• 1
    Bellentani S, Tiribelli C, Saccoccio G, Sodde M, Fratti N, De Martin C, Cristianini G. Prevalence of chronic liver disease in the general population of northern Italy: the Dionysos Study. HEPATOLOGY 1994; 20: 14421449.
  • 2
    Dufour MC, Stinson FS, Caces MF. Trends in cirrhosis morbidity and mortality: United States, 1979-1988. Semin Liver Dis 1993; 13: 109125.
  • 3
    Butterworth RF. Pathogenesis and treatment of portal-systemic encephalopathy: an update. Dig Dis Sci 1992; 37: 321327.
  • 4
    Parsons-Smith BC, Sumerskill WHJ, Dawson AM. The electroencephalograph in liver disease. Lancet 1957; 273: 867871.
  • 5
    Gitlin N. Subclinical portal-systemic encephalopathy. Am J Gastroenterol 1988; 83: 811.
  • 6
    Ferenci P, Lockwood A, Mullen K, Tarter R, Weissenborn K, Blei AT. Hepatic encephalopathy—definition, nomenclature, diagnosis, and quantification: final report of the working party at the 11th World Congresses of Gastroenterology, Vienna, 1998. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 35: 716721.
  • 7
    Blei AT. Diagnosis and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2000; 14: 959974.
  • 8
    Quero JC, Hartman IJ, Meulstee J, Hop WCJ, Schalm SW. The diagnosis of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis using neuropsychological tests and automated electroencephalogram analysis. HEPATOLOGY 1996; 24: 556560.
  • 9
    Sood GK, Sarin SK, Mahaptra J, Broor SL. Comparative efficacy of psychometric tests in detection of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in nonalcoholic cirrhotics: search for a rational approach. Am J Gastroenterol 1989; 84: 156159.
  • 10
    Koch H, Schauder P, Schafer G, Dahme B, Ebel W, Vahldiek B, Konig F, et al. [ Diagnosis and prevalence of latent hepatic encephalopathy]. Z Gastroenterol 1990; 28: 610615.
  • 11
    Groeneweg M, Quero JC, De Bruijn I, Hartmann IJ, Essink-bot ML, Hop WC, Schalm SW. Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy impairs daily functioning. HEPATOLOGY 1998; 28: 4549.
  • 12
    Groeneweg M, Quero JC, Essink-Bot ML, Hop WCJ, Schalm SW. The effect of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy on the quality of life. In: RecordC, Al-MardiniH, eds. Advances in Hepatic Encephalopathy and Metabolism in Liver Disease. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Ipswich, 1996: 311317.
  • 13
    Watanabe A, Tuchida T, Yata Y, Kuwabara Y. Evaluation of neuropsychological function in patients with liver cirrhosis with special reference to their driving ability. Metab Brain Dis 1995; 10: 239248.
  • 14
    Schomerus H, Hamster W, Blunck H, Reinhard U, Mayer K, Dolle W. Latent portasystemic encephalopathy. I. Nature of cerebral functional defects and their effect on fitness to drive. Dig Dis Sci 1981; 26: 622630.
  • 15
    Schultheis MT, Matheis RJ, Nead R, DeLuca J. Driving behaviors following brain injury: self-report and motor vehicle records. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2002; 17: 3847.
  • 16
    Schultheis MT, Garay E, DeLuca J. The influence of cognitive impairment on driving performance in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2001; 56: 10891094.
  • 17
    Hannen P, Hartje W, Skreczek W. [Evaluating driving ability after brain damage. Neuropsychological diagnosis and driving test]. Nervenarzt 1998; 69: 864872.
  • 18
    Heikkila VM, Turkka J, Korpelainen J, Kallanranta T, Summala H. Decreased driving ability in people with Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998; 64: 325330.
  • 19
    Hartje W, Pach R, Willmes K, Hannen P, Weber E. Fahreignung hirngeschaedigter patienten. [Driving competence of brain injured patients]. Z f Neuropsych 1991; 2: 100114.
