SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Seeff LB. The natural history of hepatitis C—a quandary. Hepatology 1998; 28: 17171712.
  • 2
    Seeff LB. Why is there such difficulty in defining the natural history of hepatitis? Transfusion 2000; 40: 11611164.
  • 3
    Alter HJ, Conry-Cantelena C, Melpolder J, Van Raden M, Herion D, Lau D, Hoofnagle JH. Hepatitis C in asymptomatic blood donors. Hepatology 1997; 26 (Suppl 1): 29S33S.
  • 4
    Villano SA, Vlahov D, Nelson KE, Cohn S, Thomas DL. Persistence of viremia and the importance of long-term follow-up after acute hepatitis C infection. Hepatology 1999; 29: 908914.
  • 5
    Alter MJ, Margolis HS, Krawczynski K, Judson FN, Mares A, Alexander J, Hu PY, et al. The natural history of community-acquired hepatitis C in the United States. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 18991905.
  • 6
    Locasciulli A, Testa M, Pontisso P, Benvegnu L, Fraschini D, Corbetta A, Noventa F, et al. Prevalence and natural history of hepatitis C infection in patients cured of childhood leukemia. Blood 1997; 90: 46284633.
  • 7
    Kenny-Walsh E for the Irish Hepatology Research Group. Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globlin. N Eng J Med 1999; 340: 12281233.
  • 8
    Wiese M, Berr F, Lafrenz M, Porst H, Olsen V. Low frequency of cirrhosis in a hepatitis C (genotype 1b) single-source outbreak in Germany: a 20-year multicenter study. Hepatology 2000; 32: 9196.
  • 9
    Vogt M, Lay T, Frosner G, Klingler C, Sendl AF, Zeller A, Wiebecke B, et al. Prevalence and clinical outcome of hepatitis C infection in children who underwent cardiac surgery before the implementation of blood-donor screening. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 866870.
  • 10
    Rodger AJ, Roberts S, Lanigan A, Bowden S, Brown T, Crofts N. Assessment of long-term outcomes of community-acquired hepatitis C infection in a cohort with sera stored from 1971–1975. Hepatology 2000; 32: 582587.
  • 11
    Kiyosawa K, Sodeyama T, Tanaka E, Gibo Y, Yoshizawa K, Nakano Y, Furuta S, et al. Interrelationship of blood transfusion. NANB hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis by detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 1996; 12: 671675.
  • 12
    Tong MJ, El-Farra NS, Reikes AR, Co TL. Clinical outcomes after transfusion-associated hepatitis C. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 14631466.
  • 13
    Yano M, Kumada H, Kage M, Ikeda K, Shimamatsu K, Inoue O, Hashimoto E, et al. The long-term pathological evolution of chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1996; 23: 13341340.
  • 14
    Niederau C, Lange S, Heintges T, Erhardt A, Buschkamp M, Hurter D, Nawrocki M, et al. Prognosis of chronic hepatitis C: results of a large, prospective cohort study. Hepatology 1998; 28: 16871695.
  • 15
    Gordon SC, Eloway RS, Long JC, Dumchowski CF. The pathology of hepatitis C as a function of mode of transmission: blood transfusion versus intravenous drug abuse. Hepatology 1993; 18: 13381343.
  • 16
    Di Bisceglie AM, Goodman ZD, Ishak KG, Hoofnagle JH, Melpolder JJ, Alter HJ. Long-term clinical and histopathological follow-up of chronic post-transfusion hepatitis. Hepatology 1991; 14: 969974.
  • 17
    Koretz RL, Abbey H, Coleman E, Gitnick G. NANB post-transfusion hepatitis: looking back on the second decade. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119: 110115.
  • 18
    Mattson L, Sonnerborg A, Weiland O. Outcome of acute asymptomatic NANB hepatitis: a 13-year follow-up study of hepatitis C virus markers. Liver 1993; 13: 274278.
  • 19
    Tremolada F, Cassin C, Alberti A, Drago C, Tagger A, Ribero ML, Realdi G. Long-term follow-up of NANB (type C) post-transfusion hepatitis. J Hepatol 1992; 16: 273281.
