A liver DNA synthesis promoter activity was detected in human plasma from subjects with hepatitis. The assay procedure consisted of intraperitoneal injection into mice of aliquots of plasma, previously chromatographed on Sephadex G-25. After 24 hr, [3H]thymidine was injected and its incorporation into liver DNA measured. The increase in [3H]thymidine uptake of injected mice was not detected in those administered plasma from normal subjects (basal [3H]thymidine incorporation was that corresponding to saline-injected mouse values). At a maximal effective dose (0.3 mg protein per mouse), plasma from subjects with hepatitis increased the mitotic index of mouse liver hepatocytes; at the same dose, plasma from normal subjects had no effect. This DNA synthesis promoter activity appears to be a protein, as it is sensitive to trypsin digestion and heat.