• 1
    Ganem D, Prince AM. Hepatitis B virus infection—natural history and clinical consequences. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 11181129.
  • 2
    Lee W. Hepatitis B infection. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 17351745.
  • 3
    Lok ASF, Lai CL, Wu PC, Wong VC, Yeoh EK, Lin HJ. Hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese families in Hong Kong. Am J Epidemiol 1987; 126: 492499.
  • 4
    Wands JR, Chura CM, Roll FJ, Maddrey WC. Serial studies of hepatitis-associated antigen and antibody in patients receiving antitumor chemotherapy for myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. Gastroenterology 1975; 68: 105112.
  • 5
    Galbraith RM, Eddleston AL, Williams R, Zuckerman AJ, Bagshawe KD. Fulminating hepatic failure in leukemia and choriocarcinoma related to withdrawal of cytotoxic drug therapy. Lancet 1975; 2: 528530.
  • 6
    Hoofnagle JH, Dusheiko GM, Schafer DF, Jones EA, Micetich KC, Young RC, et al. Reactivation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection by cancer chemotherapy. Ann Intern Med 1982; 96: 447449.
  • 7
    Bird GL, Smith H, Portmann B, Alexander GJ, Williams R. Acute liver decompensation on withdrawal of cytotoxic and immunosuppressive therapy in hepatitis B carriers. Q J Med 1989; 73: 895902.
  • 8
    Lau JY, Lai CL, Lin HJ, Lok ASF, Liang RHS, Wu PC, et al. Fatal reactivation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection following withdrawal of chemotherapy in lymphoma patients. Q J Med 1989; 73: 911917.
  • 9
    Liang RHS, Lok ASF, Lai CL, Chan TK, Todd O, Chiu EKW. Hepatitis B infection in patients with lymphomas. Hematol Oncol 1990; 8: 261270.
  • 10
    Lok ASF, Liang RHS, Chiu EKW, Wong KL, Chan TK, Todd D. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus replication in patients receiving cytotoxic therapy. Report of a prospective study. Gastroenterology 1991; 100: 182188.
  • 11
    Pinto PC, Hu E, Bernstein-Singer M, Pinter-Brown L, Govindarajan S. Acute hepatic injury after withdrawal of immunosuppressive chemotherapy in patients with hepatitis B. Cancer 1990; 65: 878884.
  • 12
    Soh LT, Ang PT, Sng I, Chua EJ, Ong YW. Fulminant hepatic failure in non- Hodgkin's lymphoma patients treated with chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer 1992; 28A: 13381339.
  • 13
    Thung SN, Gerber MA, Klion F, Gilbert H. Massive hepatic necrosis after chemotherapy withdrawal in a hepatitis B carrier. Arch Intern Med 1985; 145: 13131314.
  • 14
    Wong GC, Tan P, Goh YT, Ng HS, Lee LH. Exacerbation of hepatitis in hepatitis B carriers following chemotherapy for haematological malignancies. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1996; 25: 500503.
  • 15
    Nakamura Y, Motokura T, Fujita A, Yamashita T, Ogata E. Severe hepatitis related to chemotherapy in hepatitis B virus carriers with hematologic malignancies. Survey in Japan, 1987-1991. Cancer 1996; 78: 22102215.
  • 16
    Kumagai K, Takagi T, Nakamura S, Sawada U, Kura U, Kodama F, et al. Hepatitis B virus carriers in the treatment of malignant lymphoma: an epidemiological study in Japan. Ann Oncol 1997; 8(Suppl 1): 107109.
  • 17
    Sutnick AI, Levine PH, London WT, Blumberg BS. Frequency of Australia antigen in patients with leukaemia in different countries. Lancet 1971; 1: 12001202.
  • 18
    Yeo W, Chan PKS, Zhong S, Ho WM, Steinberg JL, Tam JS, et al. Frequency of hepatitis B virus reactivation in cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy: a prospective study of 626 patients with identification of risk factors. J Med Virol 2000; 62: 299307.
  • 19
    Alexopoulos CG, Vaslamatzis M, Hatzidimitriou G. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus marker positivity and evolution of hepatitis B virus profile, during chemotherapy, in patients with solid tumours. B J Cancer 1999; 81: 6974.