  • 20
    Bonkovsky HI, Woolley JM. Reduction of health-related quality of life in chronic hepatitis C and improvement with interferon therapy. Hepatology 1999; 29: 264270.
  • 21
    Hussain KB, Fontana RJ, Moyer CA, Su GL, Sneed-Pee N, Lok AS. Comorbid illness as an important determinant of health-related quality of life in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 96: 27372744.
    Direct Link:
  • 22
    Rodger AJ, Jolley D, Thompson SC, Lanigan A, Crofts N. The impact of diagnosis of hepatitis C virus on quality of life. Hepatology 1999; 30: 12991301.
  • 23
    Seeff LB, Miller RN, Rabkin CS, Buskell-Bales Z. Staley-Easton KD, Smoak BL, Johnson LD, et al. 45-year follow-up of hepatitis C virus infection in healthy young adults. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 105111.
  • 24
    Thomas DL, Astemborski J, Rai RM, Anania FA, Schaeffer M, Galai N, Nolt H, et al. The natural history of hepatitis C virus infection: host, viral, and environmental factors. JAMA 2000; 284: 450456.
  • 25
    Seeff LB, Hollinger FB, Alter HJ, Wright EC, Cain CM, Buskell ZJ, Ishak KG, et al. Long-term mortality and morbidity of transfusion-associated non-A, non-B and type C hepatitis; a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute collaborative study. Hepatology 2001; 33: 455463.
  • 26
    Seeff LB, Buskell-Bales Z, Wright EC. Durako SJ, Alter HJ, Iber FL, Hollinger FB, et al. Long-term mortality after transfusion-associated non-A, non-B hepatitis. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 19061911.
  • 27
    Liang TJ, Rehermann B, Seeff LB, Hoofnagle JH. Pathogenesis, natural history, treatment, and prevention of hepatitis C. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 296305.
  • 28
    Gordon SC, Bayati N, Silverman AL. Clinical outcome of hepatitis C as a function of mode of transmission. Hepatology 1998; 28: 562567.
  • 29
    Freeman AJ, Dore GJ, Low MG, Thorpe M, Van Overhede J, Lloyd AR, Marinos G, et al. Estimating progression to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 2001; 34: 809816.
  • 30
    McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, Schiff ER, Shiffman ML, Lee WM, Rustgi VK, Goodman ZD, et al. Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 14851492.
  • 31
    Zeuzem S, Feinman SV, Rasenack J, Heathcote EJ, Lai M-Y, Gone E, O'Grady J, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 16661672.
  • 32
    Lau JY, Davis GL, Kniffen J, Qian KP, Urdea MS, Chan CS, Mizokawa M. et al. Significance of serum hepatitis C virus RNA levels in chronic hepatitis C. Lancet 1993; 41: 15101514.
  • 33
    Fanning L, Kenny E, Sheehan M, Cannon B, Whelten M, O'Connell J, Collins JK, et al. Viral load and clinicopathological features of chronic hepatitis C (1b) in a homogeneous patient population. Hepatology 1999; 29: 904907.
  • 34
    Roffi L, Ricci A, Ogliari C, Scaleri A, Minola E, Colleredo G, Chemello M, et al. HCV genotypes in Northers Italy: a survey of 1368 histologically proven chronic hepatitis C patients. J Hepatol 1998; 29: 701706
  • 35
    Poynard T, Ratziu V, Charlotte F, Goodman Z, McHutchison J, Albrecht J. Rates and risk factors of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 2001; 34: 764767.
  • 36
    Kobayashi M, Tanaka E, Sodeyama T, Urushihara A, Matsumoto A, Kiyosawa K. The natural course of chronic hepatitis C: a comparison between patients with genotypes 1 and 2 hepatitis C viruses. Hepatology 1996; 23: 695699.
  • 37
    Farci P, Shimoda A, Coiana A, Diaz G, Peddis G, Melpolder JC, Strazzera A, et al. The outcome of acute hepatitis C predicted by the evolution of the viral quasispecies. Science 2000; 288: 339344.
  • 38
    Major ME, Mihalik K, Fernandez J, Seidman J, Kleiner D, Kolykhalov, Rice CM, et al. Long-term follow-up of chimpanzees inoculated with the first infectious clone for hepatitis C virus. J Virol 1999; 73: 33173325.
