SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Chisari FV, Ferrari C. Hepatitis B virus immunopathogenesis. Annu Rev Immunol 1995; 13: 2960.
  • 2
    Rehermann B, Lau D, Hoofnagle JH, Chisari FV. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responsiveness after resolution of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 16551665.
  • 3
    Maini MK, Boni C, Ogg GS, King AS, Reignat S, Lee CK, et al. Direct ex vivo analysis of hepatitis B virus-specific CD8(+) T cells associated with the control of infection. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 13861396.
  • 4
    Rehermann B, Fowler P, Sidney J, Person J, Redeker A, Brown M, et al. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to multiple hepatitis B virus polymerase epitopes during and after acute viral hepatitis. J Exp Med 1995; 181: 10471058.
  • 5
    Banchereau J, Steinman RM. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature 1998; 392: 245252.
  • 6
    Auffermann-Gretzinger S, Keeffe EB, Levy S. Impaired dendritic cell maturation in patients with chronic, but not resolved, hepatitis C virus infection. Blood 2001; 97: 31713176.
  • 7
    Knight SC, Macatonia SE, Patterson S. Infection of dendritic cells with HIV1: virus load regulates stimulation and suppression of T-cell activity. Res Virol 1993; 144: 7580.
  • 8
    Engelmayer J, Larsson M, Subklewe M, Chahroudi A, Cox WI, Steinman RM, et al. Vaccinia virus inhibits the maturation of human dendritic cells: a novel mechanism of immune evasion. J Immunol 1999; 163: 67626768.
  • 9
    Beckebaum S, Cicinnati VR, Dworacki G, Muller-Berghaus J, Stolz D, Harnaha J, et al. Reduction in the circulating pDC1/pDC2 ratio and impaired function of ex vivo-generated DC1 in chronic hepatitis B infection. Clin Immunol 2002; 104: 138150.
  • 10
    van der Molen RG, Sprengers D, Binda RS, de Jong EC, Niesters HG, Kusters JG, et al. Functional impairment of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells of patients with chronic hepatitis B. HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40: 738746.
  • 11
    Duan XZ, Wang M, Li HW, Zhuang H, Xu D, Wang FS. Decreased frequency and function of circulating plasmocytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in hepatitis B virus infected humans. J Clin Immunol 2004; 24: 637646.
  • 12
    Tavakoli S, Schwerin W, Rohwer A, Hoffmann S, Weyer S, Weth R, et al. Phenotype and function of monocyte derived dendritic cells in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Gen Virol 2004; 85: 28292836.
  • 13
    Zheng BJ, Zhou J, Qu D, Siu KL, Lam TW, Lo HY, et al. Selective functional deficit in dendritic cell: T cell interaction is a crucial mechanism in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Viral Hepatol 2004; 11: 217224.
  • 14
    Beckebaum S, Cicinnati VR, Zhang X, Ferencik S, Frilling A, Grosse-Wilde H, et al. Hepatitis B virus-induced defect of monocyte-derived dendritic cells leads to impaired T helper type 1 response in vitro: mechanisms for viral immune escape. Immunology 2003; 109: 487495.
  • 15
    Ganem D, Schneider R: Hepadnaviridae: The Viruses and Their Replication. In: FieldsBN, KnipeDM, HowleyPM, eds. Fields Virology. Volume 2. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 2001: 29232970.
  • 16
    Köck J, Theilmann L, Galle P, Schlicht HJ. Hepatitis B virus nucleic acids associated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells do not originate from replicating virus. HEPATOLOGY 1996; 23: 405413.
  • 17
    Protzer U, Nassal M, Chiang PW, Kirschfink M, Schaller H. Interferon gene transfer by a hepatitis B virus vector efficiently suppresses wild-type virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999; 96: 1081810823.
  • 18
    Klöcker U, Schultz U, Schaller H, Protzer U. Endotoxin stimulates liver macrophages to release mediators that inhibit an early step in hepadnavirus replication. J Virol 2000; 74: 55255533.
