal regions, and (3) were associated with kinesthetic imagery ratings and behavioral performance during actual WWT. This is the first study to compare the behavioral and neural correlates of imagined gait in single and dual-task situations, an issue that is particularly relevant to elderly populations. These initial findings encourage further research and development of this imagined gait protocol as a tool for improving gait and cognition among the elderly. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4090–4104, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.