• 1
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hepatitis-control measures for hepatitis B in dialysis centers. In: Hepatitis surveillance report no. 41. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC, 1977: 1217.
  • 2
    CDC. Perspectives in disease prevention and health promotion update: universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and other bloodborne pathogens in health-care settings. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1988; 37: 377388.
  • 3
    Massari V, Maison P, Descenclos HC, Flahault A. Six years of sentinel surveillance of hepatitis B in general practice of France. Eur J Epidemiol 1998; 14: 765767.
  • 4
    Tokars JI, Miller ER, Alter MJ, Arduino MJ. National surveillance of dialysis associated diseases in the United States, 1995. ASAIO J 1998; 44: 98107.
  • 5
    Yumiko K, Fujita A, Koju K, Kameda H, Isselbacher KJ, Wands JR. Detection of hepatitis B virus infection in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative hemodialysis patients by monoclonal radioimmunoassays. Gastroenterology 1986; 91: 13571363.
  • 6
    Stevens CE, Alter HJ, Taylor PE, et al. Hepatitis B vaccine in patients receiving hemodialysis: immunogenicity and efficacy. N Engl J Med 1984; 311: 496501.
  • 7
    Moyer LA, Alter MJ, Favero MS. Hemodialysis-associated hepatitis B: revised recommendations for serologic screening. Semin Dial 1990; 3: 201204.
  • 8
    Alter MJ, Favero MS, Francis DP. Cost benefit of vaccination for hepatitis B in hemodialysis centers. J Infect Dis 1983; 148: 770771.
  • 9
    Tokars JL, Arduino MJ, Alter MJ. Infection control in hemodialysis units. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2001; 15: 797812.
  • 10
    Cabrerizo M, Bartolome J, De Sequera P, Caramelo C, Carreno V. Hepatitis B virus DNA in serum and blood cells of hepatitis B surface antigen-negative hemodialysis patients and staff. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997; 8: 14431447.
  • 11
    Joller-Jemelka HI, Wicki AN, Grob PJ. Detection of HBs antigen in “anti-HBc alone” positive sera. J Hepatol 1994; 21: 269272.
  • 12
    Oesterreicher C, Hammer J, Koch U, Pfeffel F, Sunder-Plassmann G, Petermann D, Muller C. HBV and HCV genome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Kidney Int 1995; 48: 19671971.
  • 13
    Zhang M, Gong Y, Osiowy C, Minuk GY. Rapid detection of hepatitis B virus mutations using real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 36: 723728.
  • 14
    Wands JR, Fujita YK, Isselbacher KJ, Schellekens H, Dazza MC, Thiers V, Tiollais P, et al. Identification and transmission of a hepatitis B virus-related variants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986; 83: 312: 270276.
  • 15
    Liang TJ, Isselbacher KJ, Wands JR. Rapid identification of low level hepatitis B-related viral genome in serum. J Clin Invest 1989; 84: 13671371.
  • 16
    Thiers V, Nakajima E, Kremsdorf D, Mack D, Schellekens H, Driss F, et al. Transmission of hepatitis from hepatitis B seronegative subjects. Lancet 1988: 12731276.
  • 17
    Baginski I, Chemin I, Hantz O. Transmission of serologically silent hepatitis B virus along with hepatitis C virus in two cases of posttransfusion hepatitis. Transfusion 1992; 32: 215220.
  • 18
    Chazouilleres O, Mamish D, Kim M, Carey K, Ferrell L, Roberts JP, et al. “Occult” hepatitis B virus as source of infection in liver transplant recipients. Lancet 1994; 343: 142146.
  • 19
    Roche B, Samuel D, Gigou M, Ferray C, Virot V, Schmets L, et al. De novo and apparent de novo hepatitis B virus infection after liver transplantation. J Hepatol 1997; 26: 517526.
  • 20
    Tokeshi S, Sata M, Tanikawa K. Detection of serum HBV-DNA and anti-HCV antibody in HBsAg seronegative patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Japan. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 1996; 70: 103107.
  • 21
    Wachs ME, Amend WJ, Ascher NL, Bretan PN, Emond J, Lake JR, et al. The risk of transmission of hepatitis B from HBsAg (−), HBc-Ab (+), HBIgM (−) organ donors. Transplantation 1995; 59: 230234.
  • 22
    Dickson RC, Everhart JE, Lake JR, Wei Y, Seaberg EC, Wiesner RH, et al. Transmission of hepatitis B by transplantation of livers from donors positive for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Liver Transplantation Database. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 16681674.
  • 23
    Uemoto S, Sugiymam K, Marusawa H, Inomata Y, Asonuma K, Egawa H, et al. Transmission of hepatitis B virus from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors in liver related liver transplants. Transplantation 1998; 65: 494499.
  • 24
    Brechot C, Thiers V, Kremsdorf D, Nalpas B, Pol S, Paterlini-Brechot P. Persisent hepatitis B virus infection in subjects without hepatitis B surface antigen: clinically significant or purely “occult”? HEPATOLOGY 2001; 34: 194203.
  • 25
    Torres J, Locarnini S. Antiviral chemotherapy for the treatment of hepatitis B virus infections. Gastroenterology 2000; 118(Suppl): S83S103.
  • 26
    Lok AS, Wu PC, Lai CL, Lau JYN, Leung EKY, Wong LSK, et al. A controlled trial of interferon with or without prednisone priming for chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 20912097.
  • 27
    Minuk GY, Uhanova J. Chronic hepatitis B infection in Canada. Can J Infect Dis 2001; 12: 351356.
  • 28
    Sola R, Cruz De Castro E, Hombrados M, Planas R, Coll S, Jardi R, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in different countries of Catalonia, Spain: cross-sectional study. Med Clin (Barc) 2002; 119: 9095.
  • 29
    Ambuhl PM, Binswanger U, Renner EL. Epidemiology of chronic hepatitis B and C among dialysis patients in Switzerland. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 2000; 130: 341348.
  • 30
    Jeantet D, Chemin I, Mandrand B, Tran A, Zoulim F, Merle P, et al. Cloning and expression of surface antigens from occult chronic hepatitis B virus infections and their recognition by commercial detection assays. J Med Virol 2004; 73: 508515.
  • 31
    Carman WF, Zanetti AR, Karayiannis P, Waters J, Manzillo G, Tanzi E, et al. Vaccine-induced escape mutant of hepatitis B virus. Lancet 1990; 336: 325329.
  • 32
    Ghany MG, Ayola B, Villami FG, Gish RG, Rojter S, Vierling JM, et al. Hepatitis B virus S mutants in liver transplant recipients who were reinfected despite hepatitis B immune globulin. HEPATOLOGY 1998; 27: 213222.
  • 33
    Yamamoto K, Horikita M, Tsuda F, Itoh K, Akahane Y, Yotsumoto S, et al. Naturally occurring escape mutants of hepatitis B virus with various mutations in the S gene in carriers seropositive for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. J Virol 1994; 68: 26712676.
  • 34
    Hou J, Wang Z, Cheng J, Lin Y, Lau GK, Sun J, et al. Prevalence of naturally occurring surface gene variants of hepatitis B virus in nonimmunized surface antigen-negative Chinese carriers. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 34: 10271034.
  • 35
    Cohen GA, Goffinet JA, Donabedian RK, Conn HD. Observations on decreased serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) activity in azotemic patients. Ann Int Med 1976; 84: 275280.