  • 20
    Yeo W, Lam KC, Zee B, Chan PSK, Mo FKF, Ho WM, et al. Hepatitis B reactivation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing systemic chemotherapy. Ann Oncol 2004; 15: 16611666.
  • 21
    Yeo W, Chan PKS, Hui P, Ho WM, Lam KC, Kwan WH, et al. Hepatitis B virus reactivation in breast cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy: a prospective study. J Med Virol 2003; 70: 553561.
  • 22
    Cheng JC, Liu MC, Tsai SY, Fang WT, Jer-Min Jian J, Sung JL. Unexpectedly frequent hepatitis B reactivation by chemoradiation in postgastrectomy patients. Cancer 2004; 101: 21262133.
  • 23
    Ho J, Wu PC, Kung TM. An autopsy study of hepatocellular carcinoma in Hong Kong. Pathology 1981; 13: 409416.
  • 24
    Nagamatsu H, Kumashiro R, Itano S, Matsugaki S, Sata M. Investigation of associating factors in exacerbation of liver damage after chemotherapy in patients with HBV-related HCC. Hepatol Res 2003; 26: 293301.
  • 25
    Dai MS, Wu PF, Lu JJ, Shyu RY, Chao TY. Preemptive use of lamivudine in breast cancer patients carrying hepatitis B virus undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy: a longitudinal study. Support Care Cancer 2004; 12: 191196.
  • 26
    Caselitz M, Link H, Hein R, Maschek H, Boker K, Poliwoda H, et al. Hepatitis B associated liver failure following bone marrow transplantation. J Hepatol 1997; 27: 572577.
  • 27
    Lau GKK, Lee CK, Liang R. Hepatitis B virus infection and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 1999; 31: 7176.
  • 28
    Liang R, Lau GKK, Kwong YL. Chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation for cancer patients who are also chronic hepatitis B carriers: a review of the problem. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17: 394398.
  • 29
    Jilg W, Hottenträger B, Weinberger K, Schlottmann K, Frick E, Holstege A, et al. Prevalence of markers of hepatitis B in the adult German population. J Med Virol 2001; 63: 96102.
  • 30
    Pawlotsky JM. Molecular diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 15541568.
  • 31
    De Vita VT Jr, Hubbard SM, Longo DL. The chemotherapy of lymphoma—looking back, moving forward: the Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Foundation award Lecture. Cancer Res 1987; 47: 58105824.
  • 32
    Kwak LW, Halpern J, Olshen RA, Horning SJ. Prognostic significance of actual dose intensity in diffuse large cell lymphoma: results of a tree-structured survival analysis. J Clin Oncol 1990; 8: 963977.
  • 33
    Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Moliterni A, Zambetti M, Brambilla C. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, and fluorouracil in node-positive breast cancer. The results of 20 years follow-up. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 901906.
  • 34
    Citron ML, Berry DA, Cirrincione C, Hudis C, Winer EP, Gradishar WJ, et al. Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of node-positive primary breast cancer: first report of Intergroup Trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21: 14311439.
  • 35
    Yeo W, Mok TS, Zee B, Leung WT, Lau PBS, Lau WY, et al. Phase III study of adriamycin versus cisplatin/interferon α-2b/adriamycin/fluorouracil combination chemotherapy for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97(20): 15321538.
  • 36
    Afdhal NH, Nunes D. Evaluation of liver fibrosis: a concise review. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 11601174.
    Direct Link:
  • 37
    Rehermann B, Ferrari C, Pasquinelli C, Chisari FV. The hepatitis B virus persists for decades after patients' recovery from acute viral hepatitis despite active maintenance of a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response. Nat Med 1996; 2: 11041108.
  • 38
    Leung NWY, Tam JSL, Lau GTC, Leung TWT, Lau WY, Li AKC. Hepatitis B virus DNA in peripheral blood leucocytes—a comparison between hepatocellular carcinoma and other hepatitis B virus-related chronic liver diseases. Cancer 1994; 73: 11431148.
  • 39
    Strasser SI, McDonald GB. Hepatitis viruses and hematopoietic cell transplantation: a guide to patient and donor management. Blood 1999; 93: 11271136.
