Hepatic fibrosis was induced in rats by repeated i.p. injections of pig serum. The hepatic hydroxyproline content increased to 2.1 times the normal control level at 6 weeks and to 3.2 times at 10 weeks. When P-1894B, an inhibitor of prolyl hydroxylase, was administered, there was a dose-dependent inhibition of the increase to nearly normal control levels at 6 and 10 weeks. There was also by histology a dose-dependent reduction in the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatocellular damage was minimal and its extent did not vary with the degree of fibrosis or the treatment. P-1894B dose dependently reduced the hydroxylation of peptidyl proline in the fibrotic liver. These data suggest that P-1894B inhibited hepatic fibrogenesis by direct action on collagen but not by protection against hepatocellular damage leading to collagen formation. A prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor may be a candidate for use in treatment of hepatic fibrosis.