• 1
    Roberts MS, Magnusson BM, Burczynski FJ, Weiss M. Enterohepatic circulation: physiological, pharmacokinetic and clinical implications. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41: 751790.
  • 2
    Hardison NGM. Hepatic taurine concentration and dietary taurine as regulators of bile acid conjugation with taurine. Gastroenterology 1970; 75: 7175.
  • 3
    Trautwein EA, Siddiqui A, Hayes KC. Modeling plasma lipoprotein-bile lipid relationships: differential impact of psyllium and cholestyramine in hamsters fed a lithogenic diet. Metabolism 1993; 42: 15311540.
  • 4
    Poupon R, Chazouilleres O, Poupon RE. Chronic cholestatic diseases. J Hepatol 2000; 32: 129140.
  • 5
    Rao YP, Studer EJ, Stravitz RT, Gupta S, Qiao L, Dent P, et al. Activation of the Raf-1/MEK/ERK cascade by bile acids occurs via the epidermal growth factor receptor in primary rat hepatocytes. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 35: 307314.
  • 6
    Qiao L, Yacoub A, Studer E, Gupta S, Pei XY, Grant S, et al. Inhibition of the MAPK and PI3K pathways enhances UDCA-induced apoptosis in primary rodent hepatocytes. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 35: 779789.
  • 7
    Qiao L, Studer E, Leach K, McKinstry R, Gupta S, Decker R, et al. Deoxycholic acid (DCA) causes ligand-independent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FAS receptor in primary hepatocytes: inhibition of EGFR/mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling module enhances DCA-induced apoptosis. Mol Biol Cell 2001; 12: 26292645.
  • 8
    Han SI, Studer E, Gupta S, Fang Y, Qiao L, Li W, et al. Bile acids enhance the activity of the insulin receptor and glycogen synthase in primary rodent hepatocytes. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 39: 456463.
  • 9
    van Montfort RL, Congreve M, Tisi D, Carr R, Jhoti H. Oxidation state of the active-site cysteine in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. Nature 2003; 423: 773777.
  • 10
    Fang Y, Han SI, Mitchell C, Gupta S, Studer E, Grant S, et al. Bile acids induce mitochondrial ROS, which promote activation of receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling pathways in rat hepatocytes. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40: 961971.
  • 11
    Gupta S, Natarajan R, Payne SG, Studer EJ, Spiegel S, Dent P, et al. Deoxycholic acid activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway via FAS receptor activation in primary hepatocytes: role of acidic sphingomyelinase-mediated ceramide generation in FAS receptor activation. J Biol Chem 2004; 279: 58215828.
  • 12
    Werneburg NW, Yoon JH, Higuchi H, Gores GJ. Bile acids activate EGF receptor via a TGF-alpha-dependent mechanism in human cholangiocyte cell lines. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2003; 285: G31G36.
  • 13
    Qiao D, Stratagouleas ED, Martinez JD. Activation and role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in deoxycholic acid-induced apoptosis. Carcinogenesis 2001; 22: 3541.
  • 14
    Carter S, Auer KL, Reardon DB, Birrer M, Fisher PB, Valerie K, et al. Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade potentiates cell killing by low dose ionizing radiation in A431 human squamous carcinoma cells. Oncogene 1998; 16: 27872796.
  • 15
    Melien O, Sandnes D, Johansen EJ, Christoffersen T. Effects of pertussis toxin on extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in hepatocytes by hormones and receptor-independent agents: evidence suggesting a stimulatory role of G(i) proteins at a level distal to receptor coupling. J Cell Physiol 2000; 184: 2736.
  • 16
    Shida D, Kitayama J, Yamaguchi H, Yamashita H, Mori K, Watanabe T, et al. Sphingosine 1-phosphate transactivates c-Met as well as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in human gastric cancer cells. FEBS Lett 2004; 577: 333338.
  • 17
    Slomiany BL, Slomiany A. Src-kinase-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation in salivary mucin secretion in response to beta-adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptor activation. Inflammopharmacology 2004; 12: 233245.
  • 18
    Melien O, Thoresen GH, Sandenes D, Ostby E, Christoffersen T. Activation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase by angiotensin II, vasopressin, norepinephrine and prostaglandin F2 alpha in hepatocytes is sustained and like the effect of epidermal growth factor, mediated through pertussis toxin sensitive mechanisms. J Cell Physiol 1998; 175: 348358.