  • 40
    Chen PM, Fan S, Liu JH, Chiou TJ, Hsieh SR, Liu RS, et al. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus in two chronic GVHD patients after transplant. Int J Hematol 1993; 58: 183188.
  • 41
    Martin BA, Rowe JM, Kouides PA, DiPersio JF. Hepatitis B reactivation following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: case report and review of the literature. Bone Marrow Transplant 1995; 15: 145148
  • 42
    Kostaridou S, Ladis V, Kattamis A, Laras A, Hadziyannis SJ. HbeAg-negative hepatitis B in a previously thalassemic patient during immunosuppressive therapy for chronic GVHD. Bone Marrow Transplant 1998; 22: 919921.
  • 43
    Li Volti S, Pizzarelli G, Galimberti M, Di Gregorio F, Romeo MA, Lucarelli G, et al. Clinical and biochemical reactivation of HBV infection in a thalassemic patient after bone marrow transplantation. Infection 1998; 26: 5860.
  • 44
    Picardi M, Selleri C, De Rosa G, Raiola A, Pezzullo L, Rotoli B. Lamivudine treatment for chronic replicative hepatitis B virus infection after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1998; 21: 12671269.
  • 45
    Nordbo SA, Skaug K, Holter E, Waage A, Brinch L. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus infection in an anti-HBc and anti-HBs positive patient after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Eur J Haematol 2000; 65: 8687.
  • 46
    Hashino S, Nozawa A, Izumiyama K, Yonezumi M, Chiba K, Kondo T, et al. Lamivudine treatment for reverse seroconversion of hepatitis B 4 years after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 2002; 29: 361363.
  • 47
    Chen PM, Fan S, Liu CJ, Hsieh RK, Liu JH, Chuang MW, et al. Changing of hepatitis B virus markers in patients with bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 1990; 49: 708713.
  • 48
    Iwai K, Tashima M, Itoh M, Okazaki T, Yamamoto K, Ohno H, et al. Fulminant hepatitis B following bone marrow transplantation in an HBsAg-negative, HBsAb-positive recipient; reactivation of dormant virus during the immunosuppressive period. Bone Marrow Transplant 2000; 25: 105108.
  • 49
    Sakamaki H, Sato Y, Mori SI, Ohashi K, Tanikawa S, Akiyama H, et al. Hepatitis B virus reactivation in a patient with chronic GVHD after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Int J Hematol 2001; 74: 342346.
  • 50
    Goyama S, Kanda Y, Nannya Y, Kawazu M, Takeshita M, Niino M, et al. Reverse seroconversion of hepatitis B virus after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Leuk Lymphoma 2002; 43: 21592163.
  • 51
    Dhedin N, Douvin C, Kuentz M, Saint Marc MF, Reman O, Rieux C, et al. Reverse seroconversion of hepatitis B after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: a retrospective study of 37 patients with pre-transplant anti-HBs and anti-HBc. Transplantation 1998; 66: 616619.
  • 52
    Seth P, Alrajhi AA, Kagevi I, Chaudhary MA, Colcol E, Sahovic E, et al. Hepatitis B virus reactivation with clinical flare in allogeneic stem cell transplants with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Bone Marrow Transplant 2002; 30: 189194.
  • 53
    Onozawa M, Hashino S, Izumiyama K, Kahata K, Chuma M, Mori A, et al. Progressive disappearance of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibody and reverse seroconversion after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with previous hepatitis B virus infection. Transplantation 2005; 79: 616619.
  • 54
    Knöll A, Boehm S, Hahn J, Holler E, Jilg W. Reactivation of resolved hepatitis B virus infection after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 2004; 33: 925929.
  • 55
    Lau GKK, Leung YH, Fong DYT, Au WY, Kwong YL, Lie A, et al. High hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA viral load as the most important risk factor for HBV reactivation in patients positive for HBV surface antigen undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood 2002; 99: 23242330.
  • 56
    Webster A, Brenner MK, Prentice HG, Griffiths PD. Fatal hepatitis B reactivation after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1989; 4: 207208.