  • 19
    Untergasser A, Protzer U. Hepatitis B virus-based vectors allow the elimination of viral gene expression and the insertion of foreign promoters. Hum Gene Ther 2004; 15: 203210.
  • 20
    Sprinzl MF, Oberwinkler H, Schaller H, Protzer U. Transfer of hepatitis B virus genome by adenovirus vectors into cultured cells and mice: crossing the species barrier. J Virol 2001; 75: 51085118.
  • 21
    Schulze-Bergkamen H, Untergasser A, Dax A, Vogel H, Buchler P, Klar E, et al. Primary human hepatocytes–a valuable tool for investigation of apoptosis and hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol 2003; 38: 736744.
  • 22
    Sprinzl M, Dumortier J, Protzer U. Construction of recombinant adenoviruses that produce infectious hepatitis B virus. Methods Mol Med 2004; 96: 209218.
  • 23
    Hegenbarth S, Gerolami R, Protzer U, Tran PL, Brechot C, Gerken G, et al. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are not permissive for adenovirus type 5. Hum Gene Ther 2000; 11: 481486.
  • 24
    Honigwachs J, Faktor O, Dikstein R, Shaul Y, Laub O. Liver-specific expression of hepatitis B virus is determined by the combined action of the core gene promoter and the enhancer. J Virol 1989; 63: 919924.
  • 25
    Courtois G, Baumhueter S, Crabtree GR. Purified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 interacts with a family of hepatocyte-specific promoters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988; 85: 79377941.
  • 26
    Raney AK, Johnson JL, Palmer CN, McLachlan A. Members of the nuclear receptor superfamily regulate transcription from the hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid promoter. J Virol 1997; 71: 10581071.
  • 27
    Zhou DX, Yen TS. Differential regulation of the hepatitis B virus surface gene promoters by a second viral enhancer. J Biol Chem 1990; 265: 2073120734.
  • 28
    Siddiqui A, Jameel S, Mapoles J. Transcriptional control elements of hepatitis B surface antigen gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1986; 83: 566570.
  • 29
    Faktor O, De Medina T, Shaul Y. Regulation of hepatitis B virus S gene promoter in transfected cell lines. Virology 1988; 162: 362368.
  • 30
    Matthews JC, Hori K, Cormier MJ. Substrate and substrate analogue binding properties of Renilla luciferase. Biochemistry 1977; 16: 52175220.
  • 31
    Arima S, Akbar SM, Michitaka K, Horiike N, Nuriya H, Kohara M, et al. Impaired function of antigen-presenting dendritic cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B: localization of HBV DNA and HBV RNA in blood DC by in situ hybridization. Int J Mol Med 2003; 11: 169174.
  • 32
    Ganem D, Prince AM. Hepatitis B virus infection: natural history and clinical consequences. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 11181129.
  • 33
    Trippler M, Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH, Gerken G. HBV viral load within subpopulations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in HBV infection using limiting dilution PCR. J Virol Methods 1999; 78: 129147.
  • 34
    Stoll-Becker S, Repp R, Glebe D, Schaefer S, Kreuder J, Kann M, et al. Transcription of hepatitis B virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from persistently infected patients. J Virol 1997; 71: 53995407.
  • 35
    Barth H, Ulsenheimer A, Pape GR, Diepolder HM, Hoffmann M, Neumann-Haefelin C, et al. Uptake and presentation of hepatitis C virus-like particles by human dendritic cells. Blood 2005; 105: 36053614.
  • 36
    Webster GJ, Reignat S, Brown D, Ogg GS, Jones L, Seneviratne SL, et al. Longitudinal analysis of CD8+ T cells specific for structural and nonstructural hepatitis B virus proteins in patients with chronic hepatitis B: implications for immunotherapy. J Virol 2004; 78: 57075719.
  • 37
    Isogawa M, Kakimi K, Kamamoto H, Protzer U, Chisari FV. Differential dynamics of the peripheral and intrahepatic cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to hepatitis B surface antigen. Virology 2005; 333: 293300.