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Abstract

Clinical and morphological findings in 91 patients with infantile hemangioendothelioma of the liver are reported. The study comprised 56 girls and 35 boys ranging in age from premature infant to 3 yr; one outlier patient was 18 yr old. Most patients with infantile hemangioendothelioma (87%) were first seen before the age of 6 mo. Congestive heart failure was evident in 15%. Skin hemangiomas were noted in 11%. Anemia, hyperbilirubinemia and increased AST level were present. Solitary lesions were more common than multiple ones (3:2). Immunohistochemical staining of tumor cells for factor VIII was positive in 20 of 21 cases tested; testing for blood group antigen was positive in 8 of 28 cases. Cytokeratin staining verified the presence of bile ducts, some of which appeared to be the result of transformation of injured liver. No pericytes were identified on electron microscopy. The 6-mo survival rate, based on 71 cases, was 70%. Average time of follow-up for the survivors was 7.7 yr. All deaths occurred during the initial presentation/hospitalization of infants, with the exception of two patients who died 3 mo and 7 mo after diagnosis. More recent analytic methods, including immunohistochemical stains and flow cytometric studies, do not contribute to the practical assessment of this tumor. Covariates with significant value in predicting death 6 mo after diagnosis included presence of congestive heart failure, jaundice, multiple tumor nodules and absence of cavernous differentiation. (Hepatology 1994;20:39–45.)