  • 57
    Endo T, Sawada K, Fujimoto K, Yamamoto S, Takashima H, Haseyama Y, et al. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with positive hepatitis B surface antibodies. Rinsho Ketsueki 2000; 41: 322328.
  • 58
    Knöll A, Pietrzyk M, Loss M, Goetz WA, Jilg W. Solid-organ transplantation in HBsAg-negative patients with antibodies to HBV core antigen: low risk of HBV reactivation. Transplantation 2005; 79: 16311633.
  • 59
    Czuczman MS, Grillo-Lopez AJ, White CA, Saleh M, Gordon L, LoBuglio AF, et al. Treatment of patients with low grade B-cell lymphoma with the combination of chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and CHOP chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17: 268276.
  • 60
    Skrabs C, Muller C, Agis H, Mannhalter C, Jager U. Treatment of HBV-carrying lymphoma patients with rituximab and CHOP: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Leukemia 2002; 16: 18841886.
  • 61
    Jager G, Neumeister P, Brezinschek R, Hofler G, Quehenberger F, Linkesch W, et al. Rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) as consolidation of first-line CHOP chemotherapy in patients with follicular lymphoma: a phase II study. Eur J Haematol 2002; 69: 2126.
  • 62
    Lundin J, Kimby E, Bjorkholm M, Broliden PA, Celsing F, Hjalmar V, et al. Phase II trial of subcutaneous anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) as first-line treatment for patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Blood 2002; 100: 768773.
  • 63
    Tsutsumi Y, Tanaka J, Kawamura T, Miura T, Kanamori H, Asaka M, et al. Possible efficacy of lamivudine treatment to prevent hepatitis B virus reactivation due to rituximab therapy in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Hematol 2003; 83: 5860.
  • 64
    Dervite I, Hober D, Morel P. Acute hepatitis B in a patient with antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen who was receiving rituximab. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 6869.
  • 65
    Westhoff TH, Jochimsen F, Schmittel A, Stoffler-Meilicke M, Schafer JH, Zidek W, et al. Fatal hepatitis B virus reactivation by an escape mutant following rituximab therapy. Blood 2003; 102: 1930.
  • 66
    Iannitto E, Minardi V, Calvaruso G, Mule A, Ammatuna E, Trapani RD, et al. Hepatitis B virus reactivation and alemtuzumab therapy. Eur J Haematol 2005; 74: 254258.
  • 67
    Sarrecchia C, Cappelli A, Aiello P. HBV reactivation with fatal fulminating hepatitis during rituximab treatment in a subject negative for HBsAg and positive for HBsAb and HBcAb. J Infect Chemother 2005; 11: 189191.
  • 68
    Law JK, Ho JK, Hoskins PJ, Erb SR, Steinbrecher UP, Yoshida FM. Fatal hepatitis B virus reactivation post-chemotherapy in a hepatitis B core antibody-positive patient: potential implications for future prophylaxis recommendation. Leuk Lymphoma 2005; 46: 10851089.
  • 69
    Kolk LE, Baars JW, Prins MH, Oers MHJ. Rituximab treatment results in impaired secondary humoral immune responsiveness. Blood 2002; 100: 22572259.
  • 70
    Osterborg A, Dyer MJ, Bunjes D, Pangalis GA, Bastion Y, Catoysky D, et al. Phase II multicenter study of human CD52 antibody in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. European Study Group of CAMPATH-1H treatment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15: 15671574.
  • 71
    Lazdina U, Alheim M, Nyström J, Hultgren C, Borisova G, Sominskaya I, et al. Priming of cytotoxic T cell resonses to exogenous hepatitis B virus core antigen is B cell dependent. J Gen Virol 2003; 84: 139141.
  • 72
    Coiffier B, Lepage E, Briere J, Herbrecht R, Tilly H, Bouabdallah R, et al. CHOP chemotherapy plus rituximab compared with CHOP alone in elderly patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 235242.
  • 73
    Crowley B, Woodcock B. Red cell aplasia due to parvovirus b19 in a patient treated with alemtuzumab. Br J Haematol 2002; 119: 279280.
  • 74
    Suzan F, Ammor M, Ribrag. Fatal reactivation of cytomegalovirus infection after use of rituximab for a post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1000.
