To investigate the antibody titer necessary to prevent hepatitis A virus infection, either 15 or 7.5 mg/kg of immune serum globulin was injected into 10 antihepatitis A virus negative volunteers and their serum antihepatitis A virus titers were observed for 28 wk. In addition, antibody titers were observed for 96 wk in a phase 1 clinical trial of a hepatitis A vaccine. The two studies were then compared to assess the immunogenicity of the vaccine and the persistence of the antibody. Serum-neutralizing antibody titers that were greater than or equal to 4 (considered as positive) persisted for 18 wk and 14 wk after the injection of 15 and 7.5 mg/kg of globulin, respectively. Hepatitis A virus vaccine recipients showed adequate neutralizing antibody titers, with the groups receiving 1, 0.5 and 0.25 μg/dose showing titers of 45.5, 44.7 and 44, respectively, at 18 mo after the third inoculation. These findings suggested that effective blood antibody titers were likely to be retained in the 1.0 μg or 0.5 μg/dose groups for at least several years. Moreover, the serum antihepatitis A virus titers demonstrated by a modified radioimmunoassay changed in parallel with the neutralizing antibody titers in the volunteers injected with globulin. (HEPATOLOGY 1992;15:983-988).