  • 20
    Fox GK, Bashford GM, Caust SL. Identifying safe versus unsafe drivers following brain impairment: the Coorabel Programme. Disabil Rehabil 1992; 14: 140145.
  • 21
    Fox GK, Bowden SC, Smith DS. On-road assessment of driving competence after brain impairment: review of current practice and recommendations for a standardized examination. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79: 12881296.
  • 22
    Srivastava A, Mehta R, Rothke SP, Rademaker AW, Blei AT. Fitness to drive in patients with cirrhosis and portal-systemic shunting: a pilot study evaluating driving performance. J Hepatol 1994; 21: 10231028.
  • 23
    Pugh RN, Murray-Lyon IM, Dawson JL, Pietroni MC, Williams R. Transection of the oesophagus for bleeding oesophageal varices. Br J Surg 1973; 60: 646649.
  • 24
    Berg M, Fischer A. Wiener Determinationsgeraet Version 6.0. Vienna: Dr. G. Schuhfried GmbH, 1994.
  • 25
    Schomerus H, Weissenborn K, Hamster W, Rueckert N, Hecker H. PSE-Syndrom-Test. Frankfurt: Swets & Zeitlinger, 1999.
  • 26
    Wein C. Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy - development and evaluation of a computer-assisted test for psychometric diagnosis [dissertation]. Hamburg: Psychological Institute, 1996.
  • 27
    Bruggemans EF, Van de Vijver FJ, Huysmans HA. Assessment of cognitive deterioration in individual patients following cardiac surgery: correcting for measurement error and practice effects. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1997; 19: 543559.
  • 28
    Erdfelder E, Faul F, Buchner A. GPOWER: A general power analysis program. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 1996; 28: 111.
  • 29
    Fox G K, Bowden SC, Bashford GM, Smith DS. Alzheimer's disease and driving: prediction and assessment of driving performance. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997; 45: 949953
  • 30
    Zeneroli ML, Cioni G, Ventura P, Russo AM, Venturini I, Casalgrandi G, Ventura E. Interindividual variability of the number connection test. J Hepatol 1992; 15: 263264.
  • 31
    Amodio P, Del Piccolo F, Marchetti P, Angeli P, Iemmolo R, Caregaro L, Merkel C, et al. Clinical features and survival of cirrhotic patients with subclinical cognitive alterations detected by the number connection test and computerized psychometric tests. HEPATOLOGY 1999; 29: 16621667.
  • 32
    Weissenborn K, Scholz M, Hinrichs H, Wiltfang J, Schmidt FW, Kunkel H. Neurophysiological assessment of early hepatic encephalopathy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1990; 75: 289295.
  • 33
    Egberts EH, Schomerus H, Hamster W, Jurgens P. Branched chain amino acids in the treatment of latent portosystemic encephalopathy. A double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Gastroenterology 1985; 88: 887895.
  • 34
    Morgan MY, Alonso M, Stanger LC. Lactitol and lactulose for the treatment of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients. A randomised, cross-over study. J Hepatol 1989; 8: 208217.
  • 35
    Plauth M, Egberts EH, Hamster W, Torok M, Muller PH, Brand O, Furst P, et al. Long-term treatment of latent portosystemic encephalopathy with branched-chain amino acids. A double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. J Hepatol 1993; 17: 308314.
  • 36
    Watanabe A, Sakai T, Sato S, Imai F, Ohto M, Arakawa Y, Toda G, et al. Clinical efficacy of lactulose in cirrhotic patients with and without subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. HEPATOLOGY 1997; 26: 14101414.
  • 37
    Dhiman RK, Sawhney IM, Chawla Y, K., Das G, Ram S, Dilawari JB. Efficacy of lactulose in cirrhotic patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. Dig Dis Sci 2000; 45: 15491552.