  • 75
    Sharma VR, Fleming DR, Slone SP. Pure red cell aplasia due to parvovirus B19 in a patient treated with rituximab. Blood 2000; 96: 11841186.
  • 76
    Jang JW, Choi JY, Bae SH, Kim CW, Yoon SK, Cho SH, et al. Transarterial chemo-lipiodolization can reactivate hepatitis B virus replication in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol 2004; 41: 427435.
  • 77
    Yeo W, Zhong S, Chan PKS, Ho WM, Wong HTM, Chan ASK, et al. Sequence variations of precore/core and precore promoter regions of hepatitis B virus in patients with or without viral reactivation during cytotoxic chemotherapy. J Viral Hepat 2000; 7: 448458.
  • 78
    Picardi M, Pane F, Quintarelli C, De Renzo A, Del Giudice A, De Divitiis B, et al. Hepatitis B virus reactivation after fludarabine-based regimens for indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: high prevalence of acquired viral genomic mutations. Haematologica 2003; 88: 12961303.
  • 79
    Liao CA, Lee CM, Wu HC, Wang MC, Lu SN, Eng HL. Lamivudine for the treatment of hepatitis B virus reactivation following chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Br J Haematol 2002; 116: 166169.
  • 80
    Carman WF, Fagan EA, Hadziyannis S, Karayiannis P, Tassopoulos NC, Williams R, et al. Association of a precore genomic variant of HBV with fulminant hepatitis. HEPATOLOGY 1991; 14: 219222.
  • 81
    Steinberg JL, Yeo W, Zhong S, Chan JHY, Tam JS, Chan PKS, et al. Hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy for solid tumours: precore/core mutations may play an important role. J Med Virol 2000; 7: 448458.
  • 82
    Zhong S, Yeo W, Schroder C, Chan P, Wong W, Ho WM, et al. High hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA viral load is an important risk factor for HBV reactivation in breast cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. J Viral Hepat 2004; 11: 5559.
  • 83
    Seeger C, Ganem D, Varmus HE. Biochemical and genetic evidence for the hepatitis B virus replication strategy. Science 1986; 232: 477484.
  • 84
    Hui CK, Bowden S, Jackson K, Au WY, Fong DY, Lie AK, et al. Clinical significance of intrahepatic hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA in chronic hepatitis B patients who received cytotoxic chemotherapy. Blood 2005; 105: 26162617.
  • 85
    Ohtsu T, Sai T, Oka Y, Sugai Y, Tobinai K. Activation of hepatitis B virus infection by chemotherapy containing glucocorticoid in hepatitis B virus carriers with hematological malignancies. Jpn J Clin Oncol 1991; 21: 360365.
  • 86
    Cheng AL, Hsiung CA, Su IJ, Chen PJ, Chang MC, Tsao CJ, et al. Lymphoma Committee of Taiwan Cooperative Oncology Group. Steroid-free chemotherapy decreases risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in HBV-carriers with lymphoma. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 37: 13201328.
  • 87
    Yeo W, Zee B, Zhong S, Chan PKS, Wong WL, Ho WM, et al. Comprehensive analysis of risk factors associating with hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Br J Cancer 2004; 90: 13061311.
  • 88
    Tur-Kaspa R, Burk RD, Shaul Y, Shafritz DA. Hepatitis B virus DNA contains a glucocorticoid-responsive element. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1986; 83: 16271631.
  • 89
    Liaw YF. Hepatitis viruses under immunosuppressive agents. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998; 13: 1420.
  • 90
    Hsu CH, Hsu HC, Chen HL, Gao M, Yeh PY, Chen PJ, et al. Doxorubicin activates hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in HBV-harboring hepatoblastoma cells. A possible novel mechanism of HBV reactivation in HBV carriers receiving systemic chemotherapy. Anticancer Res 2004; 24: 30353040.
  • 91
    Perrillo RP. The use of corticosteroids in conjunction with antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B with ongoing viral replication. HEPATOLOGY 1986; 3(Suppl 2): S57S64.