  • 39
    Deuffic S, Buffat L, Poynard T, Vallera AJ. Modeling the hepatitis C virus epidemic in France. Hepatology 1999; 29: 15961601.
  • 40
    Bissell DM. Sex and hepatic fibrosis. Hepatology 1999; 29: 988989.
  • 41
    Wiley TE, Brown J, Chan J. Hepatitis C virus infection in African Americans: its natural history and histological progression. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 700706.
    Direct Link:
  • 42
    Fleckenstein JF, Ismail MK, Bockhold K, Van Leeuwen D, Riely CA, Waters B, and the South Central Liver Study Group. African American response rate to therapy for hepatitis C [Abstract]. Hepatology 1998; 28: 482
  • 43
    Harris DR, Gonin R, Alter HJ, Wright EC, Buskell ZJ, Hollinger BF, Seeff LB. The relationship of acute transfusion-associated hepatitis to the development of cirrhosis in the presence of alcohol abuse. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 120124.
  • 44
    Alter MJ, Kruszon-Moran D, Nainan OV, McQuillan GM, Gao F, Moyer LA, Kazlow RA, et al. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1988 through 1994. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 556562.
  • 45
    El-Serag HB, Mason AC. Rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 745750.
  • 46
    Howell C, Jeffers L, Hoofnagle JH. Hepatitis C in African Americans: summary of a workshop. Gastroenterology 2000; 32: 828834.
  • 47
    Reddy KR, Hoofnagle JH, Tong MJ, Lee WM, Pockros P. Heathcote EJ, Albert D, et al. Racial differences in response to therapy with interferon in chronic hepatitis C: Consensus Interferon Study Group. Hepatology 1999; 30: 787793.
  • 48
    Benhamou Y, Bochet M, Di Martino V, Charlotte F, Azria F, Coutellier A, Vidaud M, et al. Liver fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infected patients. Hepatology 1999; 30: 10541058.
  • 49
    Lesens O, Deschenes M, Steben M, Belanger G, Tsoukas CM. Hepatitis C virus is related to progressive liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus-positive hemophiliacs and should be treated as an opportunistic infection. J Infect Dis 1999; 179: 12541258.
  • 50
    Ragni MV, Belle SH. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus on progression to end-stage liver disease in individuals with hemophilia and hepatitis C virus infection. J Infect Dis 2001; 183: 11121115.
  • 51
    Di Martino V, Rufat P, Boyer N, Renard P, Degos F, Martinot-Peignoux M. Matherin S, et al. The influence of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection on chronic hepatitis C in injection drug users. Hepatology 2001; 33: 11931199.
  • 52
    Thomas DL. Hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Hepatology 2002; 36 (suppl 1): S201S209.
  • 53
    Tsai JF, Jeng JE, Ho MS, Chang WY, Lin ZY, Tsai JH. Independent and additive effect modification of hepatitis B and C virus infection on the development of chronic hepatitis. J Hepatol 1996; 24: 271276.
  • 54
    Pontisso P, Gerotto M, Benvegnu L, Chemello L, Alberti A. Co-infection by hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Antivir Ther 1998; 3: 137142.
  • 55
    Bonkovsky H, Banner BF, Rothman AL. Iron and chronic viral hepatitis. Hepatology 1997; 25: 759768.
  • 56
    Haque S, Chandra B, Gerber MA, Lok ASF. Iron overload in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a clinicopathologic study. Hum Pathol 1996; 27: 12771281.
  • 57
    Bassett SE, Di Bisceglie AM, Bacon BR, Sharp RM. Govindarajan S, Hubbard GB, Brasky KM, et al. Effects of iron loading on pathogenicity in hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzees. Hepatology 1999; 29: 18841892.
  • 58
    Olynyk JK, Reddy KR, Di Bisceglie AM, Jeffers LJ, Parker T, Radick JL, Schiff ER, et al. Hepatitis iron concentration as a predictor of response to interferon alfa therapy in chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 11041109.
  • 59
    Van Thiel DH, Friedlander L, Faginoli S, Wright HI, Irish W, Gavaler JS. Response to interferon alpha therapy is influenced by the iron content of the liver. J Hepatol 1994; 20: 410415.
