During acute type B hepatitis, the proportion of inducer to cytotoxic/suppressor T-cells is decreased due to an increase in the concentration of suppressor cells. Similar changes are seen in chronically infected subjects with evidence of active viral replication (HBeAg positive) and chronic hepatitis of varying severity. This imbalance of the regulatory cells returns to normal when viral replication decreases during the recovery phase of acute hepatitis and in patients who become chronic carriers with minimal liver disease (HBeAb positive patients). Patients in whom viral replication has subsided (HBeAb positive) but who continue to exhibit chronic active liver disease have increased inducer to cytotoxic/suppressor cell ratios due to a decrease in the concentration of the cytotoxic/suppressor cell population. Further studies are needed to determine whether these alterations of the regulatory cells of the immune system are a causal factor influencing the duration of active hepatitis B virus replication and the degree of inflammatory liver damage, or merely changes secondary to the presence of a replicating virus.