  • 92
    Lau JY, Bird GL, Gimson AE, Alexander GJ, Williams R. Treatment of HBV reactivation after withdrawal of immunosuppression. Lancet 1991; 337: 802.
  • 93
    Hoofnagle JH, Davis GL, Pappas SC, Hanson RG, Peters M, Avigan MI, et al. A short course of prednisolone in chronic type B hepatitis. Report of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1986; 104: 1217.
  • 94
    ter Borg F, Smorenburg S, De Man RA, Rietbroek RC, Chamuleau RAFM, Jones EA. Recovery from life-threatening corticosteroid-unresponsive, chemotherapy-related reactivation of hepatitis B associated with lamivudine therapy. Dig Dis Sci 1998; 43: 22672270.
  • 95
    Dienstag JL, Perrillo RP, Schiff ER, Bartholomew M, Vicary C, Rubin M. A preliminary trial of lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B infection. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 16571661.
  • 96
    Doong SL, Tsai CH, Schinazi RF, Liotta DC, Cheng YC. Inhibition of the replication of hepatitis B virus in vitro by 2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine and related analogues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88: 84958499.
  • 97
    Dai MS, Wu PF, Shyu RY, Lu JJ, Chao TY. Hepatitis B virus reactivation in breast cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy and the role of preemptive lamivudine administration. Liver Int 2004; 24: 540546.
  • 98
    Lai CL, Chien RN, Leung NWY, Chang TT, Guan R, Tai DI, et al. A one-year trial of lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 6168.
  • 99
    Liaw YF. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B: a need for consensus. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999; 14: 12.
  • 100
    Multimer D, Naoumov N, Honkoop P, Marinos G, Ahmed M, de Man R, et al. Combination alpha-interferon and lamivudine therapy for alpha-interferon-resistant chronic hepatitis B infection: results of a pilot study. J Hepatol 1998: 28: 923929.
  • 101
    Ahmed A, Keeffe EB. Lamivudine therapy in chemotherapy-induced reactivation of hepatitis B virus infection. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 249251.
    Direct Link:
  • 102
    Al-Taie OH, Mork H, Gassel AM, Wilhelm M, Weissbrich B, Scheurlen M. Prevention of hepatitis B flare-up during chemotherapy using lamivudine: case report and review of the literature. Ann Hematol 1999; 78: 247249.
  • 103
    Yeo W, Steinberg JL, Tam JS, Chan PKS, Leung NWY, Lam KC, et al. Lamivudine in the treatment of hepatitis B virus reactivation during cytotoxic chemotherapy. J Med Virol 1999; 59: 263269.
  • 104
    Clark FL, Drummond MW, Chambers S, Chapman BA, Patton WN. Successful treatment of lamivudine for fulminant hepatitis B infection following intensive therapy for high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Oncol 1998; 9: 385387.
  • 105
    Yeo W, Chan PKS, Chan HLY, Mo FK, Johnson PJ. Hepatitis B virus reactivation during cytotoxic chemotherapy—enhanced viral replication precedes overt hepatitis. J Med Virol 2001; 65: 473477.
  • 106
    Cheng AL. Steroid-free chemotherapy decreases the risk of hepatitis flare-up in hepatitis B virus carriers with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [letter]. Blood 1996; 87: 1202.
  • 107
    Lok ASF, Wu PC, Lai CL, Lau JY, Leung EK, Wong LS, et al. A controlled trial of interferon with or without prednisolone priming for hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 20912097.
  • 108
    Shimizu D, Nomura K, Matsumoto Y, Ueda K, Yamaguchi K, Minami M, et al. Hepatitis B virus reactivation in a patient undergoing steroid-free chemotherapy. World J Gastroenterol 2004; 10: 23012302.
  • 109
    Leaw SJ, Yen CJ, Huang WT, Chen TY, Su WC, Tsao CJ. Preemptive use of interferon or lamivudine for hepatitis B reactivation in patients with aggressive lymphoma receiving chemotherapy. Ann Hematol 2004; 83: 270275.
  • 110
    Lee GW, Ryu MH, Lee JL, Oh S, Kim E, Lee JH, et al. The prophylactic use of lamivudine can maintain dose-intensity of adriamycin in hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBs Ag)-positive patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who receive cytotoxic chemotherapy. J Korean Med Sci 2003; 18: 849854.
