A total of 238 patients who received curative hepatic resections during the last 10 yr were observed to search for the risk factors linked to early tumor recurrence of human hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy. The results revealed that tumor size, tumor appearance and DNA ploidy were the factors in predicting tumor recurrence after resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with a tumor size less than or equal to 5 cm or a tumor appearance of the solitary type had better disease-free survival than did those with a tumor size greater than 5 cm or a tumor appearance of multiple/daughter nodule types (p < 0.05). Although patients with pattern III (aneuploid with ≥ 2 G0/G1 peaks) hepatoma had fewer statistically significant differences (p = 019) than did those with pattern I (diploid) or pattern II (aneuploid with single G0/G1 peak) tumors in predicting tumor recurrence, they did have poorer results in terms of the overall survival rate (p < 0.05). We conclude that patients with hepatocellular carcinoma having the aforementioned risk factors should be observed closely.