• 1
    Armstrong GL, Alter MJ, McQuillan GM, Margolis HS. The past incidence of hepatitis C virus infection: implications for the future burden of chronic liver disease in the United States. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 31: 777782.
  • 2
    Freeman AJ, Dore GJ, Law MG, Thorpe M, Von Overbeck J, Lloyd AR, et al. Estimating progression to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 34: 809816.
  • 3
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998; 47: 139.
  • 4
    Booth JC, O'Grady J, Neuberger J, the Royal College of Physicians of London and the British Society of Gastroenterology. Clinical guidelines on the management of hepatitis C. Gut 2001; 49(Suppl 1): I1I21.
  • 5
    National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Interferon alpha (pegylated and non-pegylated) and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.
  • 6
    Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health (SCIEH). Surveillance of known hepatitis C antibody positive cases in Scotland: results to 31 December 2003. SCIEH Weekly Report 2004; 38: 150155.
  • 7
    Hutchinson SJ, Goldberg DJ, King M, Cameron SO, Shaw LE, Brown A, et al. Hepatitis C virus among childbearing women in Scotland: prevalence, deprivation, and diagnosis. Gut 2004; 53: 593598.
  • 8
    Bird SM, Goldberg DJ, Hutchinson SJ. Projecting severe sequelae of injection-related hepatitis C virus epidemic in the UK. J Epidemiol Biostat 2001; 6: 243277.
  • 9
    Hutchinson SJ. Modelling the hepatitis C virus disease burden among injecting drug users in Scotland (Ph.D. thesis). Glasgow, Scotland: University of Glasgow, 2004.
  • 10
    Frischer M, Goldberg D, Rahman M, Berney L. Mortality and survival among a cohort of drug injectors in Glasgow, 1982-1994. Addiction 1997; 92: 419427.
  • 11
    Salomon JA, Weinstein MC, Hammitt JK, Goldie SJ. Empirically calibrated model of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 156: 761773.
  • 12
    Bird SM, Hutchinson SJ. Male drug-related deaths in the fortnight after release from prison: Scotland, 1996-1999. Addiction 2003; 98: 185190.
  • 13
    Frischer M, Goldberg D, Taylor A, Bloor M. Estimating the incidence and prevalence of injecting drug use in Glasgow. Addiction Research 1997; 5: 307315.
  • 14
    Report of a Working Group convened by the Chief Medical Officer for Scotland. AIDS and severe HIV-related disease in Scotland: predictions to the end of 1999. ANSWER (SCIEH) 1995; 29 December: 17.
  • 15
    Collaborative Group on AIDS Incubation and HIV Survival. Time from HIV-1 seroconversion to AIDS and death before widespread use of highly-active antiretroviral therapy: a collaborative re-analysis. Lancet 2000; 355: 11311137.
  • 16
    Gossop M, Marsden J, Stewart D, Rolfe A. Patterns of drinking and drinking outcomes among drug misusers 1-year follow-up results. J Subst Abuse Treat 2000; 19: 4550.
  • 17
    McCusker M. Influence of hepatitis C status on alcohol consumption in opiate users in treatment. Addiction 2001; 96: 10071014.
  • 18
    Alter HJ, Seeff LB. Recovery, persistence, and sequelae in hepatitis C virus infection: a perspective on long-term outcome. Semin Liver Dis 2000; 20: 1735.
  • 19
    Jauncey M, Micallef JM, Gilmour S, Amin J, White PA, Rawlinson W, et al. Clearance of hepatitis C virus after newly acquired infection in injection drug users. J Infect Dis 2004; 190: 12701274.
  • 20
    Farci P, Alter HJ, Govindarajan S, Wong DC, Engle R, Lesniewski RR, et al. Lack of protective immunity against reinfection with hepatitis C virus. Science 1992; 258: 135140.
  • 21
    Taylor A, Goldberg D, Hutchinson S, Cameron S, Gore SM, McMenamin J, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among injecting drug users in Glasgow 1990-1996: are current harm reduction strategies working? J Infection 2000; 40: 18.
  • 22
    Freeman AJ, Law MG, Kaldor JM, Dore GJ. Predicting progression to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Viral Hepat 2003; 10: 285293.
  • 23
    Ishak K, Baptista A, Bianchi L, Callea F, De Groote J, Gudat F, et al. Histological grading and staging of chronic hepatitis. J Hepatol 1995; 22: 696699.
  • 24
    Kenny-Walsh E, the Irish Hepatology Researh Group. Clinical outcome after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 12281233.
  • 25
    Wiese M, Berr F, Lafrenz M, Porst H, Oesen U. Low frequency of cirrhosis in a hepatitis C (genotype 1b) single-source outbreak in Germany: a 20-year multicenter study. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 32; 9196.