  • 111
    Idilman R, Arat M, Soydan E, Toruner M, Soykan I, Akbulut H, et al. Lamivudine prophylaxis for prevention of chemotherapy-induced hepatitis B virus reactivation in hepatitis B virus carriers with malignancies. J Viral Hepat 2004; 11: 141147.
  • 112
    Rossi G, Pelizzari A, Motta M, Puoti M. Primary prophylaxis with lamivudine of hepatitis B virus reactivation in chronic HBsAg carriers with lymphoid malignancies treated with chemotherapy. Br J Haematol 2001; 115: 5862.
  • 113
    Shibolet O, Ilan Y, Gillis S, Hubert A, Shouval D, Safadi R. Lamivudine therapy for prevention of immunosuppressive-induced hepatitis B virus reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen carriers. Blood 2002; 100: 391396.
  • 114
    Persico M, De Marino F, Russo GD, Morante A, Rotoli B, Torella R, et al. Efficacy of lamivudine to prevent hepatitis reactivation in hepatitis B virus-infected patients treated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 2002; 99: 724725.
  • 115
    Lau GK, He ML, Fong DY, Bartholomeusz A, Au WY, Lie AK, et al. Preemptive use of lamivudine reduces hepatitis B exacerbation after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. HEPATOLOGY 2002; 36: 702709.
  • 116
    Lim LL, Wai CT, Lee YM, Kong HL, Lim R, Koay E, et al. Prophylactic lamivudine prevents hepatitis B reactivation in chemotherapy patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 19391944.
  • 117
    Nagamatsu H, Itano S, Nagaoka S, Akiyoshi J, Matsugaki S, Kurogi J, et al. Prophylactic lamivudine administration prevents exacerbation of liver damage in HBe antigen positive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing transhepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 23692375.
    Direct Link:
  • 118
    Ozguroglu M, Bilici A, Turna H, Serdengecti S. Reactivation of hepatitis B infection with cytotoxic therapy in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Med Oncol 2004; 21: 6772.
  • 119
    Lau GK, Yiu HH, Fong DY, Cheng HC, Au WY, Lai LS, et al. Early is superior to deferred preemptive lamivudine therapy for hepatitis B patients undergoing chemotherapy. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 17421749.
  • 120
    Yeo W, Chan PKS, Ho WM, Zee B, Lam KC, Lei KIK, et al. Lamivudine for the prevention of hepatitis B virus reactivation in HBsAg seropositive cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2004; 15: 16611666.
  • 121
    Yeo W, Ho WM, Hui P, Chan PKS, Lam KC, Lee JJ, et al. Use of lamivudine to prevent hepatitis B virus reactivation during chemotherapy in breast cancer patient. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2004; 88: 209215.
  • 122
    Ilan Y, Nagler A, Adler R, Naparstek E, Or R, Slavin S, et al. Adoptive transfer of immunity to hepatitis B virus after T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. HEPATOLOGY 1993; 18: 246252.
  • 123
    Lau GKK, Lok ASF, Liang RHS, Lai CL, Chiu EK, Lau YL, et al. Clearance of HBsAg after bone marrow transplantation: role of adoptive immunity transfer. HEPATOLOGY 1997; 25: 14971501.
  • 124
    Chiba T, Yokosuka O, Goto S, Fukai K, Imazeki F, Shishido H, et al. Successful clearance of hepatitis B virus after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: beneficial combination of adoptive immunity transfer and lamivudine. Eur J Haematol 2003; 71: 220223.
  • 125
    Locasciulli A, Alberti A, Bandini G, Polchi P, Arcese W, Alessandrino P, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from HBsAg+ donors: a multicenter study from the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO). Blood 1995; 86: 32363240.
  • 126
    Lau GK, Lie AK, Kwong YL, Lee CK, Hou J, Lau YL, et al. A case-controlled study on the use of HBsAg-positive donors for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood 2000; 96: 452458.
  • 127
    Hui CK, Lie A, Au WY, Ma SY, Leung YH, Zhang HY, et al. Effectiveness of prophylactic anti-HBV therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with HBsAg positive donors. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 14371445.
