• 1
    Watson WA, Litovitz TL, Rodgers GC Jr, Klein-Schwartz W, Youniss J, Rose SR, et al. 2002 Annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Am J Emerg Med 2003; 21: 353421.
  • 2
    Bessems JG, Vermeulen NP. Paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced toxicity: molecular and biochemical mechanisms, analogues and protective approaches. Crit Rev Toxicol 2001; 31: 55138.
  • 3
    Reid AB, Kurten RC, McCullough SS, Brock RW, Hinson JA. Mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity: role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 312: 509516.
  • 4
    Shen W, Kamendulis LM, Ray SD, Corcoran GB. Acetaminophen-induced cytotoxicity in cultured mouse hepatocytes: correlation of nuclear Ca2+ accumulation and early DNA fragmentation with cell death. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1991; 111: 242254.
  • 5
    Ray SD, Sorge CL, Kamendulis LM, Corcoran GB. Ca(++)-activated DNA fragmentation and dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic necrosis: effects of Ca(++)-endonuclease and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1992; 263: 387394.
  • 6
    Ray SD, Sorge CL, Raucy JL, Corcoran GB. Early loss of large genomic DNA in vivo with accumulation of Ca2+ in the nucleus during acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1990; 106: 346351.
  • 7
    Ray SD, Kamendulis LM, Gurule MW, Yorkin RD, Corcoran GB. Ca2+ antagonists inhibit DNA fragmentation and toxic cell death induced by acetaminophen. FASEB J 1993; 7: 453463.
  • 8
    Ray SD, Balasubramanian G, Bagchi D, Reddy CS. Ca(2+)-calmodulin antagonist chlorpromazine and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase modulators 4-aminobenzamide and nicotinamide influence hepatic expression of BCL-XL and P53 and protect against acetaminophen-induced programmed and unprogrammed cell death in mice. Free Radic Biol Med 2001; 31: 277291.
  • 9
    Laskowski M. Deoxyribonuclease I. In: BoyerPD, LandyH, MyrbäckK, eds. The Enzymes. Volume 4. 3rd ed. New York: Academic Press, 1971: 289311.
  • 10
    Napirei M, Wulf S, Eulitz D, Mannherz HG, Klockl T. Comparative characterisation of rat deoxyribonuclease 1 (Dnase1) and murine deoxyribonuclease 1-like 3 (Dnase1l3). Biochem J 2005; 389: 355364.
  • 11
    Napirei M, Ricken A, Eulitz D, Knoop H, Mannherz HG. Expression pattern of the Deoxyribonuclease 1 gene: lessons from the Dnase1 knockout mouse. Biochem J 2004; 380: 929937.
  • 12
    Napirei M, Karsunky H, Zevnik B, Stephan H, Mannherz HG, Moroy T. Features of systemic lupus erythematosus in Dnase1-deficient mice. Nat Genet 2000; 25: 177181.
  • 13
    Napirei M, Wulf S, Mannherz HG. Chromatin breakdown during necrosis by serum Dnase1 and the plasminogen system. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 18731883.
  • 14
    Basnakian AG, Apostolov EO, Yin X, Napirei M, Mannherz HG, Shah SV. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity is mediated by deoxyribonuclease I. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 697702.
  • 15
    Ray SD, Jena N. A hepatotoxic dose of acetaminophen modulates expression of BCL-2, BCL-X(L), and BCL-X(S) during apoptotic and necrotic death of mouse liver cells in vivo. Arch Toxicol 2000; 73: 594606.
  • 16
    Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T. Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual. 2nd ed. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989.
  • 17
    Tietze F. Enzymic method for quantitative determination of nanogram amounts of total and oxidized glutathione: applications to mammalian blood and other tissues. Anal Biochem 1969; 27: 502522.
  • 18
    Griffith OW. Determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide using glutathione reductase and 2-vinylpyridine. Anal Biochem 1980; 106: 207212.
  • 19
    Klingenberg M. Bestimmung von NAD und NADH. In: BergemeyerHU, ed. Methoden der enzymatischen Analyse. Volume 1–4. Weinheim: Verl. Chemie, 1974: 21152122.
  • 20
    Shen W, Kamendulis LM, Ray SD, Corcoran GB. Acetaminophen-induced cytotoxicity in cultured mouse hepatocytes: effects of Ca(2+)-endonuclease, DNA repair, and glutathione depletion inhibitors on DNA fragmentation and cell death. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1992; 112: 3240.
  • 21
    Dixon MF, Nimmo J, Prescott LF. Experimental paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis: a histopathological study. J Pathol 1971; 103: 225229.
  • 22
    Schmidt MH, Broll R, Bruch HP, Bogler O, Duchrow M. The proliferation marker pKi-67 organizes the nucleolus during the cell cycle depending on Ran and cyclin B. J Pathol 2003; 199: 1827.
  • 23
    Kakinuma C, Takagaki K, Yatomi T, Nakamura N, Nagata S, Uemura A, et al. Acute toxicity of an anti-Fas antibody in mice. Toxicol Pathol 1999; 27: 412420.
  • 24
    Lawson JA, Fisher MA, Simmons CA, Farhood A, Jaeschke H. Inhibition of Fas receptor (CD95)-induced hepatic caspase activation and apoptosis by acetaminophen in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1999; 156: 179186.
  • 25
    Virag L, Szabo C. The therapeutic potential of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. Pharmacol Rev 2002; 54: 375429.
  • 26
    Charron MJ, Bonner-Weir S. Implicating PARP and NAD+ depletion in type I diabetes. Nat Med 1999; 5: 269270.
  • 27
    Nicotera P, Leist M, Ferrando-May E. Intracellular ATP, a switch in the decision between apoptosis and necrosis. Toxicol Lett 1998; 102–103: 139142.
  • 28
    Kon K, Kim JS, Jaeschke H, Lemasters JJ. Mitochondrial permeability transition in acetaminophen-induced necrosis and apoptosis of cultured mouse hepatocytes. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40: 11701179.
  • 29
    Meyers LL, Beierschmitt WP, Khairallah EA, Cohen SD. Acetaminophen-induced inhibition of hepatic mitochondrial respiration in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1988; 93: 378387.
  • 30
    Ha HC, Snyder SH. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a mediator of necrotic cell death by ATP depletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999; 96: 1397813982.