  • 26
    Thomas DL, Astemborski J, Rai RM, Anania FA, Schaeffer M, Galai N, et al. The natural history of hepatitis C virus infection. Host, viral and environmental factors. JAMA 2000; 284: 450456.
  • 27
    Hutchinson SJ, Bird SM, Goldberg DJ. Influence of alcohol on the progression of hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol (in press).
  • 28
    Graham CS, Baden LR, Yu E, Mrus JM, Carnie J, Heeren T, et al. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on the course of hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33: 562569.
  • 29
    Poynard T, Marcellin P, Lee SS, Niederau C, Minuk GS, Ideo G, et al. Randomised trial of interferon α2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus interferon α2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. Lancet 1998; 352: 14261432.
  • 30
    McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, Schiff ER, Shiffman ML, Lee WM, Rustgi VK, et al. Interferon Alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. N Engl J Med 1998; 339; 14851492.
  • 31
    Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon S, Rustgi VK, Shiffman M, Reindollar R, et al. Peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin compared to interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001; 358: 958965.
  • 32
    Mohsen AH, Trent HCV Study Group. The epidemiology of hepatitis C in a UK health regional population of 5.12 million. Gut 2001; 48: 707713.
  • 33
    Barbaro G, Lorenzo GD, Soldini M, Bonaffini N, Barbaro G. Interferon-α-2B and ribavirin in combination for chronic hepatitis C patients not responding to interferon-α alone: an Italian multicenter, randomised, controlled, clinical study. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 24452451.
  • 34
    Hay G, McKeganey N, Hutchinson SJ, the project team. Estimating the National and Local Prevalence of Problem Drug Misuse in Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland: ISD, 2001.
  • 35
    Hutchinson SJ, McIntyre PG, Molyneaux P, Cameron S, Burns S, Taylor A, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C among injectors in Scotland 1989-2000: declining trends among young injectors halt in the late 1990s. Epidemiol Infect 2002; 128: 473477.
  • 36
    Frischer M, Leyland A, Cormack R, Goldberg DJ, Bloor M, Green ST, et al. Estimating the population prevalence of injection drug use and infection with human immunodeficiency virus among injection drug users in Glasgow, Scotland. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 170181.
  • 37
    Bird SM, Hutchinson SJ, Goldberg DJ. Drug-related deaths by region, sex, and age-group per 100 injecting drug users in Scotland, 2000-01. Lancet 2003; 362: 941944.
  • 38
    Frischer M, Bloor M, Goldberg D, Clark J, Green S, McKeganey N. Mortality among injecting drug users: a critical reappraisal. J Epidemiol Community Health 1993; 47: 5963.
  • 39
    Registrar General for Scotland. Annual Report 2002. Edinburgh, Scotland: General Register Office for Scotland, 2003.
  • 40
    Davis GL, Albright JE, Cook SF, Rosenberg DM. Projecting future complications of chronic hepatitis C in the United States. Liver Transpl 2003; 9: 331338.
  • 41
    Deuffic-Burban S, Wong JB, Valleron A-J, Costagliola D, Delfraissy J-F. Poynard T. Comparing the public health burden of chronic hepatitis C and HIV infection in France. J Hepatol 2004; 40: 319326.
  • 42
    Sagmeister M, Renner EL, Mullhaupt B, Wong JB. Simulation of hepatitis C based on a mandatory reporting system. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002; 14: 2534.
  • 43
    Salomon JA, Weinstein MC, Hammitt JK, Goldie SJ. Empirically calibrated model of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 156: 761773.
  • 44
    Koukoulis GK. Chronic hepatitis C: grading, staging, and searching for reliable predictors of outcome. Hum Pathol 2001; 32: 899903.
  • 45
    Dore GJ, Freeman AJ, Law M, Kaldor JM. Natural history models for hepatitis C-related liver disease: different disease progression parameters for different settings. Antivir Ther 2003; 8: 365372.
  • 46
    Salomon JA, Weinstein MC, Hammitt JK, Goldie SJ. Cost-effectiveness of treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection in an evolving patient population. JAMA 2003; 290: 228237.
  • 47
    Bennett WG, Inoue Y, Beck JR, Wong JB, Pauker SG, Davis GL. Estimates of the cost-effectiveness of a single course of interferon-alpha2b in patients with histologically mild chronic hepatitis C. Ann Intern Med 1997; 127: 855865.
  • 48
    Law MG. Modelling the hepatitis C virus epidemic in Australia. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999; 14: 11001107.
  • 49
    Annemans L, Warie H, Nechelput M, Peraux B. A health economic model to assess the long-term effects and cost-effectiveness of PEG IFN alpha-2a in hepatitis C virus infected patients. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 2004; 67: 18.
  • 50
    Poynard T, McHutchison J, Davis GL, Esteban-Mur R, Goodman Z, Bedossa P, et al. Impact of interferon and ribavirin on the liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. HEPATOLOGY 2000; 32: 11311137.