  • 60
    Arber N, Moshkowitz K, Konikoff F, Halpern Z, Hallak A, Santo M, Trommy E, et al. Elevated serum iron predicts poor response to interferon treatment in patients with chronic HCV infection. Dig Dis Sci 1995; 40: 24312433.
  • 61
    Di Bisceglie AM, Bonkovsky HL, Chopra S, Flamm S, Reddy RK, Grace N, Killenberg P, et al. Iron reduction as an adjuvant to interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C who have previously not responded to interferon therapy: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Hepatology 2000; 32: 135138.
  • 62
    Smith BC, Grove J, Guzail M, Day CP, Daly AR, Burt AD, Bassendine M. Heterozygosity for hereditary hemochromatosis is associated with more fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 198; 27: 1695–1699.
  • 63
    Matteoni CA, Younossi ZM, Gramlich T, Boparai YC, Liu YC, McCullough AJ. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a spectrum of clinical and pathological severity. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 14131419.
  • 64
    Hourigan LF, MacDonald GA, Purdie D, Whitehall VH, Shorthouse C, Clouston A, Powell EE. Fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C correlates significantly with body mass index and steatosis. Hepatology 1999; 29: 12151219.
  • 65
    Powell EE, Cooksley WG, Hansen R, Searle J, Halliday JW, Powell LW. The natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a follow-up study of forty-two patients for up to 21 years. Hepatology 1990; 11: 7480.
  • 66
    Mason AL, Lau JY, Hoang N, Qian K, Alexander GJ, Xu L, Guo L, et al. Association of diabetes mellitus and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 1999; 29: 328333.
  • 67
    El-Serag HB, Everhart JE. Diabetes increases the risk of acute hepatic failure. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 18221828.
  • 68
    Ong JP, Younossi ZM, Speer C, Olano A, Gramlich T, Boparai N. Chronic hepatitis C and superimposed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver 2001; 21: 266271.
  • 69
    Kamal S, Madwar M, Bianchi L, Tawil AEL, Fawzy R, Peters T, Rasenack JWF. Clinical, virological and histopathological features: long-term follow-up in patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with S. mansoni. Liver 2000; 20: 281290.
  • 70
    Alric L, Fort M, Izopet J. Vinel J-P, Charlet J-P, Selves JP, Puel J, et al. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex class II influence the outcome of hepatitis C virus. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 16751681.
  • 71
    Minton EJ, Smillie D, Neil KR, Irving WL, Underwood JCE. James V. Association between MHC class II alleles and clearance of circulating hepatitis C virus. J Infect Dis 1998; 178: 3944.
  • 72
    Kuzushita N, Hayashi N, Maribe T, Katayama K, Kanto T, Nakatani S, Kaneshige T, et al. Influence of HLA haplotypes on the clinical course of individuals infected with hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 1998; 27: 240244.
  • 73
    Aikawa T, Kojima M, Onishi H, Tamura R, Fukuda S, Suzuki T, Tsuda F, et al. HLA DRB1 and DQB1 alleles and haplotypes influencing the progression of hepatitis C. J Med Virol 1996; 49: 274278.
  • 74
    Mangia A, Gentile R, Cascavilla I, Margaglione M, Villani MR, Stella F, Modola G, et al. HLA class II favors clearance of HCV infection and progression of chronic liver damage. J Hepatol 1998; 28: 17
  • 75
    Tillmann HL, Chen D-F, Trautwein C, Klein V, Grundy A, Berung-Hoog A, Boher K, et al. Low frequency of HLA-DRBI and II in hepatitis C virus induced end-stage liver disease. Gut 2001; 48: 714718.
  • 76
    Powell EE, Edwards-Smith CJ, Hay JL, Clouston AD, Crawford DH, Shorthouse C, Purdie DM, et al. Host genetic factors influence disease progression in chronic hepatitis. Hepatology 2000; 31: 828833.
  • 77
    Kunzler S, Baumann M, Schirmacher F, Dries V, Bayer E, Gerken H-P, Dienes A, et al. Prediction of progressive liver fibrosis in hepatitis C infection by serum and tissue levels of transforming growth factor-β. J Virol 2001; 8: 430437.
