In schistosomiasis mansoni, eggs trapped in portal venules of the liver induce a granulomatous inflammatory reaction and subsequently fibrosis. Upon specific schistosomicidal treatment, however, fibrosis undergoes a marked reversal. The features of this process as regards collagen metabolism were examined in mice using praziquantel as the schistosomicidal drug, which was given 68 days after infection. It was found that collagenase activity in the liver, for both latent and active forms, increases rapidly until 5 days after treatment as compared to nontreated infected mice and then diminishes gradually. The hydroxyproline content in liver and (24-hr) urine are also modified, their values decreasing progressively up to 72 days after treatment without, however, reaching values observed in normal mice. Worm death appears to be the triggering stimulus of these events.