  • 19
    Luttrell LM, Della Rocca GJ, van Biesen T, Luttrell DK, Lefkowitz RJ. Gbetagamma subunits mediate Src-dependent phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor: a scaffold for G protein-coupled receptor-mediated Ras activation. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 46374644.
  • 20
    Luttrell LM, Daaka Y, Della Rocca GJ, Lefkowitz RJ. G protein-coupled receptors mediate two functionally distinct pathways of tyrosine phosphorylation in rat 1a fibroblasts. Shc phosphorylation and receptor endocytosis correlate with activation of Erk kinases. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 3164831656.
  • 21
    Raufman JP, Cheng K, Zimniak P. Activation of muscarinic receptor signaling by bile acids: physiological and medical implications. Dig Dis Sci 2003; 48: 14311444.
  • 22
    Kawamata Y, Fujii R, Hosoya M, Harada M, Yoshida H, Miwa M, et al. A G protein-coupled receptor responsive to bile acids. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 94359440.
  • 23
    Cheng K, Chen Y, Zimniak P, Raufman JP, Xiao Y, Frucht H. Functional interaction of lithocholic acid conjugates with M3 muscarinic receptors on a human colon cancer cell line. Biochim Biophys Acta 2002; 1588: 4855.
  • 24
    Cheng K, Khurana S, Chen Y, Kennedy RH, Zimniak P, Raufman JP. Lithocholylcholine, a bile acid/acetylcholine hybrid, is a muscarinic receptor antagonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 303: 2935.
  • 25
    Okamoto H, Takuwa N, Yokomizo T, Sugimoto N, Sakurada S, Shigematsu H, et al. Inhibitory regulation of Rac activation, membrane ruffling, and cell migration by the G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor EDG5 but not EDG1 or EDG3. Mol Cell Biol 2000; 20: 92479261.
  • 26
    Katsuma S, Hirasawa A, Tsujimoto G. Bile acids promote glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion through TGR5 in a murine enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 329: 386390.
  • 27
    Raufman JP, Chen Y, Zimniak P, Cheng K. Deoxycholic acid conjugates are muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists. Pharmacology 2002; 65: 215221.
  • 28
    Cassiman D, Libbrecht L, Sinelli N, Desmet V, Denef C, Roskams T. The vagal nerve stimulates activation of the hepatic progenitor cell compartment via muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 3. Am J Pathol 2002; 161: 521530.
  • 29
    Qiao L, Han SI, Fang Y, Park JS, Gupta S, Gilfor D, et al. Bile acid regulation of C/EBPbeta, CREB, and c-Jun function, via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathways, modulates the apoptotic response of hepatocytes. Mol Cell Biol 2003; 23: 30523066.
  • 30
    Zhang Q, Thomas SM, Xi S, Smithgall TE, Siegfried JM, Kamens J, et al. SRC family kinases mediate epidermal growth factor receptor ligand cleavage, proliferation, and invasion of head and neck cancer cells. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 61666173.
  • 31
    Spector MS, Auer KL, Jarvis WD, Ishac EJ, Gao B, Kunos G, et al. Differential regulation of the mitogen-activated protein and stress-activated protein kinase cascades by adrenergic agonists in quiescent and regenerating adult rat hepatocytes. Mol Cell Biol 1997; 17: 35563565.
  • 32
    Gao B, Jiang L, Kunos G. Transcriptional regulation of alpha(1b) adrenergic receptors (alpha(1b)AR) by nuclear factor 1 (NF1): a decline in the concentration of NF1 correlates with the downregulation of alpha(1b)AR gene expression in regenerating liver. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16: 59976008.
  • 33
    Rippin SJ, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ, Stieger B. Cholestatic expression pattern of sinusoidal and canalicular organic anion transport systems in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. HEPATOLOGY 2001; 33: 776782.
  • 34
    Clayton RF, Rinaldi A, Kandyba EE, Edward M, Willberg C, Klenerman P, et al. Liver cell lines for the study of hepatocyte functions and immunological response. Liver Int 2005; 25: 389402.
  • 35
    Trautwein M, Boyer JM. Bile salt transporters; molecular characterization, function, and regulation. Physiol Rev 2003; 83: 633671.
  • 36
    Im DS. Discovery of new G protein coupled receptors for lipid mediators. J Lipid Res 2004; 45: 410418.
  • 37
    Brown AJ, Jupe S, Briscoe CP. A family of fatty acid binding receptors. DNA Cell Biol 2005; 24: 5461.
  • 38
    Spiegel S, Milstien S. Sphingosine-1-phosphate: an enigmatic signalling lipid. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2003; 4: 397407.