  • 78
    Marcellin P, Martinot M, Boyer N, Levy S. Treatment of hepatitis C patients with normal aminotransferase levels. Clin Liver Dis 1999; 3: 843853.
  • 79
    Puoti M, Magnini A, Stati T, Rigato P, Montagnese F, Rossi P, Aldegheri L, et al. Clinical, histologic, and virological features of hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal or abnormal aminotransferase levels. Hepatology 1995; 21: 285290.
  • 80
    Mathurin P, Moussali J, Cadranel J-F, Thibault V, Charlotte F, Dumouchel P, Cazier A, et al. Slow progression rate of fibrosis in hepatitis C patients with persistently normal alanine transaminase activity. Hepatology 1998; 27: 868872.
  • 81
    Persico M, Persico E, Suozzo R, Conte S, De Seta M, Coppola L, Palmentieri B, et al. Natural history of hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal aminotransferase levels. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 760764.
  • 82
    Noda K, Yoshihara H, Suzuki Y, Yamada Y, Kasahara A, Hayashi N, Fusamoto H, et al. Progression of type C chronic hepatitis to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma—its relationship to alcohol drinking and the age of transfusion. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1996; 20: 94A100A.
  • 83
    Corrao G, Arico S. Independent and combined action of hepatitis C virus infection and alcohol consumption on the risk of symptomatic liver cirrhosis. Hepatology 1998; 27: 914919.
  • 84
    Pessione F, Degos F, Marcellin P, Duchatelle V, Njapoum C, Martinot-Peignoux M, Degott C, et al. Effect of alcohol consumption on serum hepatitis C virus RNA and histological lesions in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1998; 27: 17171722.
  • 85
    Ostapowicz G, Watson KG, Locarnini SA, Desmond PV. Role of alcohol in the progression of liver disease caused by hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 1998; 27: 17301735.
  • 86
    Wiley TE, McCarthy M, Breidi L, McCarthy M, Layden T. Impact of alcohol on the histological and clinical progression of hepatitis C infection. Hepatology 1998; 28: 805809.
  • 87
    Frieden TR, Ozick L, McCord C, Nainan OV, Workman S, Comer G, Lee TP, et al. Chronic liver disease in Central Harlem: the role of alcohol and viral hepatitis. Hepatology 1999; 29: 883888.
  • 88
    Everhart J, Herion D. Hepatitis C virus infection and alcohol. In: LiangTJ, HoofnagleHJ, eds. Hepatitis C. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000; 363388.
  • 89
    Peters MG, Terrault N. Alcohol use and hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002; 36 (suppl 1): S220S225.
  • 90
    Corrao G, Lepore AR, Torchio P, Valenti M, Galatola G, D'Amicis A, Arico S, et al. The effect of drinking coffee and smoking cigarettes on the risk of cirrhosis associated with alcohol consumption: a case control study. Eur J Epidemiol 1994; 10: 657664.
  • 91
    Pessione F, Ramond M, Peters L, Batel P, Rueff B, Benhamou JP, Erlinger S, et al. Five-year survival predictive factors in 122 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis: beneficial effects of non-smoking, alcoholic hepatitis and abstinence. Hepatology 1998; 28: 384A.
  • 92
    Mori M, Hari M, Wada I, Hara T, Yamamoto K, Honda M, Naramoto J. Prospective study of hepatitis B and C viral infections, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and other factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Japan. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 151: 131139.
  • 93
    Mukaiya M, Nishi M, Miyake H, Hirata K. Chronic liver diseases for the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-controlled study in Japan. Etiologic association of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and the development of chronic liver diseases. Hepatogastroenterology 1998; 45: 23282332.
  • 94
    Pessione F, Ramond M-J, Njapoum C, Duchatelle V, Degott C, Erlinger S, Rueff B, et al. Cigarette smoking and hepatic lesions in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2001; 34: 121125.
  • 95
    Nomura A, Stemmermann GN, Chyou PH. Tabor E. Hepatitis B and C virus serologies among Japanese Americans with hepatocellular carcinoma. J Infect Dis 1996; 173: 14741476.
  • 96
    Poynard T, Bedossa P, Opolon P. Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C: the OBSVIRC, METAVIR, CLINIVIR, and DOSVIRC groups. Lancet 1997; 349: 825832.