  • 128
    Gauthier J, Bourne EJ, Lutz MW, Crowther LM, Dienstag JL, Brown NA, et al. Quantation of hepatitis B viraemia and emergence of YMDD variants in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with lamivudine. J Infect Dis 1999; 180: 17571762.
  • 129
    Allen MI, Deslauriers M, Andrews CW, Tipples GA, Walters KA, Tyrrell DL, et al. Lamivudine Clinical Investigation Group. Identification and characterization of mutations in hepatitis B virus resistant to lamivudine. HEPATOLOGY 1998; 27: 16701677.
  • 130
    Lok AS, Lai CL, Leung N, Yao GB, Cui ZY, Schiff ER, et al. Long-term safety of lamivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 17141722.
  • 131
    Liaw YF, Sung JJ, Chow WC, Farrell G, Lee CZ, Yuen H, et al. Cirrhosis Asian Lamivudine Multicentre Study Group. Lamivudine for patients with chronic hepatitis B and advanced liver disease. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 15211531.
  • 132
    Peters MG, Singer G, Howard T, Jacobsmeyer S, Xiong X, Gibbs CS, et al. Fulminant hepatic failure resulting from lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus in a renal transplant recipient. Transplantation 1999; 68: 19121914.
  • 133
    Pelizzari AM, Motta M, Cariani E, Turconi P, Borlenghi E, Rossi G. Frequency of hepatitis B virus mutant in asymptomatic hepatitis B virus carriers receiving prophylactic lamivudine during chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. Hematol J 2004; 5: 325328.
  • 134
    Liaw YF, Leung NWY, Chang TT, Guan R, Tai DI, Ng KY, et al. Effects of extended lamivudine therapy in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 172180.
  • 135
    Hui CK, Cheung WW, Au WY, Lie AK, Zhang HY, Yueng YH, et al. Hepatitis B reactivation after withdrawal of pre-emptive lamivudine in patients with haematological malignancy upon completion of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Gut 2005; 54: 15971603.
  • 136
    Perez-Roldan F, Gonzalez-Carro P, Villafanez-Garcia MC. Adefovir dipivoxil for chemotherapy-induced activation of hepatitis B virus infection. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 310311.
  • 137
    Schiff ER, Lai CL, Hadziyannis S, Neuhaus P, Terrault N, Colombo M, et al. Behalf of the Adefovir Dipovoxil Study 435 International Investigators Group. Adefovir dipivoxil therapy for lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B in pre- and post-liver transplantation patients. HEPATOLOGY 2003; 38: 14191427.
  • 138
    Fontaine H, Vallet-Pichard A, Chaix ML, Currei G, Serpaggi J, Verkarre V, et al. Efficacy and safety of adefovir dipivoxil in kidney recipients, hemodialysis patients, and patients with renal insufficiency. Transplantation 2005; 80: 10861092.
  • 139
    Hadziyannis SJ, Tassopoulos NC, Heathcote EJ, Chang TT, Kitis G, Rizzetto M, et al. Adefovir Dipivoxil 438 Study Group. Long-term therapy with adefovir dipivoxil for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 26732681.
  • 140
    Tenney DJ, Levine SM, Rose RE, Walsh AW, Weinheimer SP, Discotto L, et al. Clinical emergence of entecavir-resistant hepatitis B virus requires additional substitutions in virus already resistant to lamivudine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004; 48: 34983507.
  • 141
    Chang TT, Gish RG, Hadziyannis SJ, Cianciara J, Rizzetto M, Schiff ER, et al. BEHoLD Study Group. A dose-ranging study of the efficacy and tolerability of entecavir in lamivudine-refractory chronic hepatitis B patients. Gastroenterology 2005; 129: 11981209.
  • 142
    Lok AS. The maze of treatments for hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 27432746.
  • 143
    Liaw YF, Leung N, Guan R, Lau GK, Merican I, McCaughan G, et al. Asian-Pacific consensus update working party on chronic hepatitis B. Asian-Pacific consensus statement on the management of chronic hepatitis B: a 2005 update. Liver Int 2005; 25: 472489.